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Rapid naming dyslexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747988/longitudinal-stability-of-pre-reading-skill-profiles-of-kindergarten-children-implications-for-early-screening-and-theories-of-reading
#1
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496059/reading-disorders-and-dyslexia
#2
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465208/responsiveness-to-intervention-in-children-with-dyslexia
#3
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
December 0: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110928/developmental-trajectories-for-children-with-dyslexia-and-low-iq-poor-readers
#4
Sarah E A Kuppen, Usha Goswami
Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly...
May 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100778/association-of-dcdc2-polymorphisms-with-normal-variations-in-reading-abilities-in-a-chinese-population
#5
Yuping Zhang, Jun Li, Shuang Song, Twila Tardif, Margit Burmeister, Sandra M Villafuerte, Mengmeng Su, Catherine McBride, Hua Shu
The doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p22.1, has been widely suggested to be a candidate gene for dyslexia, but its role in typical reading development over time remains to be clarified. In the present study, we explored the role of DCDC2 in contributing to the individual differences in reading development from ages 6 to 11 years by analysing data from 284 unrelated children who were participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Study of Reading Development (CLSRD). The associations of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCDC2 with the latent intercept and slope of children's reading scores were examined in the first step...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061124/precursors-of-reading-difficulties-in-czech-and-slovak-children-at-risk-of-dyslexia
#6
Kristina Moll, Paul A Thompson, Marina Mikulajova, Zuzana Jagercikova, Anna Kucharska, Helena Franke, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
Children with preschool language difficulties are at high risk of literacy problems; however, the nature of the relationship between delayed language development and dyslexia is not understood. Three hundred eight Slovak and Czech children were recruited into three groups: family risk of dyslexia, speech/language difficulties and controls, and were assessed three times from kindergarten until Grade 1. There was a twofold increase in probability of reading problems in each risk group. Precursors of 'dyslexia' included difficulties in oral language and code-related skills (phoneme awareness, letter-knowledge and rapid automatized naming); poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary was observed in both affected and unaffected high-risk peers...
December 0: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922163/cognitive-and-familial-risk-evidence-converged-a-data-driven-identification-of-distinct-and-homogeneous-subtypes-within-the-heterogeneous-sample-of-reading-disabled-children
#7
Gonny Willems, Bernadette Jansma, Leo Blomert, Anniek Vaessen
The evident degree of heterogeneity observed in reading disabled children has puzzled reading researchers for decades. Recent advances in the genetic underpinnings of reading disability have indicated that the heritable, familial risk for dyslexia is a major risk factor. The present data-driven, classification attempt aims to revisit the possibility of identifying distinct cognitive deficit profiles in a large sample of second to fourth grade reading disabled children. In this sample, we investigated whether genetic and environmental risk factors are able to distinguish between poor reader subtypes...
June 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858672/rapid-naming-in-brazilian-students-with-dyslexia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Luciana Mendonça Alves, Cláudia M Siqueira, Maria do Carmo Mangelli Ferreira, Juliana Flores Mendonça Alves, Débora F Lodi, Lorena Bicalho, Letícia C Celeste
INTRODUCTION: The effective development of reading and writing skills requires the concerted action of several abilities, one of which is phonological processing. One of the main components of phonological processing is rapid automatized naming (RAN)-the ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name. OBJECTIVE: To assess the RAN performance of schoolchildren with dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their peers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848997/reading-changes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-dyslexia-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#9
Floriana Costanzo, Cristiana Varuzza, Serena Rossi, Stefano Sdoia, Pamela Varvara, Massimiliano Oliveri, Giacomo Koch, Stefano Vicari, Deny Menghini
Noninvasive brain stimulation offers the possibility to induce changes in cortical excitability and it is an interesting option as a remediation tool for the treatment of developmental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reading and reading-related skills of children and adolescents with dyslexia. Nineteen children and adolescents with dyslexia performed different reading and reading-related tasks (word, nonword, and text reading; lexical decision; phonemic blending; verbal working memory; rapid automatized naming) in a baseline condition without tDCS and after 20 min of exposure to three different tDCS conditions: left anodal/right cathodal tDCS to enhance left lateralization of the parietotemporal region, right anodal/left cathodal tDCS to enhance right lateralization of the parietotemporal region, and sham tDCS...
March 23, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762122/eye-movements-and-articulations-during-a-letter-naming-speed-task-children-with-and-without-dyslexia
#10
Noor Z Al Dahhan, John R Kirby, Donald C Brien, Douglas P Munoz
Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS and the NS-reading relationship...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727308/oral-language-deficits-in-familial-dyslexia-a-meta-analysis-and-review
#11
Margaret J Snowling, Monica Melby-Lervåg
This article reviews 95 publications (based on 21 independent samples) that have examined children at family risk of reading disorders. We report that children at family risk of dyslexia experience delayed language development as infants and toddlers. In the preschool period, they have significant difficulties in phonological processes as well as with broader language skills and in acquiring the foundations of decoding skill (letter knowledge, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming [RAN]). Findings are mixed with regard to auditory and visual perception: they do not appear subject to slow motor development, but lack of control for comorbidities confounds interpretation...
