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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440487/interaction-between-interleukin%C3%A2-6-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-1-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-contributes-to-progression-of-heart-failure
#1
Tao Wang, Wen Gao, Kun Xiao, Qiang Liu, Ruyi Jia
The association between interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1‑R) in modulating the progression of heart failure (HF) remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of IL‑6 and AT1‑R in a model of HF induced by surgery. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, including sham surgery and vehicle groups. The animals were treated for 4 weeks via paraventricular nucleus infusion with either vehicle, losartan (LOS; 200 µg/day), IL‑6 (1 µg/day) or LOS and IL‑6 together (LOS+IL‑6)...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440105/effect-of-doxazosin-on-stress-reactivity-and-the-ability-to-resist-smoking
#2
Terril L Verplaetse, Andrea H Weinberger, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Kathryn Mz Smith, Brian P Pittman, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Meaghan E Lavery, Marina R Picciotto, Sherry A McKee
Preclinical findings support a role for α1-adrenergic antagonists in reducing nicotine-motivated behaviors, but these findings have yet to be translated to humans. The current study evaluated whether doxazosin would attenuate stress-precipitated smoking in the human laboratory. Using a well-validated laboratory analogue of smoking-lapse behavior, this pilot study evaluated whether doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day) versus placebo attenuated the effect of stress (vs neutral imagery) on tobacco craving, the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-libitum smoking in nicotine-deprived smokers ( n=35)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439935/neonatal-immune-challenge-followed-by-adult-immune-challenge-induces-epigenetic-susceptibility-to-aggravated-visceral-hypersensitivity
#3
J E Aguirre, J H Winston, S K Sarna
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms of inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The inflammatory mediators released by colon inflammation are known to sensitize the afferent neurons, which is one of the contributors to abdominal pain. However, not all IBD patients have abdominal pain, and some patients report abdominal pain during remission, suggesting contributions of other pathological factors to abdominal pain in IBD. Epidemiological studies found early-life gastrointestinal infections a risk factor for IBD symptoms and adult-life gastrointestinal infections may trigger the onset of IBD...
April 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434283/considering-tapentadol-as-a-first-line-analgesic-14-questions
#4
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Frank Breve, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa, Stephani E Strasburger, Jo Ann LeQuang
Tapentadol is the newest centrally acting analgesic to be approved by the US FDA and regulatory bodies in other countries. It has been called the first-in-class of a novel-acting analgesic mechanism of action that combines µ-opioid receptor agonist activity with neuronal norepinephrine-reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. This duality of action should combine inhibition of ascending (afferent) pain-transmitting signals with activation of descending (efferent) pain-attenuating systems (e.g., diffuse noxious inhibitory controls)...
April 24, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432492/effect-of-anti-norepinephrine-antibodies-on-the-development-of-neuropathic-pain
#5
S I Igon'kina, L A Vetrile, M L Kukushkin
The study focuses on induction of autoantibodies directed against neurotransmitter norepinephrine during neuropathic pain syndrome and on the effect of immunization with norepinephrine-protein conjugated antigen on the development of this syndrome. The formation of anti-norepinephrine antibodies aggravated and prolonged neuropathic pain.
