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Jeeyeon Kim, Miesha Farahmand, Colleen Dunn, Zoe Davies, Eric Frisbee, Carlos Milla, Jeffrey J Wine
Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates...
2016: PloS One
Nikisha Mehta, Zoe Marshman
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Maria Valdivia-Garcia, Paul Weir, Zoe Frogbrook, David W Graham, David Werner
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marianne Williams, Yvonne Barclay, Rosie Benneyworth, Steve Gore, Zoe Hamilton, Rudi Matull, Iain Phillips, Leah Seamark, Kate Staveley, Steve Thole, Emma Greig
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) costs the National Health Service almost £12 million per annum. Despite national guidelines advising primary care management, these have failed to stem secondary care referrals of patients with likely IBS for unnecessary and costly assessment and investigation without necessarily achieving resolution of their symptoms. METHODS: In 2011, an integrated team from primary and secondary care developed a business case using baseline data to create a Somerset-wide IBS pathway using Clinical Commissioning Group funding...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
Natalie Offord, Zoe Wyrko, Tom Downes, Adrian Hopper, Paul Harriman, Adam L Gordon
The number of people aged over 60 years worldwide is projected to rise from 605 million in 2000 to almost 2 billion by 2050, while those over 80 years will quadruple to 395 million. Two-thirds of UK acute hospital admissions are over 65, the highest consultation rate in general practice is in those aged 85-89 and the average age of elective surgical patients is increasing. Adjusting medical systems to meet the demographic imperative has been recognised by the World Health Organisation to be the next global healthcare priority and is a key feature of discussions on policy, health services structures, workforce reconfiguration and frontline care delivery...
2016: Acute Medicine
Jeremy J Pruzin, Julie A Schneider, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, Lisa L Barnes, Rexford S Ahima, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis
We examined the relationship of diabetes and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) to 2 common causes of dementia. The study included 1228 subjects who underwent annual clinical evaluations and a brain autopsy at death, as part of a Rush longitudinal cohort study of aging. A total of 433 subjects had A1C data available. Neuropathologic evaluations documented the size and location of infarcts. Modified silver stain-based Alzheimer disease (AD) measures included global and regional scores. We used regression analyses to examine associations of diabetes and A1C with overall and regional neuropathology...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Iliana Serifi, Eleni Tzima, Katerina Soupsana, Zoe Karetsou, Dimitris Beis, Thomais Papamarcaki
The oncoprotein SET/I2PP2A participates in various cellular mechanisms such as transcription, cell cycle regulation and cell migration. SET is also an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A, which is involved in the regulation of cell homeostasis. In zebrafish there are two paralogous set genes that encode Seta (269 aa) and Setb (275 aa) proteins which share 94% identity. We show here that seta and set b are similarly expressed in the eye, the otic vesicle, the brain and the lateral line system, as indicated by in situ hybridization labeling...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
J Hu, X Y Zou, H Zhuang, X J Gao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of three root canal sealers with respect to time on biocompatibility of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs).The sealers included zinc oxide and eugenol based sealers (ZOE), epoxy resin sealers (ERS) and silicone based sealers (SBS). METHODS: hPDLCs were primarily cultured,with the method combining of tissue explant and enzymatic digestion. The cells were then exposed to different extract fluids: (1) ZOE extracted for 24 h group ;(2) ZOE extracted for 1 week group;(3)ZOE extracted for 2 weeks group;(4) ERS extracted after 24 h group; (5) ERS extracted after 1 week group; (6) ERS extracted after 2 weeks group; (7) SBS extracted after 24 h group; (8) SBS extracted after 1 week group; (9) SBS extracted after 2 weeks group; (10) Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) as negative control group...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Niki E Sagioglou, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Maria M Tsioka, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Zoe Kollia, Christos Consoulas, Lukas H Margaritis, Issidora S Papassideri, George Th Tsangaris, Evangelia Sarantopoulou, Alkiviadis-Constantinos Cefalas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Drosophila chorion represents a model biological system for the in vivo study of gene activity, epithelial development, extracellular-matrix assembly and morphogenetic-patterning control. It is produced during the late stages of oogenesis by epithelial follicle cells and develops into a highly organized multi-layered structure that exhibits regional specialization and radial complexity. Among the six major proteins involved in chorion's formation, the s36 and s38 ones are synthesized first and regulated in a cell type-specific and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ola Söderström, Lilith Abrahamyan Empson, Zoé Codeluppi, Dag Söderström, Philipp S Baumann, Philippe Conus
Primarily on the basis of epidemiological studies, recent research in psychiatry has established a robust link between urban living and psychosis. This paper argues first, that an experienced-based approach, moving beyond epidemiology, is needed in order to enable more fine-grained understandings of the city/psychosis nexus. The second part of the paper presents preliminary fieldwork results based on video-elicitation sessions with first-episode patients with psychotic disorders. These results lead to the generation of a series of hypotheses for further research on the role of density, sensory overload and social interaction as factors in the onset of non-affective psychoses...
October 14, 2016: Health & Place
Jovan Nikolic, Ahmet Civas, Zoé Lama, Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Danielle Blondel
Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the RNA granules formed during viral infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Zoe Marshman, Abdussalam Eddaiki, Hilary L Bekker, Philip E Benson
OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a child-centred patient decision aid for young people, and their parents, supporting shared decision making about fixed orthodontic appliance treatment with dental health professionals, namely the Fixed Appliance Decision Aid (FADA). METHODS: The studies were undertaken in a UK teaching dental hospital orthodontic department in 2013-2014. The development phase involved an interview study with: (a) 10 patients (12-16 years old), and their parents, receiving orthodontic care to investigate treatment decision making and inform the content of the FADA and (b) 23 stakeholders critiquing the draft decision aid's content, structure and utility...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthodontics
Bernhard C Bayer, David A Bosworth, F Benjamin Michaelis, Raoul Blume, Gerlinde Habler, Rainer Abart, Robert S Weatherup, Piran R Kidambi, Jeremy J Baumberg, Axel Knop-Gericke, Robert Schloegl, Carsten Baehtz, Zoe H Barber, Jannik C Meyer, Stephan Hofmann
Nanocomposite thin films comprised of metastable metal carbides in a carbon matrix have a wide variety of applications ranging from hard coatings to magnetics and energy storage and conversion. While their deposition using nonequilibrium techniques is established, the understanding of the dynamic evolution of such metastable nanocomposites under thermal equilibrium conditions at elevated temperatures during processing and during device operation remains limited. Here, we investigate sputter-deposited nanocomposites of metastable nickel carbide (Ni3C) nanocrystals in an amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix during thermal postdeposition processing via complementary in situ X-ray diffractometry, in situ Raman spectroscopy, and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Stephen Mullen, Zoe Roberts, Sabine Maguire, Glyn Torne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Dung V Le, Andrea C Alfaro, Norman L C Ragg, Zoë Hilton, Nick King
Geoduck clams (Panopea spp.) are the longest-lived and largest deep burrowing bivalve. Their unique morphology allows them to live buried in the sediment at depths of up to 1 m. The endemic New Zealand geoduck (Panopea zelandica Quoy and Gaimard, 1835) has recently been identified as a potential species for aquaculture. However, very little is known about the biology and physiology of this entirely subtidal geoduck species. Currently, the New Zealand geoduck fishery relies entirely upon wild harvests, but farms are expected to emerge as cultivation protocols are established...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Asma Asemaninejad, R Greg Thorn, Zoë Lindo
Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO2 concentrations)...
October 15, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Panagiotis Angelikopoulos, Lev Sarkisov, Zoe Cournia, Paraskevi Gkeka
Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising platform for imaging and drug delivery applications. A number of recent molecular simulation and theoretical studies explored how these NPs interact with model lipid membranes. However, interactions between ligand-coated NPs leading to possible cooperative effects and association have not been investigated. In this coarse-grained molecular dynamics study, we focus on a specific case of several anionic, ligand-coated NPs embedded in a lipid membrane. Several new effects are observed...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Alex Holmes, Trevor Carlisle, Zoe Vale, George Hatvani, Camillie Heagney, Simon Jones
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether a 'housing first' permanent supported accommodation was effective in improving housing stability, continuity of care and reducing mental health admissions for persons experiencing chronic homelessness with psychosis. METHODS: A quasi prospective cohort study of 42 chronic homeless persons with psychosis accommodated in a new purpose built facility in central Melbourne. Accommodation stability, mental health service contacts and psychiatric admissions were compared across the 2 years prior, the first 2 years of placement and the 2 years after leaving...
October 11, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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