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Rapid automatized naming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883911/examining-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-arithmetic-fluency-in-chinese-kindergarten-children
#1
Jiaxin Cui, George K Georgiou, Yiyun Zhang, Yixun Li, Hua Shu, Xinlin Zhou
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867422/classyfire-automated-chemical-classification-with-a-comprehensive-computable-taxonomy
#2
Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Roman Eisner, Craig Knox, Leonid Chepelev, Janna Hastings, Gareth Owen, Eoin Fahy, Christoph Steinbeck, Shankar Subramanian, Evan Bolton, Russell Greiner, David S Wishart
BACKGROUND: Scientists have long been driven by the desire to describe, organize, classify, and compare objects using taxonomies and/or ontologies. In contrast to biology, geology, and many other scientific disciplines, the world of chemistry still lacks a standardized chemical ontology or taxonomy. Several attempts at chemical classification have been made; but they have mostly been limited to either manual, or semi-automated proof-of-principle applications. This is regrettable as comprehensive chemical classification and description tools could not only improve our understanding of chemistry but also improve the linkage between chemistry and many other fields...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860165/construction-implementation-and-testing-of-an-image-identification-system-using-computer-vision-methods-for-fruit-flies-with-economic-importance-diptera-tephritidae
#3
Jiang-Ning Wang, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin-Wen Hou, Li-Bing Zhou, Chao-Dong Zhu, Li-Qiang Ji
BACKGROUND: Many species of Tephritidae are damaging to fruit that might negatively impact international fruit trade. Automatic or semi-automatic identification of fruit flies are highly needed for diagnosing causes of damage and quarantine protocols for economically relevant insects. RESULTS: A fruit fly image identification system named AFIS1.0 has been developed using 74 species belonging to 6 genera, which include majority pests in Tephritidae. The system combines automated image identification and manual verification, balancing operability and accuracy...
November 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747988/longitudinal-stability-of-pre-reading-skill-profiles-of-kindergarten-children-implications-for-early-screening-and-theories-of-reading
#4
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723471/the-real-time-prediction-and-inhibition-of-linguistic-outcomes-effects-of-language-and-literacy-skill
#5
Anuenue Kukona, David Braze, Clinton L Johns, W Einar Mencl, Julie A Van Dyke, James S Magnuson, Kenneth R Pugh, Donald P Shankweiler, Whitney Tabor
Recent studies have found considerable individual variation in language comprehenders' predictive behaviors, as revealed by their anticipatory eye movements during language comprehension. The current study investigated the relationship between these predictive behaviors and the language and literacy skills of a diverse, community-based sample of young adults. We found that rapid automatized naming (RAN) was a key determinant of comprehenders' prediction ability (e.g., as reflected in predictive eye movements to a white cake on hearing "The boy will eat the white…")...
November 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667915/eye-movement-control-in-ran-and-reading
#6
Victor Kuperman, Julie A Van Dyke, Regina Henry
The present study examined the visual scanning hypothesis, which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in three modified RAN tasks. We analyzed two samples of undergraduate readers (age 17-27), we evaluated the incremental contributions of these components and found that saccadic planning to non-linguistic stimuli alone explained roughly one-third of the variance that conventional RAN tasks explained in eye-movements registered during text reading for comprehension...
2016: Scientific Studies of Reading
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630551/the-beat-to-read-a-cross-lingual-link-between-rhythmic-regularity-perception-and-reading-skill
#7
Annike Bekius, Thomas E Cope, Manon Grube
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591653/a-microfluidic-chip-for-studying-the-reproduction-of-enteromorpha-prolifera
#8
Zhixuan Xu, Qi Liu, Xinlian Zhang, Xuxiong Huang, Peimin He, Sixiu Liu, Guodong Sui
In recent years, green tides caused by water eutrophication, has brought serious environmental problems. Enteromorpha prolifera (E. prolifera), an opportunistic macroalgae, is one of the main source contributing to the formation of green tides. It has been estimated that the excessive growth of E. prolifera is closely related to various reproductive ways of germ cells which are at the micrometer scale. Here we report a microfluidic device named Germ Cell Capture Chip (GCChip) to investigate the E. prolifera reproductive mechanism...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577443/feature-automatic-feature-construction-for-clinical-data-analysis
#9
Wen Sun, Bibo Hao, Yiqin Yu, Jing Li, Gang Hu, Guotong Xie
With the rapid growth of clinical data and knowledge, feature construction for clinical analysis becomes increasingly important and challenging. Given a clinical dataset with up to hundreds or thousands of columns, the traditional manual feature construction process is usually too labour intensive to generate a full spectrum of features with potential values. As a result, advanced large-scale data analysis technologies, such as feature selection for predictive modelling, cannot be fully utilized for clinical data analysis...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506226/dtminer-identification-of-potential-disease-targets-through-biomedical-literature-mining
#10
Dong Xu, Meizhuo Zhang, Yanping Xie, Fan Wang, Ming Chen, Kenny Q Zhu, Jia Wei
MOTIVATION: Biomedical researchers often search through massive catalogues of literature to look for potential relationships between genes and diseases. Given the rapid growth of biomedical literature, automatic relation extraction, a crucial technology in biomedical literature mining, has shown great potential to support research of gene-related diseases. Existing work in this field has produced datasets that are limited both in scale and accuracy. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient framework that takes large biomedical literature repositories as inputs, identifies credible relationships between diseases and genes, and presents possible genes related to a given disease and possible diseases related to a given gene...
December 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504009/improving-the-dictionary-lookup-approach-for-disease-normalization-using-enhanced-dictionary-and-query-expansion
#11
Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Toni Rose Jue, Nai-Wen Chang, Hong-Jie Dai
The rapidly increasing biomedical literature calls for the need of an automatic approach in the recognition and normalization of disease mentions in order to increase the precision and effectivity of disease based information retrieval. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with the problem of disease named entity recognition and normalization. Among all the proposed methods, conditional random fields (CRFs) and dictionary lookup method are widely used for named entity recognition and normalization respectively...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496059/reading-disorders-and-dyslexia
#12
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465208/responsiveness-to-intervention-in-children-with-dyslexia
#13
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
December 0: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375508/shared-and-unique-risk-factors-underlying-mathematical-disability-and-reading-and-spelling-disability
#14
Esther M Slot, Sietske van Viersen, Elise H de Bree, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7-11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374119/nexta5-accelerating-annotation-of-articles-via-automated-approaches-in-nextprot
#15
Luc Mottin, Julien Gobeill, Emilie Pasche, Pierre-André Michel, Isabelle Cusin, Pascale Gaudet, Patrick Ruch
The rapid increase in the number of published articles poses a challenge for curated databases to remain up-to-date. To help the scientific community and database curators deal with this issue, we have developed an application, neXtA5, which prioritizes the literature for specific curation requirements. Our system, neXtA5, is a curation service composed of three main elements. The first component is a named-entity recognition module, which annotates MEDLINE over some predefined axes. This report focuses on three axes: Diseases, the Molecular Function and Biological Process sub-ontologies of the Gene Ontology (GO)...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198479/evaluation-of-results-from-genome-wide-studies-of-language-and-reading-in-a-novel-independent-dataset
#16
A Carrion-Castillo, E van Bergen, A Vino, T van Zuijen, P F de Jong, C Francks, S E Fisher
Recent genome-wide association scans (GWAS) for reading and language abilities have pin-pointed promising new candidate loci. However, the potential contributions of these loci remain to be validated. In this study, we tested 17 of the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these GWAS studies (P < 10(-6) in the original studies) in a new independent population dataset from the Netherlands: known as Familial Influences on Literacy Abilities. This dataset comprised 483 children from 307 nuclear families and 505 adults (including parents of participating children), and provided adequate statistical power to detect the effects that were previously reported...
July 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190549/a-novel-automatic-rapid-diagnostic-test-reader-platform
#17
Haydar Ozkan, Osman Semih Kayhan
A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170119/conscious-vision-proceeds-from-global-to-local-content-in-goal-directed-tasks-and-spontaneous-vision
#18
Florence Campana, Ignacio Rebollo, Anne Urai, Valentin Wyart, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
UNLABELLED: The reverse hierarchy theory (Hochstein and Ahissar, 2002) makes strong, but so far untested, predictions on conscious vision. In this theory, local details encoded in lower-order visual areas are unconsciously processed before being automatically and rapidly combined into global information in higher-order visual areas, where conscious percepts emerge. Contingent on current goals, local details can afterward be consciously retrieved. This model therefore predicts that (1) global information is perceived faster than local details, (2) global information is computed regardless of task demands during early visual processing, and (3) spontaneous vision is dominated by global percepts...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153201/longitudinal-trajectories-of-the-representation-and-access-to-phonological-information-in-bilingual-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#19
Lucia Buil-Legaz, Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla, Daniel Adrover-Roig
PURPOSE: Language development in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is still poorly understood, especially if children with SLI are bilingual. This study describes the longitudinal trajectory of several linguistic abilities in bilingual children with SLI relative to bilingual control children matched by their age and socioeconomic status. METHOD: A set of measures of non-word repetition, sentence repetition, phonological awareness, rapid automatic naming and verbal fluency were collected at three time points, from 6-12 years of age using a prospective longitudinal design...
October 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122419/investigation-of-ballistic-evidence-through-an-automatic-image-analysis-and-identification-system
#20
Ilker Kara
Automated firearms identification (AFI) systems contribute to shedding light on criminal events by comparison between different pieces of evidence on cartridge cases and bullets and by matching similar ones that were fired from the same firearm. Ballistic evidence can be rapidly analyzed and classified by means of an automatic image analysis and identification system. In addition, it can be used to narrow the range of possible matching evidence. In this study conducted on the cartridges ejected from the examined pistol, three imaging areas, namely the firing pin impression, capsule traces, and the intersection of these traces, were compared automatically using the image analysis and identification system through the correlation ranking method to determine the numeric values that indicate the significance of the similarities...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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