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#6
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#7
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430843/carotid-body-denervation-markedly-improves-survival-in-rats-with-hypertensive-heart-failure
#8
Kana Fujii, Keita Saku, Takuya Kishi, Yasuhiro Oga, Takeshi Tohyama, Takuya Nishikawa, Takafumi Sakamoto, Masataka Ikeda, Tomomi Ide, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of heart failure. Excessive sympathoexcitation in patients with heart failure leads to poor prognosis. Since carotid body denervation (CBD) has been shown to reduce sympathetic nerve activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure, we examined if bilateral CBD attenuates the progression of hypertensive heart failure and improves survival. METHODS: We randomly allocated Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age into CBD (n = 31) and sham-operation (SHAM; n = 50) groups, and conducted CBD or SHAM at 7 weeks of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430025/synthesis-of-dopamine-in-e-coli-using-plasmid-based-expression-system-and-its-marked-effect-on-host-growth-profiles
#9
Arunangshu Das, Anita Verma, Krishna J Mukherjee
L-Dopa and dopamine are important pathway intermediates towards the synthesis of catecholamine like epinephrine and norepinephrine from amino acid L-tyrosine. Dopamine, secreted from dopaminergic nerve cells, serves as an important neurotransmitter. We report the synthesis of dopamine by extending the aromatic amino acid pathway of E.coli DH5α by expression of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydrolase (HpaBC) from E.coli and an engineered dopa decarboxylase (DDC) from pig kidney cell. The activity of HpaBC and DDC require 200 µM iron supplementation and 50 µM vitamin B6 respectively as additives to the growth media...
April 21, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429210/prenatal-hyperhomocysteinemia-impairs-hypothalamic-regulation-of-reproductive-cycles-in-rat-progeny
#10
A V Arutyunyan, I V Zaloznyaya, G O Kerkeshko, Yu P Milyutina, A V Korenevskii
Effects of prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia on hypothalamic regulation of estrous cycles were studied in female rats. In mature rats exposed to prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia, changes in the catecholamine content in hypothalamic areas responsible for the formation of the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone were revealed: the level of norepinephrine in the medial preoptic area decreased and concentration of dopamine in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei increased. Administration of melatonin attenuated the observed changes, which can be related to neuroprotective effects of this hormone determined by its antioxidant properties...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429074/ultrastructure-of-pheochromocytoma-undescribed-morphologic-features
#11
A Beiras Fernandez, A Kornberger, M Fraga, C F Vahl, A Beiras
We examined samples of human pheochromocytoma from 11 patients aged 30-70 years including one case of malignant pheochromocytoma with a view to identifying previously unreported ultrastructural details.We identified two types of nuclear inclusions consisting of irregularly shaped singular or multiple granulofibrillar formations with a typical concentric halo, on the one hand, and accumulations of egg-shaped structures consisting of granules and microfilaments, on the other. In some of the tumor cells, membrane-covered inclusions containing parallel laminar elements arranged in a paracrystalline, periodic fashion, or mega-mitrochondriae characterized by increased electrodensity of their matrix, and fibrillary material in the spaces between the cristae were present...
April 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425079/outcome-of-patients-with-septic-shock-and-high-dose-vasopressor-therapy
#12
Thomas Auchet, Marie-Alix Regnier, Nicolas Girerd, Bruno Levy
BACKGROUND: Despite the dissemination of international guidelines, mortality from septic shock remains high. Norepinephrine is recommended as first-line vasopressor therapy with a target mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. High-dose vasopressor (HDV) may also be required. This study aimed to assess survival in patients with septic shock requiring HDV. We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted between January 2008 and December 2013 to a 13-bed ICU for septic shock and receiving high-dose vasopressor therapy (defined by a dose >1 µg/kg/min)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424793/a-model-based-meta-analysis-evaluating-gender-differences-on-blood-flow-responses-to-brachial-artery-infusions-of-acetylcholine-albuterol-atp-bradykinin-estradiol-glyceryl-trinitrate-l-nmma-nevibolol-norepinephrine-sodium-nitroprusside-substance-p-and-verapamil
#13
Andy R Eugene
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have emerged over the course of several decades describing the properties of drugs eliciting vasodilatory or vasoconstrictor responses in the human vasculature. During drug development, decisions to move forward with testing with a new chemical entity are very costly. To fund or not to fund development, go or no-go, decisions are often limited by efficacy comparisons with the current products on the market. The primary aim of this paper is to use dose-response modeling and simulations to quantify differences in blood flow to Acetylcholine, Albuterol, ATP, Bradykinin, 17β-Estradiol, Glyceryl Trinitrate, L-NMMA, Nevibolol, Norepinephrine, Sodium Nitroprusside, Substance P, and Verapamil...
