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Miki Murakoshi, Kei Takasawa, Masato Nishioka, Masahiro Asakawa, Kenichi Kashimada, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Masayuki Shimohira
1p36 deletion syndrome is the most common terminal deletion syndrome, and the genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36 deletion syndrome-related phenotypes were recently identified. Deletions in the 1p36 region have been documented in various tumor tissues, which indicates correlation between loss of heterozygosity of 1p36 and tumor development, and the existence of tumor suppressors in this region. Therefore, it was suspected that patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome have a higher risk of tumor development; however, only a few child cases of neuroblastoma with 1p36 deletion syndrome have been reported...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Jiangquan Yu, Ruiqiang Zheng, Hua Lin, Qihong Chen, Jun Shao, Daxin Wang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of early goal-directed therapy according to the global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with septic shock. METHODS: A total of 71 COPD patients with septic shock were randomly assigned to 2 groups. In the control group (n = 37), fluid resuscitation was performed based on the central venous pressure. In the study group (n = 34), fluid resuscitation was performed until GEDI reached 800 mL/m(2)...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Tae-Kyeong Lee, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Eun Joo Bae, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Choong-Hyun Lee
Duloxetine (DXT), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is widely used for the treatment of major depressive disorders. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of pre-treated DXT in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia. Pre-treatment with 40mg/kg DXT protected pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, pre-treatment with DXT reduced ischemia-induced activations of microglia and astrocytes in the ischemic CA1 region...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
George L Bakris, John M Burkart, Eric D Weinhandl, Peter A McCullough, Michael A Kraus
Hypertension is a cardinal feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertensive nephropathy is the primary cause of ESRD for nearly 30% of patients, and the prevalence of hypertension is >85% in new patients with ESRD. In contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) is nearly 150mmHg, and about 70%, 50%, and 40% use β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, respectively. Predialysis SBP generally exhibits a U-shaped association with mortality risk...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Junji Uno, Keisuke Obara, Hiroko Suzuki, Satomi Miyatani, Daisuke Chino, Takashi Yoshio, Yoshio Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the potential inhibitory effects of 18 clinically available antidepressants on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions in guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) in order to predict whether they may induce voiding impairment. METHODS: Concentration-response curves for ACh-induced contractions in guinea pig UBSM strips were obtained in the absence or presence of selected antidepressants. When inhibitory effects indicated competitive antagonism, pA2 values against ACh were calculated and compared to plausible antidepressant blood concentrations...
October 22, 2016: Pharmacology
Luis Gamella-Pozuelo, María T Grande, Milagros Clemente-Lorenzo, Cayetana Murillo-Gómez, Flora De Pablo, José M López-Novoa, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez
Catecholamines are essential for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis under basal and stress conditions. We aim to determine the impact of deletion of a single allele of the tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene might have on aging arterial pressure and life-span. We found that Th haploinsufficiency prevents age associated increase of arterial pressure (AP) in mature adult mice, and it results in the extension of the half-life of TH-heterozygous (HET) mice respect to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Heart performance was similar in both genotypes...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Luisa Iacovelli, Luisa Di Menna, Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Rosamaria Orlando, Gemma Molinaro, Antonio De Blasi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Ferdinando Nicoletti
We studied the interaction between mGlu7 and α1-adrenergic receptors in heterologous expression systems, brain slices, and living animals. L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4), and l-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), which activate group III mGlu receptors, restrained the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis induced by the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in HEK 293 cells co-expressing α1-adrenergic and mGlu7 receptors. The inibitory action of L-AP4 was abrogated by (i) the mGlu7 receptor antagonist, XAP044; (ii) the C-terminal portion of type-2 G protein coupled receptor kinase; and (iii) the MAP kinase inhibitors, UO126 and PD98059...
October 18, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
Xiuqing Tian, Rui Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Lingling Xu, Xianbing Liu, Yinglong Hou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sympathetic overactivity on the immune system involved in the imbalance of T helper (Th) lymphocytes, we investigated the correlation between autonomic dysregulation and the generation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th1 chemokines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Blood samples obtained from patients with coronary artery disease and controls were analyzed for levels of Th1 and Treg cells and their associated cytokines by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David Ea Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. e281 in vol. 3, PMID: 27606356.].
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Yong Li, Julia Hoffmann, Yang Li, Flora Stephano, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
The monoamines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate numerous behaviours and physiological processes in invertebrates. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether these invertebrate counterparts of norepinephrine are important regulators of metabolic and life history traits. We show that flies (Drosophila melanogaster) lacking OA are more resistant to starvation, while their overall life span is substantially reduced compared with control flies. In addition, these animals have increased body fat deposits, reduced physical activity and a reduced metabolic resting rate...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peter R Bieck, Mark Leibowitz, D Richard Lachno, Edouard Ledent, Robert Padich, Stan Jhee
To assess the primary metabolite of norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), as a sensitive biomarker for norepinephrine transporter (NET) function and the relationship of DHPG measured peripherally and centrally, NET was antagonized with 80 mg/d atomoxetine for 18 days. Twelve healthy subjects were treated with atomoxetine in an open-label, multiple-dose exploratory study. Plasma atomoxetine reached steady state by day 6, and the pharmacokinetic results demonstrated availability of atomoxetine to the central nervous system...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Peter Lam, Susan Lucak, Hanga Galfalvy, Elizabeth Jackson, Jane Fried, Melissa Rosario, Ana Alicia de la Cruz, Arturo Sánchez-Lacay, Samantha Díaz, Franklin Schneier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently co-occur, yet treating their comorbid presentation is challenging. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants are efficacious for IBS, but higher doses to treat depressive symptoms present tolerability problems, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are more tolerable but show inconsistent efficacy for IBS. If efficacious, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like duloxetine would provide a useful alternative. We explored efficacy, tolerability, and time to onset of action of duloxetine in comorbid IBS-MDD in an open-label, 12-week trial...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael G Ziegler, Milos Milic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caregiving for a severely demented spouse, and obesity more specifically address whether SNS activation might lead to the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is associated with both increased SNS electrical activity and plasma norepinephrine...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Markus Schlaich, Rosemary Elliott, Caroline Rudnicka, Vance Matthews
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system activation is a common feature in various metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) mediates re-absorption of glucose from the renal proximal tubules. SGLT-2 inhibitors have attracted substantial attention due to their glucose and blood pressure lowering effects. Furthermore, the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
George Bakris
Renal denervation started out as a very promising approach to treat resistant hypertension with a very strong conceptual and basic science frame work from Gerald DiBona's lab and extending into the early non shame clinical studies demonstrating proof of concept in SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and 2. SYMPLICITY-HTN 3 a properly done, sham control trial failed to show a benefit on further reduction of BP compared to the sham group. The conclusion the procedure doesn't work. How could this be-it was clearly effective in animal models but why not in man...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: These studies tested the hypothesis that the SNS release of norepinephrine modulates NCC activity via a WNK1 mechanism to contribute to the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats receiving a continuous s.c. saline or NE (600 ng/min) infusion or naïve Dahl Salt-Resistant (DSR) and Dahl Salt-Sensitive (DSS) rats were fed a 0.6% (NS) or 8% NaCl (HS) diet for 14 or 21 days respectively (N = 6/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Vavřínová, