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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891557/exogenous-expression-of-nt-3-and-trkc-genes-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-elevated-the-survival-rate-of-the-cells-in-the-course-of-neural-differentiation
#1
Houri Edalat, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Vahid Pirhajati, Mahmoud Tavallaei, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive cellular sources for cell therapy of many diseases, specifically neurodegenerative ones. The potential capability of BMSCs could be further augmented by enhancing their neuroprotective property, differentiation potential, and survival rate subsequent to transplantation. Therefore, a concurrent upregulation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high affinity receptor, tyrosin kinase C (TrkC), was utilized in our study. BMSCs were cotransfected with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC plasmids before induction of neural differentiation...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882348/humanized-neuronal-chimeric-mouse-brain-generated-by-neonatally-engrafted-human-ipsc-derived-primitive-neural-progenitor-cells
#2
Chen Chen, Woo-Yang Kim, Peng Jiang
The creation of a humanized chimeric mouse nervous system permits the study of human neural development and disease pathogenesis using human cells in vivo. Humanized glial chimeric mice with the brain and spinal cord being colonized by human glial cells have been successfully generated. However, generation of humanized chimeric mouse brains repopulated by human neurons to possess a high degree of chimerism have not been well studied. Here we created humanized neuronal chimeric mouse brains by neonatally engrafting the distinct and highly neurogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived rosette-type primitive neural progenitors...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879342/tenacious-assumptions-of-person-centred-care-exploring-tensions-and-variations-in-practice
#3
Öncel Naldemirci, Doris Lydahl, Nicky Britten, Mark Elam, Lucy Moore, Axel Wolf
In recent decades, the 'tenacious assumptions' of biomedicine regarding the neutrality and universality of its knowledge claims have been significantly challenged by the growth of new collaborative and patient-focused models of Healthcare delivery. In this article, we discuss and critically reflect upon one such alternative Healthcare model developed at the University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care in Sweden. This centre uses three clinical routines of narrative, partnership and documentation to provide Healthcare to people recognized as unique individuals rather than patients...
November 22, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857203/rapid-and-efficient-crispr-cas9-gene-inactivation-in-human-neurons-during-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-and-direct-reprogramming
#4
Alicia Rubio, Mirko Luoni, Serena G Giannelli, Isabella Radice, Angelo Iannielli, Cinzia Cancellieri, Claudia Di Berardino, Giulia Regalia, Giovanna Lazzari, Andrea Menegon, Stefano Taverna, Vania Broccoli
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid and customizable tool for gene editing in mammalian cells. In particular, this approach has widely opened new opportunities for genetic studies in neurological disease. Human neurons can be differentiated in vitro from hPSC (human Pluripotent Stem Cells), hNPCs (human Neural Precursor Cells) or even directly reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Here, we described a new platform which enables, rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome targeting simultaneously with three different paradigms for in vitro generation of neurons...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843149/jnk1-controls-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-imposes-cell-autonomous-control-of-anxiety-behaviour-from-the-neurogenic-niche
#6
H Mohammad, F Marchisella, S Ortega-Martinez, P Hollos, K Eerola, E Komulainen, N Kulesskaya, E Freemantle, V Fagerholm, E Savontous, H Rauvala, B D Peterson, H van Praag, E T Coffey
Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833858/neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-combined-with-febrile-seizures-in-early-childhood-a-report-of-two-cases
#7
Keiji Tasaka, Kousaku Matsubara, Masayuki Hori, Hiroyuki Nigami, Aya Iwata, Kenichi Isome, Yu Kawasaki, Sadayuki Nagai
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical entity that can occur following central nervous system disorders. However, NPE occurs quite rarely in early childhood, and there has only been one report about pediatric NPE associated with febrile seizures. Two cases are reported here. One case involved a 2-year-old girl who presented with febrile seizures, which rapidly progressed to severe NPE. Since the NPE occurred in the emergency department room, the patient was able to be resuscitated via immediate endotracheal intubation...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825385/neurogenomics-and-the-role-of-a-large-mutational-target-on-rapid-behavioral-change
#8
Craig E Stanley, Rob J Kulathinal
BACKGROUND: Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage...
November 8, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819757/urethral-pressure-variation-a-neglected-contributing-factor-in-patients-with-overactive-bladder-syndrome
#9
Kirschner-Hermanns Ruth, Anding Ralf, Gadzhiev Nariman, Campbell Adele, Goping Ing, Huppertz Nadine
OBJECTIVE: To study urethral pressure variations during the whole filling phase among different groups of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 79 consecutive patients from January 2011 to June 2012. All patients were recruited within our routine practice in our continence clinic and were evaluated with urodynamic exam according to the standards of the International Continence Society (ICS) with an additional continuous measurement of the urethral pressure profile (cUPP) that was done in a supine position...
November 2, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818351/intrathoracic-neurogenic-tumor-with-malignant-transition-20-years-operation-experience-in-a-medical-center-of-china
#10
Chenlu Yang, Deping Zhao, Peng Zhang, Ke Fei, Gening Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Malignant peripheral neurogenic tumor is always found in large peripheral nerve of the extremities, however, benign peripheral neurogenic tumors of chest is an uncommon disorder, furthermore, malignant transition is even rare. So far, few cases have been reported. We studied 45 neurogenic thoracic tumors patients with malignant transition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 45 malignant neurogenic thoracic tumors from 1992 to 2012, including 11 (24...
