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Rapid naming reading

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323179/neither-action-nor-phonological-video-games-make-dyslexic-children-read-better
#1
Magdalena Łuniewska, Katarzyna Chyl, Agnieszka Dębska, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Joanna Plewko, Marcin Szczerbiński, Jakub Szewczyk, Anna Grabowska, Katarzyna Jednoróg
The prevalence and long-term consequences of dyslexia make it crucial to look for effective and efficient ways of its therapy. Action video games (AVG) were implied as a possible remedy for difficulties in reading in Italian and English-speaking children. However, the studies examining the effectiveness of AVG application in dyslexia suffered from significant methodological weaknesses such as small sample sizes and lack of a control group with no intervention. In our study, we tested how two forms of training: based on AVG and on phonological non-action video games (PNAVG), affect reading in a group of fifty-four Polish children with dyslexia...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319358/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-the-associations-between-inattention-and-reading-abilities
#2
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Philippe Robaey, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study aims to test cognitive skills underlying the association between inattention and reading in early primary school. Teachers rated inattention symptoms when children (N = 523-962) were 6-7 years old. Children were assessed at age 7-8 on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), rapid auditory and bimodal processing, vocabulary, and reading (decoding and comprehension). Phonological awareness, RAN of numbers, and vocabulary mediated the association between inattention and both decoding and comprehension...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297318/16spip-a-comprehensive-analysis-pipeline-for-rapid-pathogen-detection-in-clinical-samples-based-on-16s-metagenomic-sequencing
#3
Jiaojiao Miao, Na Han, Yujun Qiang, Tingting Zhang, Xiuwen Li, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathogen detection in clinical samples based on 16S metagenomic sequencing technology in microbiology laboratories is an important strategy for clinical diagnosis, public health surveillance, and investigations of outbreaks. However, the implementation of the technology is limited by its accuracy and the time required for bioinformatics analysis. Therefore, a simple, standardized, and rapid analysis pipeline from the receipt of clinical samples to the generation of a test report is needed to increase the use of metagenomic analyses in clinical settings...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215639/the-ribosome-moves-rna-mechanics-and-translocation
#4
Harry F Noller, Laura Lancaster, Jie Zhou, Srividya Mohan
During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNAs must be moved rapidly through the ribosome while maintaining the translational reading frame. This process is coupled to large- and small-scale conformational rearrangements in the ribosome, mainly in its rRNA. The free energy from peptide-bond formation and GTP hydrolysis is probably used to impose directionality on those movements. We propose that the free energy is coupled to two pawls, namely tRNA and EF-G, which enable two ratchet mechanisms to act separately and sequentially on the two ribosomal subunits...
December 7, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163285/effects-of-phonological-training-on-the-reading-and-reading-related-abilities-of-hong-kong-children-with-dyslexia
#5
Li-Chih Wang
This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163246/screening-protocol-for-early-identification-of-brazilian-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#6
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#7
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153326/altered-structural-connectivity-of-the-left-visual-thalamus-in-developmental-dyslexia
#8
Christa Müller-Axt, Alfred Anwander, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is a highly prevalent reading disorder affecting about 5%-10% of children [1]. It is characterized by slow and/or inaccurate word recognition skills as well as by poor spelling and decoding abilities [2]. Partly due to technical challenges with investigating subcortical sensory structures, current research on dyslexia in humans by and large focuses on the cerebral cortex [3-7]. These studies found that dyslexia is typically associated with functional and structural alterations of a distributed left-hemispheric cerebral cortex network (e...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107242/silence-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor-expression-decreases-cyantraniliprole-susceptibility-in-bemisia-tabaci
#9
Lei Guo, Pei Liang, Kuan Fang, Dong Chu
Cyantraniliprole is the second active ingredient of anthranilic diamide insecticide, and the first to control a cross-spectrum of chewing and sucking pests such as sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) are two families of Ca(2+) release channels to raise the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration when it is activated by various extracellular stimuli. Previous study proved the over-expression of ryanodine receptor (RyR) was associated with the resistance to diamide insecticides, while the roles of IP3R in diamide resistance remain unknown...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101538/characterization-of-a-novel-rna-virus-from-nesidiocoris-tenuis-related-to-members-of-the-genus-iflavirus
#10
Yonghao Dong, Jiangtao Chao, Jinyan Liu, Annabel Rice, Robert Holdbrook, Yongjie Liu, Pengjun Xu