May 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662375/predicting-dyslexia-using-prereading-skills-the-role-of-sensorimotor-and-cognitive-abilities
#12
Julia M Carroll, Jonathan Solity, Laura R Shapiro
BACKGROUND: It is well established that phonological awareness, print knowledge and rapid naming predict later reading difficulties. However, additional auditory, visual and motor difficulties have also been observed in dyslexic children. It is examined to what extent these difficulties can be used to predict later literacy difficulties. METHOD: An unselected sample of 267 children at school entry completed a wide battery of tasks associated with dyslexia. Their reading was tested 2, 3 and 4 years later and poor readers were identified (n = 42)...
June 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26414305/what-automaticity-deficit-activation-of-lexical-information-by-readers-with-dyslexia-in-a-rapid-automatized-naming-stroop-switch-task
#13
Manon W Jones, Margaret J Snowling, Kristina Moll
Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26399720/too-little-or-too-much-parafoveal-preview-benefits-and-parafoveal-load-costs-in-dyslexic-adults
#14
Susana Silva, Luís Faísca, Susana Araújo, Luis Casaca, Loide Carvalho, Karl Magnus Petersson, Alexandra Reis
Two different forms of parafoveal dysfunction have been hypothesized as core deficits of dyslexic individuals: reduced parafoveal preview benefits ("too little parafovea") and increased costs of parafoveal load ("too much parafovea"). We tested both hypotheses in a single eye-tracking experiment using a modified serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Comparisons between dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults showed reduced parafoveal preview benefits in dyslexics, without increased costs of parafoveal load. Reduced parafoveal preview benefits were observed in a naming task, but not in a silent letter-finding task, indicating that the parafoveal dysfunction may be consequent to the overload with extracting phonological information from orthographic input...
July 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26255617/reading-impairment-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-pilot-study-to-investigate-similarities-and-differences-with-developmental-dyslexia
#15
Guja Astrea, Chiara Pecini, Filippo Gasperini, Giacomo Brisca, Marianna Scutifero, Claudio Bruno, Filippo Maria Santorelli, Giovanni Cioni, Luisa Politano, Anna Maria Chilosi, Roberta Battini
Below-average reading performances have been reported in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but literacy problems in these subjects have yet to be characterized. In this study, the presence and characteristics of literacy deficits in boys with DMD were investigated through a comparison with typically developing children and with children affected by developmental dyslexia, with the aim of clarifying whether DMD and developmental dyslexia have overlapping profiles of literacy deficits and whether these deficits are associated, as in children with dyslexia, with impairments in phonological processing and rapid lexical access...
October 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25876887/beyond-phonological-and-morphological-processing-pure-copying-as-a-marker-of-dyslexia-in-chinese-but-not-poor-reading-of-english
#16
Sylvia Chanda Kalindi, Catherine McBride, Xiuhong Tong, Natalie Lok Yee Wong, Kien Hoa Kevin Chung, Chia-Ying Lee
To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample of 177 second graders. Children were tested on pure copying of unfamiliar stimuli, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phoneme deletion, syllable deletion, and morphological awareness...
July 2015: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25836629/reading-difficulties-in-spanish-adults-with-dyslexia
#17
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Fernando Cuetos
Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using...
April 2015: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832320/developmental-dyslexia-predicting-individual-risk
#18
Paul A Thompson, Charles Hulme, Hannah M Nash, Debbie Gooch, Emma Hayiou-Thomas, Margaret J Snowling
BACKGROUND: Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. METHODS: The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing...
September 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772426/late-emerging-and-resolving-dyslexia-a-follow-up-study-from-age-3-to-14
#19
Minna Torppa, Kenneth Eklund, Elsje van Bergen, Heikki Lyytinen
This study focuses on the stability of dyslexia status from Grade 2 to Grade 8 in four groups: (a) no dyslexia in either grade (no-dyslexia, n = 127); (b) no dyslexia in Grade 2 but dyslexia in Grade 8 (late-emerging, n = 18); (c) dyslexia in Grade 2 but not in Grade 8 (resolving, n = 15); and (d) dyslexia in both grades (persistent-dyslexia, n = 22). We examined group differences from age 3.5 to age 14 in (a) reading, vocabulary, phonology, letter knowledge, rapid naming, IQ, verbal memory; (b) familial and environmental risk and supportive factors; and (c) parental skills in reading, phonology, rapid naming, verbal memory, and vocabulary...
October 2015: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25702701/the-attentional-zoom-lens-in-8-month-old-infants
#20
Luca Ronconi, Laura Franchin, Eloisa Valenza, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
The spatial attention mechanisms of orienting and zooming cooperate to properly select visual information from the environment and plan eye movements accordingly. Despite the fact that orienting ability has been extensively studied in infancy, the zooming mechanism--namely, the ability to distribute the attentional resources to a small or large portion of the visual field--has never been tested before. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the attentional zooming abilities of 8-month-old infants. An eye-tracker device was employed to measure the saccadic latencies (SLs) at the onset of a visual target displayed at two eccentricities...
January 2016: Developmental Science
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