June 2016: MEDtube Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424658/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-control-of-vascular-tension-and-catecholamine-release-in-female-normotensive-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#14
Torill Berg
As in humans, young, female, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a lower blood pressure than male SHR. In male, normotensive rats (WKY), α2- and β1+2-adrenoceptors (AR) reciprocally controlled catecholamine release and vascular smooth muscle tension. This interaction was malfunctioning in male SHR. The present study analyzed if a favorable shift in the α2/β1+2AR interaction may represent an antihypertensive protection in females. Female SHR (early hypertension, 12-14 weeks) and age-matched WKY were infused with tyramine (15 min) to stimulate norepinephrine (NE) release through the reuptake transporter, consequently preventing reuptake...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#15
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424290/skin-derived-precursors-from-human-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-yield-dysfunctional-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Sarah Katherina Steinbach, Terrence M Yau, Maral Ouzounian, Husam Abdel-Qadir, Mark Chandy, Thomas Waddell, Mansoor Husain
Objective: Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or type-2 diabetes (T2D). Here we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and Results: Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies (N=164, ~1 cm(2)) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults (N=158; males 72%; mean age 62.7±13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield)...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422384/natural-antioxidant-flavonoids-in-formalin-induced-mice-paw-inflammation-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-sorbitol-dehydrogenase-activity
#17
Ebtehal Mohammad F, Wedad A Hasan, Eman G Mohamed
Flavonoids have reported to cover interesting multiple pharmacological properties. This study evaluated the effect of apigenin or silymarin in paw inflammation induced by formalin in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: I: positive control group; II: apigenin, 3 mg/kg (i.p.); III: silymarin 50 mg/kg (p.o.); IV: meloxicam 10 mg/kg (p.o.), the reference drug. Therapies were administered once a day for 7 days. The curative effects were assessed on inflammatory, oxidative stress and neurotransmitter biomarkers, and apoptosis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420463/-changes-of-small-intestinal-villi-microcirculation-in-sidestream-dark-field-imaging-with-different-target-blood-pressure-in-rabbits-during-endotoxin-shock
#18
Fei Gao, Xiaoyun Fu, Mingjiang Qian, Yu Zhang, Guangsu Li, Jie Hu
OBJECTIVE: Changes of small intestine villus microcirculation perfusion in sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging in the rabbits during endotoxic shock after fluid resuscitation with different target mean arterial pressure (MAP), and evaluation of feasibility of monitoring small intestine villus microcirculation by SDF were studied. METHODS: Sixty standard New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: low target MAP group (group A, n = 30) and high target MAP group (group B, n = 30)...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418735/polymorphisms-of-comt-c-649g-a-mao-a-c-1460c-t-net-c-1287g-a-genes-and-the-level-of-catecholamines-serotonin-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspianska, Agata Rozycka, Lukasz Wolny, Margarita Lianeri, Wojciech Kozubski, Jolanta Dorszewska
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT) in two collections, after a 30-min supine (I) and 5-min upright position (II), and polymorphisms of genes, COMT (c.649G>A), MAO-A (c.1460C>T), and NET (c.1287G>A), in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other degenerative parkinsonism and controls. The study was performed in 49 PD patients, 19 parkinsonism patients, and 48 controls. The level of NE, E, and 5-HT was determined by HPLC/EC...
April 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418480/association-between-serotonergic-antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#20
Hilary K Brown, Joel G Ray, Andrew S Wilton, Yona Lunsky, Tara Gomes, Simone N Vigod
Importance: Previous observations of a higher risk of child autism spectrum disorder with serotonergic antidepressant exposure during pregnancy may have been confounded. Objective: To evaluate the association between serotonergic antidepressant exposure during pregnancy and child autism spectrum disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study. Health administrative data sets were used to study children born to mothers who were receiving public prescription drug coverage during pregnancy in Ontario, Canada, from 2002-2010, reflecting 4...
April 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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