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Rapid naming reading

John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Weiwei Dai, Joel Birkemeier, Rosa M Pasculli, Ivan Selesnick, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Janet C Rucker
OBJECTIVE: The King-Devick (KD) test, which is based on rapid number naming speed, is a performance measure that adds vision and eye movement assessments to sideline concussion testing. We performed a laboratory-based study to characterize ocular motor behavior during the KD test in a patient cohort with chronic concussion to identify features associated with prolonged KD reading times. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a concussion history (mean age: 31) were compared to control participants with no concussion history (n = 42, mean age: 32)...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Victor Kuperman, Julie A Van Dyke, Regina Henry
The present study examined the visual scanning hypothesis, which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in three modified RAN tasks. We analyzed two samples of undergraduate readers (age 17-27), we evaluated the incremental contributions of these components and found that saccadic planning to non-linguistic stimuli alone explained roughly one-third of the variance that conventional RAN tasks explained in eye-movements registered during text reading for comprehension...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading: the Official Journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading
Beth A O'Brien, Sebastian Wallot
This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Annike Bekius, Thomas E Cope, Manon Grube
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rosa Kit Wan Kwok, Fernando Cuetos, Rrezarta Avdyli, Andrew W Ellis
Do skilled readers of opaque and transparent orthographies make differential use of lexical and sublexical processes when converting words from print to sound? Two experiments are reported, which address that question, using effects of letter length on naming latencies as an index of the involvement of sublexical letter-sound conversion. Adult native speakers of English (Experiment 1) and Spanish (Experiment 2) read aloud four- and seven-letter high-frequency words, low-frequency words, and nonwords in their native language...
September 9, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jeffrey G Malins, Nina Gumkowski, Bonnie Buis, Peter Molfese, Jay G Rueckl, Stephen J Frost, Kenneth R Pugh, Robin Morris, W Einar Mencl
In the current study, we present a novel fMRI protocol in which words, pseudowords, and other word-like stimuli are passively presented in a rapid, sequential fashion. In this "fast" localizer paradigm, items are presented in groups of four; within sets, words are related in orthographic, phonological, and/or semantic properties. We tested this protocol with a group of skilled adult readers (N=18). Analyses uncovered key regions of the reading network that were sensitive to different component processes at the group level; namely, left fusiform gyrus as well as the pars opercularis subregion of inferior frontal gyrus were sensitive to lexicality; several regions including left precentral gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus were sensitive to spelling-sound consistency; the pars triangularis subregion of inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to semantic similarity...
August 31, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
2016: BMC Genomics
Alyssa Mitchell, Davide Guerra, Donald Stewart, Sophie Breton
BACKGROUND: Many species of bivalves exhibit a unique system of mtDNA transmission named Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI). Under this system, species have two distinct, sex-linked mitochondrial genomes: the M-type mtDNA, which is transmitted by males to male offspring and found in spermatozoa, and the F-type mtDNA, which is transmitted by females to all offspring, and found in all tissues of females and in somatic tissues of males. Bivalves with DUI also have sex-specific mitochondrial ORFan genes, (M-orf in the M mtDNA, F-orf in the F mtDNA), which are open reading frames having no detectable homology and no known function...
2016: BMC Genomics
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yi Qian, Yanchao Bi, Xiaosha Wang, Yi-Wei Zhang, Hong-Yan Bi
The present study explored the relationship between visual dorsal stream and Chinese reading by resting-state fMRI technique. We collected the resting-state brain activities and reading skills of Chinese-speaking adult readers. The results showed that the values of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and left visual middle temporal area (MT) (two regions of dorsal stream) were significantly correlated with rapid naming (RAN) speed, and the ALFF values of right PPC were correlated with orthographic awareness (OA)...
September 2016: Brain and Language
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Shir Hofstetter, Naama Friedmann, Yaniv Assaf
Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity...
July 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Zhijian Liu, Shixing Yang, Yan Wang, Quan Shen, Yan Yang, Xutao Deng, Wen Zhang, Eric Delwart
BACKGROUND: The number of members in the genus Gammapapillomavirus of Family Papillomaviridae has recently been expanding most rapidly. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel human gammapapillomavirus type identified in a vaginal swab from a 25-year-old pregnant woman suffering from vaginitis. METHODS: Viral metagenomics method was used to detect the viral sequences in 88 vaginal swab samples collected from 88 pregnant women with vaginitis. A novel papillomavirus, named HPV-ZJ01 (GenBank no...
2016: Virology Journal
Lindsay V Clark, Erik J Sacks
BACKGROUND: In genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), read depth is important for assessing the quality of genotype calls and estimating allele dosage in polyploids. However, existing pipelines for GBS and RAD-seq do not provide read counts in formats that are both accurate and easy to access. Additionally, although existing pipelines allow previously-mined SNPs to be genotyped on new samples, they do not allow the user to manually specify a subset of loci to examine...
2016: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
Esther M Slot, Sietske van Viersen, Elise H de Bree, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7-11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael J Kluk, R Coleman Lindsley, Jon C Aster, Neal I Lindeman, David Szeto, Dimity Hall, Frank C Kuo
Targeted next-generation sequencing panels to identify genetic alterations in cancers are increasingly becoming an integral part of clinical practice. We report here the design, validation, and implementation of a comprehensive 95-gene next-generation sequencing panel targeted for hematologic malignancies that we named rapid heme panel. Rapid heme panel is amplicon based and covers hotspot regions of oncogenes and most of the coding regions of tumor suppressor genes. It is composed of 1330 amplicons and covers 175 kb of genomic sequence in total...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Katreena P Sarmiento, Vivian A Panes, Mudjekeewis D Santos
Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mats Julius Stensrud
BACKGROUND Genetic information is becoming more easily available, and rapid progress is being made in developing methods of illuminating issues of interest. Mendelian randomisation makes it possible to study causes of disease using observational data. The name refers to the random distribution of gene variants in meiosis. The methodology makes use of genes that influence a risk factor for a disease, without influencing the disease itself. In this review article I explain the principles behind Mendelian randomisation and present the areas of application for this methodology...
June 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
María J González-Valenzuela, Félix Díaz-Giráldez, María D López-Montiel
The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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