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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921175/molecular-characterization-of-a-new-soybean-infecting-member-of-the-genus-nepovirus-identified-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#1
Tuba Yasmin, Berlin D Nelson, Houston A Hobbs, Nancy K McCoppin, Kris N Lambert, Leslie L Domier
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new soybean-infecting member of the genus Nepovirus (provisionally named "soybean latent spherical virus" [SLSV]) was identified by high-throughput sequencing of RNAs from soybean leaf samples from North Dakota, USA. The sequences of RNAs 1 (8,190 nt) and 2 (5,788 nt) were completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Each contained a single long open reading frame and a 3' nontranslated region of greater than 1,500 nt. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two ORFs were most closely related to nepoviruses in subgroup C...
December 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883911/examining-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-arithmetic-fluency-in-chinese-kindergarten-children
#2
Jiaxin Cui, George K Georgiou, Yiyun Zhang, Yixun Li, Hua Shu, Xinlin Zhou
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858291/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-ssrna-ourmia-like-virus-from-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#3
Adriana Illana, Marco Marconi, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Ping Xu, Tamas Dalmay, Mark D Wilkinson, Maria Ángeles Ayllón, Ane Sesma
In this study we characterize a novel positive and single stranded RNA (ssRNA) mycovirus isolated from the rice field isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae Guy11. The ssRNA contains a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2,373 nucleotides in length and encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) closely related to ourmiaviruses (plant viruses) and ourmia-like mycoviruses. Accordingly, we name this virus Magnaporthe oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 (MOLV1). Although phylogenetic analysis suggests that MOLV1 is closely related to ourmia and ourmia-like viruses, it has some features never reported before within the Ourmiavirus genus...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856108/foundations-of-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#4
Evelien van Wingerden, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. AIMS: This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures...
November 14, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853553/the-role-of-three-heat-shock-protein-genes-in-the-immune-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge-in-marbled-eel-anguilla-marmorata
#5
Fenfei Liang, Guosong Zhang, Shaowu Yin, Li Wang
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that play critical roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, little information about HSPs from marbled eel Anguilla marmorata is known. In this study, the full-length Amhsp90 (2527 bp), Amhsp70 (2443 bp) and Amhsc70 (2247 bp) were first cloned from A. marmorata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, containing open reading frames of 2181, 1932 and 1950 bp in length, and encoding proteins with 726, 643 and 649 amino acids, respectively...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818586/human-bocavirus-current-knowledge-and-future-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Marcello Guido, Maria Rosaria Tumolo, Tiziano Verri, Alessandro Romano, Francesca Serio, Mattia De Giorgi, Antonella De Donno, Francesco Bagordo, Antonella Zizza
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2)...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781150/brain-metabolite-levels-and-language-abilities-in-preschool-children
#7
Catherine Lebel, Frank P MacMaster, Deborah Dewey
INTRODUCTION: Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. METHODS: Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (n = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus (n = 45)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752515/rapid-number-naming-in-chronic-concussion-eye-movements-in-the-king-devick-test
#8
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Weiwei Dai, Joel Birkemeier, Rosa M Pasculli, Ivan Selesnick, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Janet C Rucker
OBJECTIVE: The King-Devick (KD) test, which is based on rapid number naming speed, is a performance measure that adds vision and eye movement assessments to sideline concussion testing. We performed a laboratory-based study to characterize ocular motor behavior during the KD test in a patient cohort with chronic concussion to identify features associated with prolonged KD reading times. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a concussion history (mean age: 31) were compared to control participants with no concussion history (n = 42, mean age: 32)...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747988/longitudinal-stability-of-pre-reading-skill-profiles-of-kindergarten-children-implications-for-early-screening-and-theories-of-reading
#9
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667915/eye-movement-control-in-ran-and-reading
#10
Victor Kuperman, Julie A Van Dyke, Regina Henry
The present study examined the visual scanning hypothesis, which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in three modified RAN tasks. We analyzed two samples of undergraduate readers (age 17-27), we evaluated the incremental contributions of these components and found that saccadic planning to non-linguistic stimuli alone explained roughly one-third of the variance that conventional RAN tasks explained in eye-movements registered during text reading for comprehension...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630590/silent-reading-fluency-and-comprehension-in-bilingual-children
#11
Beth A O'Brien, Sebastian Wallot
This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630551/the-beat-to-read-a-cross-lingual-link-between-rhythmic-regularity-perception-and-reading-skill
#12
Annike Bekius, Thomas E Cope, Manon Grube
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609455/reading-and-lexicalization-in-opaque-and-transparent-orthographies-word-naming-and-word-learning-in-english-and-spanish
#13
Rosa Kit Wan Kwok, Fernando Cuetos, Rrezarta Avdyli, Andrew W Ellis
Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language...
September 9, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592331/dough-tough-cough-rough-a-fast-fmri-localizer-of-component-processes-in-reading
#14
Jeffrey G Malins, Nina Gumkowski, Bonnie Buis, Peter Molfese, Jay G Rueckl, Stephen J Frost, Kenneth R Pugh, Robin Morris, W Einar Mencl
In the current study, we present a novel fMRI protocol in which words, pseudowords, and other word-like stimuli are passively presented in a rapid, sequential fashion. In this "fast" localizer paradigm, items are presented in groups of four; within sets, words are related in orthographic, phonological, and/or semantic properties. We tested this protocol with a group of skilled adult readers (N=18). Analyses uncovered key regions of the reading network that were sensitive to different component processes at the group level; namely, left fusiform gyrus as well as the pars opercularis subregion of inferior frontal gyrus were sensitive to lexicality; several regions including left precentral gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus were sensitive to spelling-sound consistency; the pars triangularis subregion of inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to semantic similarity...
October 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585810/finishing-monkeypox-genomes-from-short-reads-assembly-analysis-and-a-neural-network-method
#15
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507266/in-silico-analyses-of-mitochondrial-orfans-in-freshwater-mussels-bivalvia-unionoida-provide-a-framework-for-future-studies-of-their-origin-and-function
#16
Alyssa Mitchell, Davide Guerra, Donald Stewart, Sophie Breton
BACKGROUND: Many species of bivalves exhibit a unique system of mtDNA transmission named Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI). Under this system, species have two distinct, sex-linked mitochondrial genomes: the M-type mtDNA, which is transmitted by males to male offspring and found in spermatozoa, and the F-type mtDNA, which is transmitted by females to all offspring, and found in all tissues of females and in somatic tissues of males. Bivalves with DUI also have sex-specific mitochondrial ORFan genes, (M-orf in the M mtDNA, F-orf in the F mtDNA), which are open reading frames having no detectable homology and no known function...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496059/reading-disorders-and-dyslexia
#17
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474853/visual-dorsal-stream-is-associated-with-chinese-reading-skills-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#18
Yi Qian, Yanchao Bi, Xiaosha Wang, Yi-Wei Zhang, Hong-Yan Bi
The present study explored the relationship between visual dorsal stream and Chinese reading by resting-state fMRI technique. We collected the resting-state brain activities and reading skills of Chinese-speaking adult readers. The results showed that the values of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and left visual middle temporal area (MT) (two regions of dorsal stream) were significantly correlated with rapid naming (RAN) speed, and the ALFF values of right PPC were correlated with orthographic awareness (OA)...
September 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465208/responsiveness-to-intervention-in-children-with-dyslexia
#19
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
December 0: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449063/rapid-language-related-plasticity-microstructural-changes-in-the-cortex-after-a-short-session-of-new-word-learning
#20
Shir Hofstetter, Naama Friedmann, Yaniv Assaf
Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity...
July 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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