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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382077/vegf-triggers-the-activation-of-cofilin-and-the-arp2-3-complex-within-the-growth-cone
#1
Matthias Schlau, Daniel Terheyden-Keighley, Verena Theis, Hans Georg Mannherz, Carsten Theiss
A crucial neuronal structure for the development and regeneration of neuronal networks is the axonal growth cone. Affected by different guidance cues, it grows in a predetermined direction to reach its final destination. One of those cues is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was identified as a positive effector for growth cone movement. These positive effects are mainly mediated by a reorganization of the actin network. This study shows that VEGF triggers a tight colocalization of cofilin and the Arp2/3 complex to the actin cytoskeleton within chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288926/efhd2-swiprosin-1-regulates-lps-induced-macrophage-recruitment-via-enhancing-actin-polymerization-and-cell-migration
#2
Ye Tu, Lichao Zhang, Lingchang Tong, Yue Wang, Su Zhang, Rongmei Wang, Ling Li, Zhibin Wang
Macrophage motility is vital in innate immunity, which contributes strategically to the defensive inflammation process. During bacterial infection, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently activates the migration of macrophages via the NF-κB/iNOS/c-Src signaling pathway. However, the downstream region of c-Src that participates in macrophage migration is unclear. EFhd2, a novel actin bundling protein, was evaluated for its role in LPS-stimulated macrophage migration in this study. We found that LPS stimulated the up-regulation, tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane translocation of EFhd2 in macrophages...
December 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190677/cortical-actin-nodes-their-dynamics-and-recruitment-of-podosomal-proteins-as-revealed-by-super-resolution-and-single-molecule-microscopy
#3
Yuki M Shirai, Taka A Tsunoyama, Nao Hiramoto-Yamaki, Koichiro M Hirosawa, Akihiro C E Shibata, Kenichi Kondo, Atsushi Tsurumune, Fumiyoshi Ishidate, Akihiro Kusumi, Takahiro K Fujiwara
Electron tomography of the plasma membrane (PM) identified several layers of cortical actin meshwork running parallel to the PM cytoplasmic surface throughout the PM. Here, cortical actin structures and dynamics were examined in living cells, using super-resolution microscopy, with (x,y)- and z-resolutions of ~140 and ~400 nm, respectively, and single-molecule imaging. The super-resolution microscopy identified sub-micron-sized actin clusters that appeared identical by both phalloidin post-fixation staining and Lifeact-mGFP expression followed by fixation, and therefore, these actin clusters were named "actin-pl-clusters"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179463/olaquindox-disrupts-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#4
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Zhi-Ming Ding, Jia-Yu Zhang, Fan Chen, Yong-Sheng Wang, Xiang Li, Li-Jun Huo
Sertoli cells, by creating an immune-privileged and nutrition supporting environment, maintain mammalian spermatogenesis and thereby holds the heart of male fertility. Olaquindox, an effective feed additive in livestock industry, could potentially expose human into the risk of biological hazards due to its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, highlighting the significance of determining its bio-safety regarding human reproduction. Herein, we deciphered the detrimental effects of olaquindox on male fertility by mechanistically unraveling how olaquindox intervenes blood-testis barrier in mouse...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172947/crosstalk-between-wip-and-rho-family-gtpases
#5
Inés M Antón, Carla Gómez-Oro, Sergio Rivas, Francisco Wandosell
Through actin-binding proteins such as the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WASP-interacting protein (WIP), the Rho family GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 are major modulators of the cytoskeleton. (N-)WASP and WIP control Rho GTPase activity in various cell types, either by direct WIP/(N-)WASP/Cdc42 or potential WIP/RhoA binding, or through secondary links that regulate GTPase distribution and/or transcription levels. WIP helps to regulate filopodium generation and participates in the Rac1-mediated ruffle formation that determines cell motility...
