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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470437/neurophysiological-assessment-of-abnormalities-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Matthew Pitt
The function of the neuromuscular junction in children is amenable to electrophysiological testing. Of the two tests available, repetitive nerve stimulation is uncomfortable and has a reduced sensitivity compared with single-fibre methodology. The latter is the method of choice, recording the variability in neuromuscular transmission as a value called jitter. It can be performed by voluntary activation of the muscle being examined, which is not suitable in children, or by stimulation techniques. A modification of these techniques, called Stimulated Potential Analysis with Concentric needle Electrodes (SPACE), is well tolerated and can be performed while the child is awake...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467763/functional-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-immune-cells-and-epithelia
#2
REVIEW
Mohammad Khalil, Korina Alliger, Carl Weidinger, Cansu Yerinde, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker, Matthias Agop Engel
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are widely expressed in several tissues throughout the mammalian organism. Originally, TRP channel physiology was focusing on its fundamental meaning in sensory neuronal function. Today, it is known that activation of several TRP ion channels in peptidergic neurons does not only result in neuropeptide release and consecutive neurogenic inflammation. Growing evidence demonstrates functional extra-neuronal TRP channel expression in immune and epithelial cells with important implications for mucosal immunology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455410/can-patients-with-symptomatic-tarlov-cysts-be-differentiated-from-patients-with-specific-low-back-pain-based-on-comprehensive-history-taking
#3
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405350/orthostatic-heart-rate-changes-in-patients-with-autonomic-failure-caused-by-neurodegenerative-synucleinopathies
#4
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Cyndya A Shibao, Italo Biaggioni, Amanda C Peltier, Wolfgang Singer, Phillip A Low, David S Goldstein, Christopher H Gibbons, Roy Freeman, David Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Blunted tachycardia during hypotension is a characteristic feature of patients with autonomic failure, but the range has not been defined. This study reports the range of orthostatic heart rate (HR) changes in patients with autonomic failure caused by neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. METHODS: Patients evaluated at sites of the U.S. Autonomic Consortium (NCT01799915) underwent standardized autonomic function tests and full neurological evaluation. RESULTS: We identified 402 patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH) who had normal sinus rhythm...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402703/tibial-nerve-stimulation-to-drive-genital-sexual-arousal-in-an-anesthetized-female-rat
#5
Lauren L Zimmerman, Indie C Rice, Mitchell B Berger, Tim M Bruns
BACKGROUND: There is clinical evidence that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation can positively benefit women with female sexual interest/arousal disorder, yet no studies have explored the potential mechanisms further. AIM: To investigate the effect of tibial nerve stimulation on vaginal blood perfusion (VBP) in an anesthetized rat model. METHODS: 16 ketamine-anesthetized rats were surgically implanted with a nerve cuff electrode on 1 tibial nerve...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402511/cross-cultural-adaption-and-validation-of-the-danish-voice-handicap-index
#6
Jesper Roed Sorensen, Trine Printz, Camilla Slot Mehlum, Christian Hamilton Heidemann, Aagot Moeller Groentved, Christian Godballe
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess psychometric properties, including internal consistency, reliability, and clinical validity of the Danish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study was carried out. METHODS: For validation, the existing nonvalidated Danish version of the VHI was used. Data from 208 patients with voice disorders of different etiology (neurogenic, functional, and structural) and a control group of 85 vocally healthy individuals were included...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401331/supraclavicular-thoracic-outlet-decompression-in-the-high-performance-military-population
#7
Joseph M White, Andrew J Soo Hoo, Scott R Golarz
Background: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is a relatively common disorder and often affects younger, physically active populations. The modern American military is a population at risk for the development of nTOS given the intense physical training requirements. The purpose of this study is to determine functional recovery in the active duty military population resulting in full, unrestricted return-to-duty status following supraclavicular thoracic outlet decompression with partial first rib resection, partial anterior scalenectomy, and brachial plexus neurolysis...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394670/-fluorescence-imaging-of-nerves-a-novel-trial-of-intraoperative-nerve-preservation
#8