The complete genome of a novel virus from Nesidiocoris tenuis was determined by RNA-seq and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. This virus has a single-stranded RNA genome of 10633 nucleotides (nt) in length, not including the poly(A) tail, and contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 1320 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 147.92 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.96. ORF2 encodes a polypeptide of 1728 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 197...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098514/parents-reading-history-as-an-indicator-of-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#11
A Giménez, A Ortiz, M López-Zamora, A Sánchez, J L Luque
Children from families whose members have reading impairments are found to be poorer performers, take less advantage of instruction, and require more time to reach the reading level of children whose relatives are good readers. As a family's reading history may not be available, a self-report of reading abilities is used to identify children's background. In this paper, we explored the contribution of phonological, literacy, and linguistic abilities and reported parental reading abilities to predict reading achievement at the end of the school year in a Spanish sample...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081759/the-longitudinal-contribution-of-early-morphological-awareness-skills-to-reading-fluency-and-comprehension-in-greek
#12
George Manolitsis, Ioannis Grigorakis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of three morphological awareness (MA) skills (inflection, derivation, and compounding) in word reading fluency and reading comprehension in a relatively transparent orthography (Greek). Two hundred and fifteen (104 girls; Mage = 67.40 months, at kindergarten) Greek children were followed from kindergarten (K) to grade 2 (G2). In K and grade 1 (G1), they were tested on measures of MA (two inflectional, two derivational, and three compounding), letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and general cognitive ability (vocabulary and non-verbal IQ)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078104/modeling-individual-variation-in-early-literacy-skills-in-kindergarten-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#13
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures...
October 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072140/a-sensitive-short-read-homology-search-tool-for-paired-end-read-sequencing-data
#14
Prapaporn Techa-Angkoon, Yanni Sun, Jikai Lei
BACKGROUND: Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly...
October 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#15
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056920/general-and-specific-contributions-of-ran-to-reading-and-arithmetic-fluency-in-first-graders-a-longitudinal-latent-variable-approach
#16
Caroline Hornung, Romain Martin, Michel Fayol
In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a general cognitive perspective. We investigated whether rapid naming measures (e.g., digit RAN and color RAN) reflect a mainly domain-general factor or domain-specific factors. In a second step, we examined how the best fitting RAN model was related to reading and arithmetic outcomes, assessed several months later...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050518/naming-speed-as-a-predictive-diagnostic-measure-in-reading-and-attentional-problems
#17
Débora Areces, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, David Alvarez-García, Celestino Rodríguez
This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40)...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040923/six-factors-of-adult-dyslexia-assessed-by-cognitive-tests-and-self-report-questions-very-high-predictive-validity
#18
Peter Tamboer, Harrie C M Vorst, Peter F de Jong
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of 154 students. There are three main results. First, various analyses of principal components showed that six or more factors of dyslexia can be distinguished (rapid naming, spelling, reading, short-term memory, confusion, phonology, attention, complexity)...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932019/towards-identifying-dyslexia-in-standard-indonesian-the-development-of-a-reading-assessment-battery
#19
Bernard A J Jap, Elisabeth Borleffs, Ben A M Maassen
With its transparent orthography, Standard Indonesian is spoken by over 160 million inhabitants and is the primary language of instruction in education and the government in Indonesia. An assessment battery of reading and reading-related skills was developed as a starting point for the diagnosis of dyslexia in beginner learners. Founded on the International Dyslexia Association's definition of dyslexia, the test battery comprises nine empirically motivated reading and reading-related tasks assessing word reading, pseudoword reading, arithmetic, rapid automatized naming, phoneme deletion, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency, orthographic choice (spelling), and writing...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918257/pathways-of-the-inferior-frontal-occipital-fasciculus-in-overt-speech-and-reading
#20
Claire Rollans, Kulpreet Cheema, George K Georgiou, Jacqueline Cummine
In this study, we examined the relationship between tractography-based measures of white matter integrity (ex. fractional anisotropy [FA]) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and five reading-related tasks, including rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects, and reading of real words and nonwords. Twenty university students with no reported history of reading difficulties were tested on all five tasks and their performance was correlated with diffusion measures extracted through DTI tractography...
November 19, 2017: Neuroscience
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