November 26, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161594/clathrin-assembly-defines-the-onset-and-geometry-of-cortical-patterning
#6
Yang Yang, Ding Xiong, Anne Pipathsouk, Orion D Weiner, Min Wu
Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100370/identification-of-the-pak4-interactome-reveals-pak4-phosphorylation-of-n-wasp-and-promotion-of-arp2-3-dependent-actin-polymerization
#7
Miao Zhao, Matthias Spiess, Henrik J Johansson, Helene Olofsson, Jianjiang Hu, Janne Lehtiö, Staffan Strömblad
p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility and F-actin remodeling, but the PAK4 interactome has not been systematically analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized the human PAK4 interactome by iTRAQ quantitative mass spectrometry of PAK4-immunoprecipitations. Consistent with its multiple reported functions, the PAK4 interactome was enriched in diverse protein networks, including the 14-3-3, proteasome, replication fork, CCT and Arp2/3 complexes. Because PAK4 co-immunoprecipitated most subunits of the Arp2/3 complex, we hypothesized that PAK4 may play a role in Arp2/3 dependent actin regulation...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073094/mechanistic-principles-underlying-regulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-by-phosphoinositides
#8
Yosuke Senju, Maria Kalimeri, Essi V Koskela, Pentti Somerharju, Hongxia Zhao, Ilpo Vattulainen, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin cytoskeleton powers membrane deformation during many cellular processes, such as migration, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. Membrane phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], regulate the activities of many actin-binding proteins (ABPs), including profilin, cofilin, Dia2, N-WASP, ezrin, and moesin, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Moreover, because of a lack of available methodology, the dynamics of membrane interactions have not been experimentally determined for any ABP...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972183/the-actin-related-p41arc-subunit-contributes-to-p21-activated-kinase-1-pak1-mediated-glucose-uptake-into-skeletal-muscle-cells
#9
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Jing Zhang, Arianne Aslamy, Vishal A Salunkhe, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf, Debbie C Thurmond
Defects in translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 are associated with peripheral insulin resistance, pre-clinical diabetes, and progression to type 2 diabetes. GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells requires filamentous (F)-actin remodeling. Insulin signaling in muscle requires p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1), whose downstream signaling triggers actin remodeling that promotes GLUT4 vesicle translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells. Actin remodeling is a cyclic process, and while PAK1 is known to initiate changes to the cortical actin-binding protein cofilin to stimulate the depolymerizing arm of the cycle, how PAK1 might trigger the polymerizing arm of the cycle remains unresolved...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961272/sorbin-and-sh3-domain-containing-protein-2-sorbs2-is-a-component-of-the-acto-myosin-ring-at-the-apical-junctional-complex-in-epithelial-cells
#10
Karin Fredriksson-Lidman, Christina M Van Itallie, Amber J Tietgens, James M Anderson
SORBS2 is a scaffolding protein associated with Abl/Arg non-receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and is known to interact with actin and several other cytoskeletal proteins in various cell types. Previous BioID proximity labeling of tight and adherens junction proteins suggested that SORBS2 is a component of the apical junction complex of epithelial cells. We asked whether SORBS2 plays a previously unappreciated role in controlling perijunctional actin and tight junction barrier function. Using super resolution imaging we confirmed that SORBS2 is localized at the apical junction complex but farther from the membrane than ZO-1 and located partially overlapping both the tight- and adherens junctions with a periodic concentration that alternates with myosin IIB in polarized epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955984/expression-of-n-wasp-is-regulated-by-hif1%C3%AE-through-the-hypoxia-response-element-in-the-n-wasp-promoter
#11
Amrita Salvi, Thirumaran Thanabalu
Cancer cell migration and invasion involves temporal and spatial regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is regulated by the WASP family of proteins such as N-WASP (Neural- Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein). We have previously shown that expression of N-WASP was increased under hypoxic conditions. In order to characterize the regulation of N-WASP expression, we constructed an N-WASP promoter driven GFP reporter construct, N-WASP(pro)-GFP. Transfection of N-WASP(pro)-GFP construct and plasmid expressing HiF1α (Hypoxia Inducible factor 1α) enhanced the expression of GFP suggesting that increased expression of N-WASP under hypoxic conditions is mediated by HiF1α...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947957/cooperative-but-distinct-early-co-signaling-events-originate-from-erbb2-and-erbb1-receptors-upon-trastuzumab-treatment-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Paola Bagnato, Alessia Castagnino, Katia Cortese, Maria Bono, Silvia Grasso, Grazia Bellese, Tiziana Daniele, Richard Lundmark, Paola Defilippi, Patrizio Castagnola, Carlo Tacchetti
ERBB2 receptor belongs to the ERBB tyrosine kinase receptor family. At variance to the other family members, ERBB2 is a constitutively active orphan receptor. Upon ligand binding and activation, ERBB receptors form homo- or hetero-dimers with the other family members, including ERBB2, promoting an intracellular signaling cascade. ERBB2 is the preferred dimerization partner and ERBB2 heterodimers signaling is stronger and longer acting compared to heterodimers between other ERBB members. The specific contribution of ERBB2 in heterodimer signaling is still undefined...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938568/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#13
