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Rapid naming reading

Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Rebecca Wiseheart, Robin Wellington
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia is the most common type of learning disability and studies have shown that student-athletes with learning disabilities sustain more concussions than their non-affected peers. However, current methods of dyslexia identification in college students are potentially invalid because they rely on students to self-report formal dyslexia diagnoses. METHODS: To test the accuracy of self-report against two alternative methods of dyslexia screening, 94 college students completed three dyslexia symptom inventories, two rapid naming (RAN) tasks, and a standard word reading measure...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Alice Cancer, Alessandro Antonietti
Whereas the clinical manifestations and the neuropsychological predictors of Developmental Dyslexia (DD) are already well documented in Italian-speaking children, empirical evidence on DD in Italian adults is in contrast rather scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of a subset of neuropsychological skills, which have been identified by previous literature to be related to reading, in the decoding abilities of a group of Italian undergraduates with and without DD. For this purpose, 39 university students aged between 19 and 27 years, 19 of whom with a diagnosis of DD, underwent an assessment battery including standardized reading tests, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal working memory, and rhythmic pattern discrimination tests...
May 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Daimeng Zhang, Weisong Wan, Tongtong Kong, Ming Zhang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yi Gong, Shengkang Li
The clip domain serine proteinases (clip-SPs) play vital roles in embryonic development and in various innate immune functions in invertebrates such as antimicrobial activity, cell adhesion, hemolymph clotting, pattern recognition and regulation of the prophenoloxidase system. However, little is known about the role of the clip domain serine proteinase in Scylla paramamosain (designated SpcSP) immunity. In the present study, we cloned a clip-SP from S. paramamosain hemocytes using rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) approach...
May 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shuai Zhao, Shan Zhang, Sai Wang, Jiahui Liu, Yiyang Dong
A methodology of lateral flow immunochromatographic strip based on aptamer was developed for on-site detectionof the small molecule micropollutants. In the present study, we try for the first time to investigate the feasibility of developing a strip assay for the analysis of micropollutants as methodological prototypes by combining the high selectivity and affinity of aptamers with the unique optical properties of nanogolds. This quantitative method was based on the competition for the aptamer between targets and DNA probes...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Angeliki Altani, Athanassios Protopapas, George K Georgiou
During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sylvia Chanda Kalindi, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ingemar Leijon, Fredrik Ingemansson, Nina Nelson, Stefan Samuelsson, Marie Wadsby
AIM: We evaluated the development of reading skills in very low birth weight (VLBW) children and controls at 8-10 years of age. METHODS: This study was part of a longitudinal study of VLBW infants born between January 1998 and December 1999 in Sweden. We recruited 49 VLBW children and 44 sex and age-matched full-term controls when they started school at the age of seven and tested them using identical methods for decoding, rapid naming ability, reading comprehension, spelling and cognitive skills at about eight and 10 years of age...
April 29, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Parker Tichko, Erika Skoe
Developmental research suggests that sensorineural auditory processing, reading subskills (e.g., phonological awareness and rapid naming), and musical experience are related during early periods of reading development. Interestingly, recent work suggests that these relations may extend into adulthood, with indices of sensorineural auditory processing relating to global reading ability. However, it is largely unknown whether sensorineural auditory processing relates to specific reading subskills, such as phonological awareness and rapid naming, as well as musical experience in mature readers...
April 27, 2018: Brain Sciences
Barbara Brito, Steven J Pauszek, Ethan J Hartwig, George R Smoliga, Le T Vu, Pham V Dong, Carolina Stenfeldt, Luis L Rodriguez, Donald P King, Nick J Knowles, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Ngo T Long, Do H Dung, Jonathan Arzt
Recombination of rapidly evolving RNA-viruses provides an important mechanism for diversification, spread, and emergence of new variants with enhanced fitness. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an important transboundary disease of livestock that is endemic to most countries in Asia and Africa. Maintenance and spread of FMDV are driven by periods of dominance of specific viral lineages. Current understanding of the molecular epidemiology of FMDV lineages is generally based on the phylogenetic relationship of the capsid-encoding genes, with less attention to the process of recombination and evolution of non-structural proteins...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi Ting Huang
Skilled reading requires coordinating real-time visual fixations, orthographic analyses, and phonological encoding across multiple words in sentences. These procedures are well studied in experienced readers, but less is known about their status during development. To investigate how visual properties influence the origins of coordinated processing, the current study combined rapid automatized naming (RAN) with an eye-tracking paradigm and compared the timing of fixations and vocalizations in typically developing adults and 6-year-old children...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Yu-Hong Jiang, Ying Mao, Yi-Na Lv, Lei-Lei Tang, Yi Zhou, Huan Zhong, Jun Xiao, Jin-Peng Yan
The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene ( Nramp ), has been identified as one of the significant candidate genes responsible for modulating vertebrate natural resistance to intracellular pathogens. Here, we identified and characterized a new Nramp family member, named as maNramp , in the blunt snout bream. The full-length cDNA of maNramp consists of a 153 bp 5'UTR, a 1635 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 544 amino acids, and a 1359 bp 3'UTR. The deduced protein (maNRAMP) possesses the typical structural features of NRAMP protein family, including 12 transmembrane domains, three N-linked glycosylation sites, and a conserved transport motif...