November 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814521/the-central-nervous-system-and-the-gut-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Gil Sharon, Timothy R Sampson, Daniel H Geschwind, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Neurodevelopment is a complex process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. While historically studied by researching the brain, inputs from the periphery impact many neurological conditions. Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801899/analysis-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-carrying-22q11-2-deletion
#12
M Toyoshima, W Akamatsu, Y Okada, T Ohnishi, S Balan, Y Hisano, Y Iwayama, T Toyota, T Matsumoto, N Itasaka, S Sugiyama, M Tanaka, M Yano, B Dean, H Okano, T Yoshikawa
Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the genomic architecture underlying schizophrenia, molecular analyses of these patients with defined and large effect-size genomic defects could provide valuable clues. We established human-induced pluripotent stem cells from two schizophrenia patients with the 22q11.2 deletion (two cell lines from each subject, total of four cell lines) and three controls (total of four cell lines). Neurosphere size, neural differentiation efficiency, neurite outgrowth, cellular migration and the neurogenic-to-gliogenic competence ratio were significantly reduced in patient-derived cells...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800509/hyperplasia-and-hypertrophy-of-pulmonary-neuroepithelial-bodies-presumed-airway-hypoxia-sensors-in-hypoxia-inducible-factor-prolyl-hydroxylase-deficient-mice
#13
Jie Pan, Tammie Bishop, Peter J Ratcliffe, Herman Yeger, Ernest Cutz
Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs), presumed polymodal airway sensors, consist of innervated clusters of amine (serotonin) and peptide-producing cells. While NEB responses to acute hypoxia are mediated by a membrane-bound O2 sensor complex, responses to sustained and/or chronic hypoxia involve a prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)-hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent mechanism. We have previously reported hyperplasia of NEBs in the lungs of Phd1-/- mice associated with enhanced serotonin secretion. Here we use a novel multilabel immunofluorescence method to assess NEB distribution, frequency, and size, together with the number and size of NEB cell nuclei, and to colocalize multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear epitopes in the lungs of Phd1-/-, Phd2+/-, and Phd3-/- mice and compare them with wild-type controls...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787513/the-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-threshold-a-framework-for-understanding-pathogenesis-and-predicting-successful-treatments
#14
David J Levinthal
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is an uncommon, idiopathic disorder defined by recurrent, sudden-onset attacks of repetitive retching and vomiting that are separated by symptom-free intervals. CVS was long regarded as a disorder primarily experienced by children but is now known to present de novo in adulthood. Adult CVS has garnered more research attention over the past 20 years, and these efforts have identified some acute and prophylactic treatments for this disorder. However, CVS still lacks a unifying disease model, and this has hindered the development of new therapies...
October 27, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782351/a-fluorescent-probe-for-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-with-high-differentiation-capability-into-neurons
#15
Beomsue Kim, Suihan Feng, Seong-Wook Yun, Cheryl Leong, Rudrakanta Satapathy, Si Yan Diana Wan, Young-Tae Chang
Selection of a specific neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has attracted broad attention in regenerative medicine for neurological disorders. Here, we report a fluorescent probe, CDg13, and its application for isolating strong neurogenic NSPCs. In comparison to the NSPCs isolated by other biomarkers, CDg13-stained NSPCs showed higher capability to differentiate into neurons. Target identification revealed that the fluorescence intensity of the probe within cells is inversely proportional to the expression levels of mouse and human Abcg2 transporters...
October 26, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779483/the-influence-of-resiniferatoxin-on-the-chemical-coding-of-caudal-mesenteric-ganglion-neurons-supplying-the-urinary-bladder-in-the-pig
#16
E Lepiarczyk, A Dudek, J Kaleczyc, M Majewski, W Markiewicz, P Radziszewski, A Bossowska
Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is used as experimental drug therapy for a range of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical RTX instillation. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), galanin (GAL) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774877/genitourinary-complications-of-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-pathogenesis-evaluation-and-management
#17
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772540/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder, causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming numbers of brain injuries, and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associate with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies, because there is often neuron loss...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765373/lichen-derived-compounds-show-potential-for-central-nervous-system-therapeutics
#19
R Gajendra Reddy, Lenin Veeraval, Swati Maitra, Marylène Chollet-Krugler, Sophie Tomasi, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Joël Boustie, Sumana Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. METHODS: Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756104/electroconvulsive-stimulation-results-in-long-term-survival-of-newly-generated-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#20
Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Gitta Wörtwein, Jonas Folke, Bente Pakkenberg
Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is one of the strongest stimulators of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents that represents a plausible mechanism for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder. Using design-based stereological cell counting, we recently documented an initial 2.6-fold increase in neurogenesis following a clinical relevant schedule of ECS, a treatment also rescuing depression-like behavior in rats. However, these results gave no demonstration of the longevity of newly generated neurons...
October 18, 2016: Hippocampus
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