Fumitaka Endo, Akio Sugitachi, Keisuke Koeda, Takeshi Iwaya, Yuji Akiyama, Akira Umemura, Toshimoto Kimura, Takeshi Takahara, Hiroyuki Nitta, Koki Ootsuka, Masaru Mizuno, Yusuke Kimura, Akira Sasaki
Nerve-preservation technique during surgery is important. Intraoperative nerve injury often causes permanent palsy or numbness and/or neurogenic functional disorders. To evade such intraoperative nerve injuries, we proposed a novel manner to specifically visualize peripheral nerve fibers. Low-toxic agents clinically available, amphotericin B(AmB)or fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)were used as neuro-indicators. In in vitro, we used Schwann cells as nerve models to basically confirm these agents effectively functioned as neural markers...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388934/-the-application-of-the-physical-factors-for-the-medical-rehabilitation-of-the-children-presenting-with-neurogenic-dysfunction-of-the-bladder
#9
I V Pogonchenkova, M A Khan, N B Korchazhkina, E V Novikova, I A Bokova, N A Lyan
This article describes the modern technologies for the medical rehabilitation of the children presenting with neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder aimed at improving the act of urination at all levels of innervation. The most frequent variant of neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder in the children is the hyper-reflexive one; it is this variant in which the most pronounced disorders of urodynamics due to intravesical hypertension and detrusor hypoxia are observed. The urodynamic disorders are known to contribute to the formation of the characteristic clinical picture associated with the hyper-reflexive urinary bladder dysfunction in the children characterized by the mandatory urination syndrome, pollakiuria, imperative urges, and mandatory urinary incontinence in the combination with enuresis...
December 28, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376968/-the-non-medicamentous-methods-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-the-patients-presenting-with-neurocirculatory-asthenia-and-concomitant-enhanced-meteosensitivity
#10
A I Uyanaeva, Y Y Tupitsyna, E A Turova, N V Lvova, I V Ksenofontova
OBJECTIVE: The relevance of the problem stated in the title of this article comes from the significant increase in the prevalence of the functional cardiovascular disorders having been documented during the past years especially such as circulatory asthenia that most frequently affects the young people of the working age suffering from the systemic neurogenic imbalance in the organism and can be seriously aggravated by the influence of biotropic weather conditions and be responsible for enhanced meteosensitivity that has negative effect on the quality of life and impairs the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions...
December 5, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371932/identification-of-novel-genes-in-aging-osteoblasts-using-next-generation-sequencing-and-bioinformatics
#11
Yi-Jen Chen, Wei-An Chang, Ming-Shyan Huang, Chia-Hsin Chen, Kuan-Yuan Wang, Ya-Ling Hsu, Po-Lin Kuo
During the aging process, impaired osteoblastic function is one key factor of imbalanced bone formation and age-related bone loss. The aim of this study is to explore the differentially expressed genes in normal and aged osteoblasts and to identify genes potentially involved in age-related alteration in bone physiology. Based on next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, 12 differentially expressed microRNAs and 22 differentially expressed genes were identified. Up-regulation of miR-204-5p was validated in an array of osteoporotic hip fracture in the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE74209)...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358615/neuromyopathy-with-congenital-cataracts-and-glaucoma-a-distinct-syndrome-caused-by-polg-variants
#12
Claudia Castiglioni, Fabiana Fattori, Bjarne Udd, Maria de Los Angeles Avaria, Bernardita Suarez, Adele D'Amico, Alessandro Malandrini, Rosalba Carrozzo, Daniela Verrigni, Enrico Bertini, Giorgio Tasca
We identified three non-related patients manifesting a childhood-onset progressive neuromyopathy with congenital cataracts, delayed walking, distal weakness and wasting, glaucoma and swallowing difficulties. Electrophysiology and nerve biopsies showed a mixed axonal and demyelinating neuropathy, while muscle biopsy disclosed both neurogenic and myopathic changes with ragged red fibers, and muscle MRI showed consistent features across patients, with a peculiar concentric disto-proximal gradient of fatty replacement...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356135/neurogenic-bladder-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-a-comparison-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#13
Kyeong Joon Kim, Seong Jin Jeong, Jong-Min Kim
AIMS: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) can present urinary symptoms, similar to other parkinsonian disorders. We investigated the urodynamic parameters of PSP and compared them with those of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the urodynamic data in patients diagnosed with parkinsonian disorders (PSP, IPD, and MSA) presenting urinary symptoms. Clinical data, including onset age, duration, and severity, as well as treatment status of parkinsonian disorders and urinary symptoms were collected...