March 29, 2018: Cells
Caroline Vander Stappen, Marie Van Reybroeck
Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been shown to be powerful predictors of reading achievement across many languages. However, literature remains unclear: (a) whether RAN is independent of PA, (b) about the specific influences of PA and RAN on reading and spelling, and (c) about the efficacy of a RAN intervention. This study aims to address these issues by means of an intervention design. Precisely, the objectives are (a) to determine whether training one competence involves or not an effect on the other, (b) to examine whether each intervention based on oral abilities (PA vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Samuele Girotto, Matteo Comin, Cinzia Pizzi
Background: Patterns with wildcards in specified positions, namely spaced seeds , are increasingly used instead of k -mers in many bioinformatics applications that require indexing, querying and rapid similarity search, as they can provide better sensitivity. Many of these applications require to compute the hashing of each position in the input sequences with respect to the given spaced seed, or to multiple spaced seeds. While the hashing of k -mers can be rapidly computed by exploiting the large overlap between consecutive k -mers, spaced seeds hashing is usually computed from scratch for each position in the input sequence, thus resulting in slower processing...
2018: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Giovanni Furlanis, Mariana Ridolfi, Paola Polverino, Alina Menichelli, Paola Caruso, Marcello Naccarato, Arianna Sartori, Lucio Torelli, Valentina Pesavento, Paolo Manganotti
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is one of the most devastating stroke-related consequences for social interaction and daily activities. Aphasia recovery in acute stroke depends on the degree of reperfusion after thrombolysis or thrombectomy. As aphasia assessment tests are often time-consuming for patients with acute stroke, physicians have been developing rapid and simple tests. The aim of our study is to evaluate the improvement of language functions in the earliest stage in patients treated with thrombolysis and in nontreated patients using our rapid screening test...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ferihan Popova, Antoaneta Kovacheva, Petar Garov, Stefan Sivkov, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Nickolay Sirakov, Magdalena Stoeva, Kichka G Velkova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Human brain connectome is a new and rapidly developing field in neuroscience. The pattern of structural and functional connectivity in the brain is not fixed but is continuously changing in response to experiences. Exploring these phenomena opens a powerful arsenal of analyses and computational approaches that could provide important new insights into clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activations of adult brain cortical areas during a memory task performance by using functional MRI with a specific focus on gender differences...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Francesco Mira, Giulia Dowgier, Giuseppa Purpari, Domenico Vicari, Santina Di Bella, Giusi Macaluso, Francesca Gucciardi, Vincenzo Randazzo, Nicola Decaro, Annalisa Guercio
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the etiological agent of a severe viral disease of dogs. After its emergence in late 1970s, the CPV original type (CPV-2) was rapidly and totally replaced by three antigenic variants named CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. CPV has an evolutionary rate nearest to those of RNA viruses, with consequences on disease diagnosis and epidemiology. This paper reports the molecular characterization of eight CPV-2a strains collected from dogs in Italy in 2016-2017. Genetic analysis was conducted on a CPV genomic region encompassing both open reading frames (ORFs) encoding for nonstructural (NS1-NS2) and structural proteins (VP1-VP2)...
July 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rong Wang, Jiali Dong, Zhen Wang, Tao Zhou, Yong Li, Wanlong Ding
A new virus causing a serious stunt disease of chrysanthemum was identified in China by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and named chrysanthemum virus R (CVR). The complete sequence of CVR was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The genomic RNA of CVR consists of 8,874 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail, contains six putative open reading frames (ORFs), and has a genomic organization typical of members of the genus Carlavirus...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Marjolaine Cohen, G Mahé, Marina Laganaro, Pascal Zesiger
Reading predictors evolve through age: phonological awareness is the best predictor of reading abilities at the beginning of reading acquisition while Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) becomes the best reading predictor in more experienced readers (around 9-10 years old). Those developmental changes in the relationship between RAN and reading have so far been explained in term of participants' age. However, it should be noted that in the previous experiments age always co-vary with participants reading level. It is thus not clear whether RAN-reading relationship is developmental in nature or related to the reading system itself...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Halil Bisgin, Binsheng Gong, Yuping Wang, Weida Tong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators that affect protein translation by targeting mRNAs. Their role in disease etiology and toxicity are well recognized. Given the rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing techniques, miRNA profiling has been increasingly conducted with RNA-seq, namely miRNA-seq. Analysis of miRNA-seq data requires several steps: (1) mapping the reads to miRBase, (2) considering mismatches during the hairpin alignment (windowing), and (3) counting the reads (quantification)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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