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938008/vca-nanobodies-target-n-wasp-to-reduce-invadopodium-formation-and-functioning
#14
Tim Hebbrecht, Isabel Van Audenhove, Olivier Zwaenepoel, Adriaan Verhelle, Jan Gettemans
Invasive cancer cells develop small actin-based protrusions called invadopodia, which perform a primordial role in metastasis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) is a scaffold protein which can directly bind to actin monomers and Arp2/3 and is a crucial player in the formation of an invadopodium precursor. Expression modulation has pointed to an important role for N-WASp in invadopodium formation but the role of its C-terminal VCA domain in this process remains unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923975/control-of-actin-polymerization-via-the-coincidence-of-phosphoinositides-and-high-membrane-curvature
#15
Frederic Daste, Astrid Walrant, Mikkel R Holst, Jonathan R Gadsby, Julia Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Daniel Brook, Marcel Mettlen, Elin Larsson, Steven F Lee, Richard Lundmark, Jennifer L Gallop
The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P2, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis. Both Cdc42⋅guanosine triphosphate and SNX9 activate N-WASP-WIP- and Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889942/differential-functions-of-wave-regulatory-complex-subunits-in-the-regulation-of-actin-driven-processes
#16
Christof Litschko, Joern Linkner, Stefan Brühmann, Theresia E B Stradal, Tobias Reinl, Lothar Jänsch, Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix
The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) links upstream Rho-family GTPase signaling to the activation of the ARP2/3 complex in different organisms. WRC-induced and ARP2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation beneath the plasma membrane is critical for actin assembly in the leading edge to drive efficient cell migration. The WRC is a stable heteropentamer composed of SCAR/WAVE, Abi, Nap, Pir and the small polypeptide Brk1/Hspc300. Functional interference with individual subunits of the complex frequently results in diminished amounts of the remaining polypeptides of the WRC complex, implying the complex to act as molecular entity...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703125/flat-clathrin-lattices-are-dynamic-actin-controlled-hubs-for-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-and-signalling-of-specific-receptors
#17
Daniela Leyton-Puig, Tadamoto Isogai, Elisabetta Argenzio, Bram van den Broek, Jeffrey Klarenbeek, Hans Janssen, Kees Jalink, Metello Innocenti
Clathrin lattices at the plasma membrane coat both invaginated and flat regions forming clathrin-coated pits and clathrin plaques, respectively. The function and regulation of clathrin-coated pits in endocytosis are well understood but clathrin plaques remain enigmatic nanodomains. Here we use super-resolution microscopy, molecular genetics and cell biology to show that clathrin plaques contain the machinery for clathrin-mediated endocytosis and cell adhesion, and associate with both clathrin-coated pits and filamentous actin...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681629/cyclic-stretch-induced-the-cytoskeleton-rearrangement-and-gene-expression-of-cytoskeletal-regulators-in-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#18
Yaqin Wu, Jiabao Zhuang, Dan Zhao, Fuqiang Zhang, Jiayin Ma, Chun Xu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the mechanism of the stretch-induced cell realignment and cytoskeletal rearrangement by identifying several mechanoresponsive genes related to cytoskeletal regulators in human PDL cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After the cells were stretched by 1, 10 and 20% strains for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 or 24 h, the changes of the morphology and content of microfilaments were recorded and calculated. Meanwhile, the expression of 84 key genes encoding cytoskeletal regulators after 6 and 24 h stretches with 20% strain was detected by using real-time PCR array...
July 6, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664153/sopb-mediated-recruitment-of-snx18-facilitates-salmonella-typhimurium-internalization-by-the-host-cell
#19
David Liebl, Xiaying Qi, Yang Zhe, Timothy C Barnett, Rohan D Teasdale
To invade epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) induces macropinocytosis through the action of virulence proteins delivered across the host cell membrane via a type III secretion system. We show that after docking at the plasma membrane S. Typhimurium triggers rapid recruitment of cytosolic SNX18, a SH3-PX-BAR domain sorting nexin protein, to the bacteria-induced membrane ruffles and to the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole. SNX18 recruitment required the inositol-phosphatase activity of the Salmonella effector SopB and an intact phosphoinositide-binding site within the PX domain of SNX18, but occurred independently of Rho-GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551638/modulation-of-melanotransferrin-and-transferrin-receptor-1-tfrc-and-cd44-based-signaling-for-tfrc-up-regulation-in-human-melanoma-cells
#20
Friedemann Laube, Dagobert Glanz
BACKGROUND: The human melanoma cell line IGR-1 was used for the detection and regulation of both melanotransferrin (MTf) and transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, CD71). While the function in iron transport of the TFRC is well documented the functional importance of MTf is not yet fully understood. Due to the up-regulation of TFRC by hyaluronan (HA) some components and aspects of CD44 signaling were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell-surface proteins MTf, TFRC and ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) were detected by immunoluminescent technique using different polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
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