January 22, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350304/defective-mitochondrial-atpase-due-to-rare-mtdna-m-8969g-a-mutation-causing-lactic-acidosis-intellectual-disability-and-poor-growth
#14
Pirjo Isohanni, Christopher J Carroll, Christopher B Jackson, Max Pohjanpelto, Tuula Lönnqvist, Anu Suomalainen
Mutations in mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6) are a frequent cause of NARP (neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) or Leigh syndromes, especially a point mutation at nucleotide position 8993. M.8969G>A is a rare MT-ATP6 mutation, previously reported only in three individuals, causing multisystem disorders with mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia or IgA nephropathy. We present two siblings with the m.8969G>A mutation and a novel, substantially milder phenotype with lactic acidosis, poor growth, and intellectual disability...
January 19, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344340/assessment-and-management-of-sexual-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-depression
#15
REVIEW
Pratap R Chokka, Jeffrey R Hankey
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is pervasive and underreported, and its effects on quality of life are underestimated. Due in part to its bidirectional relationship with depression, SD can be difficult to diagnose; it is also a common side effect of many antidepressants, leading to treatment noncompliance. While physicians often count on patients to spontaneously report SD, treatment is optimized when the clinician instead performs a thorough assessment of sexual functioning before and during drug therapy using a standardized questionnaire such as the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX)...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342244/gli2-rescues-delays-in-brain-development-induced-by-kif3a-dysfunction
#16
Jia-Long Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chang, Jin-Wu Tsai
The primary cilium in neural stem cells plays distinct roles in different stages during cortical development. Ciliary dysfunctions in human (i.e., ciliopathy) cause developmental defects in multiple organs, including brain developmental delays, which lead to intellectual disabilities and cognitive deficits. However, effective treatment to this devastating developmental disorder is still lacking. Here, we first investigated the effects of ciliopathy on neural stem cells by knocking down Kif3a, a kinesin II motor required for ciliogenesis, in the neurogenic stage of cortical development by in utero electroporation of mouse embryos...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342011/utility-of-time-and-frequency-domain-parameters-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-context-of-autonomic-disorders-characterized-by-orthostatic-dysfunction
#17
Jacquie Baker, Juan M Racosta, Brittany Balint, Kurt Kimpinski
PURPOSE: The clinical significance of heart rate variability in the context of autonomic dysfunction continues to be a matter of debate. A consensus is lacking on the best heart rate variability measures for clinical purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of heart rate variability parameters in healthy versus autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Healthy young (n = 134), healthy older (n = 32), and patients with mild (postural tachycardia syndrome; n = 25) and severe (neurogenic orthostatic hypotension; n = 34) autonomic dysfunction were included...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326891/role-of-exercise-on-molecular-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-antidepressant-effects
#18
REVIEW
Hyo-Jun Lee, Seung-Soo Baek
Regular exercise reduces depressive-like behavior activation. In this study, we look for exact roles of exercise on molecular and neuronal mechanisms for antidepressant action by studying the hippocampal neuroplasticity and proliferation. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis with exercise has potential significance for depression. Exercise promotes brain health in the molecular levels in the hippocampus and also affects behavior in a similar way to chronic antidepressant treatment. Wingless (Wnt) and frizzled signaling system plays an important role in cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation during development...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323402/neurogenic-stuttering-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
C Cruz, H Amorim, G Beca, R Nunes
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. AIM: To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. DEVELOPMENT: A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed...
January 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306636/clinical-correlates-of-cerebral-white-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Bibet L Ten Harmsen, Anouke van Rumund, Marjolein B Aerts, Mayra I Bergkamp, Rianne A J Esselink, Edo Richard, Frederick J A Meijer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Daniel J van Wamelen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if autonomic dysfunction, cognitive disorders or axial disability are associated with white matter lesions (WML) in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional review study on 204 consecutive PD patients who underwent cerebral MRI in our center between January 2012 and July 2016. For each patient, we scored the severity of WML and PV (periventricular) WML using the Fazekas score and using the ARWMC scale for WML and BG (basal ganglia) and clinical characteristics such as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and cognitive function...
December 27, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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