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Rapid naming reading

Rong Wang, Jiali Dong, Zhen Wang, Tao Zhou, Yong Li, Wanlong Ding
A new virus causing a serious stunt disease of chrysanthemum was identified in China by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and named chrysanthemum virus R (CVR). The complete sequence of CVR was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The genomic RNA of CVR consists of 8,874 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail, contains six putative open reading frames (ORFs), and has a genomic organization typical of members of the genus Carlavirus...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Marjolaine Cohen, G Mahé, Marina Laganaro, Pascal Zesiger
Reading predictors evolve through age: phonological awareness is the best predictor of reading abilities at the beginning of reading acquisition while Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) becomes the best reading predictor in more experienced readers (around 9-10 years old). Those developmental changes in the relationship between RAN and reading have so far been explained in term of participants' age. However, it should be noted that in the previous experiments age always co-vary with participants reading level. It is thus not clear whether RAN-reading relationship is developmental in nature or related to the reading system itself...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Halil Bisgin, Binsheng Gong, Yuping Wang, Weida Tong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators that affect protein translation by targeting mRNAs. Their role in disease etiology and toxicity are well recognized. Given the rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing techniques, miRNA profiling has been increasingly conducted with RNA-seq, namely miRNA-seq. Analysis of miRNA-seq data requires several steps: (1) mapping the reads to miRBase, (2) considering mismatches during the hairpin alignment (windowing), and (3) counting the reads (quantification)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Naz Jehangir, Caroline Yizhu Yu, Jeehey Song, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Steven Binder, Jill Beyer, Veronica Santini, Kathleen Poston, Yaping Joyce Liao
Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Heng Yue Cheong, Selena Ee-Li Young, Dawn Patricia Chuan Yu Young, Mary Lay Choo Lee, Susan Jane Rickard Liow
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early reading abilities, and related cognitive-linguistic processes, in bilingual children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to identify deficits that might be amenable to intervention. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Bilingual participants with CL/P aged 5 to 6 years who were English-dominant ( n=17) or Mandarin-dominant ( n=18) were recruited using consecutive sampling from a national cleft treatment center and matched pairwise to a sample of typically developing (TD) children on language dominance, age, and socioeconomic status...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Othmar Moser, Jane E Yardley, Richard M Bracken
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
Magdalena Łuniewska, Katarzyna Chyl, Agnieszka Dębska, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Joanna Plewko, Marcin Szczerbiński, Jakub Szewczyk, Anna Grabowska, Katarzyna Jednoróg
The prevalence and long-term consequences of dyslexia make it crucial to look for effective and efficient ways of its therapy. Action video games (AVG) were implied as a possible remedy for difficulties in reading in Italian and English-speaking children. However, the studies examining the effectiveness of AVG application in dyslexia suffered from significant methodological weaknesses such as small sample sizes and lack of a control group with no intervention. In our study, we tested how two forms of training: based on AVG and on phonological non-action video games (PNAVG), affect reading in a group of fifty-four Polish children with dyslexia...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Philippe Robaey, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study aims to test cognitive skills underlying the association between inattention and reading in early primary school. Teachers rated inattention symptoms when children (N = 523-962) were 6-7 years old. Children were assessed at age 7-8 on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), rapid auditory and bimodal processing, vocabulary, and reading (decoding and comprehension). Phonological awareness, RAN of numbers, and vocabulary mediated the association between inattention and both decoding and comprehension...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jiaojiao Miao, Na Han, Yujun Qiang, Tingting Zhang, Xiuwen Li, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathogen detection in clinical samples based on 16S metagenomic sequencing technology in microbiology laboratories is an important strategy for clinical diagnosis, public health surveillance, and investigations of outbreaks. However, the implementation of the technology is limited by its accuracy and the time required for bioinformatics analysis. Therefore, a simple, standardized, and rapid analysis pipeline from the receipt of clinical samples to the generation of a test report is needed to increase the use of metagenomic analyses in clinical settings...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Harry F Noller, Laura Lancaster, Jie Zhou, Srividya Mohan
During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNAs must be moved rapidly through the ribosome while maintaining the translational reading frame. This process is coupled to large- and small-scale conformational rearrangements in the ribosome, mainly in its rRNA. The free energy from peptide-bond formation and GTP hydrolysis is probably used to impose directionality on those movements. We propose that the free energy is coupled to two pawls, namely tRNA and EF-G, which enable two ratchet mechanisms to act separately and sequentially on the two ribosomal subunits...
December 7, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Li-Chih Wang
This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Christa Müller-Axt, Alfred Anwander, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is a highly prevalent reading disorder affecting about 5%-10% of children [1]. It is characterized by slow and/or inaccurate word recognition skills as well as by poor spelling and decoding abilities [2]. Partly due to technical challenges with investigating subcortical sensory structures, current research on dyslexia in humans by and large focuses on the cerebral cortex [3-7]. These studies found that dyslexia is typically associated with functional and structural alterations of a distributed left-hemispheric cerebral cortex network (e...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Lei Guo, Pei Liang, Kuan Fang, Dong Chu
Cyantraniliprole is the second active ingredient of anthranilic diamide insecticide, and the first to control a cross-spectrum of chewing and sucking pests such as sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) are two families of Ca(2+) release channels to raise the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration when it is activated by various extracellular stimuli. Previous study proved the over-expression of ryanodine receptor (RyR) was associated with the resistance to diamide insecticides, while the roles of IP3R in diamide resistance remain unknown...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yonghao Dong, Jiangtao Chao, Jinyan Liu, Annabel Rice, Robert Holdbrook, Yongjie Liu, Pengjun Xu
The complete genome of a novel virus from Nesidiocoris tenuis was determined by RNA-seq and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. This virus has a single-stranded RNA genome of 10633 nucleotides (nt) in length, not including the poly(A) tail, and contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 1320 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 147.92 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.96. ORF2 encodes a polypeptide of 1728 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 197...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
A Giménez, A Ortiz, M López-Zamora, A Sánchez, J L Luque
Children from families whose members have reading impairments are found to be poorer performers, take less advantage of instruction, and require more time to reach the reading level of children whose relatives are good readers. As a family's reading history may not be available, a self-report of reading abilities is used to identify children's background. In this paper, we explored the contribution of phonological, literacy, and linguistic abilities and reported parental reading abilities to predict reading achievement at the end of the school year in a Spanish sample...
October 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
George Manolitsis, Ioannis Grigorakis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of three morphological awareness (MA) skills (inflection, derivation, and compounding) in word reading fluency and reading comprehension in a relatively transparent orthography (Greek). Two hundred and fifteen (104 girls; Mage = 67.40 months, at kindergarten) Greek children were followed from kindergarten (K) to grade 2 (G2). In K and grade 1 (G1), they were tested on measures of MA (two inflectional, two derivational, and three compounding), letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and general cognitive ability (vocabulary and non-verbal IQ)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures...
October 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Prapaporn Techa-Angkoon, Yanni Sun, Jikai Lei
BACKGROUND: Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly...
October 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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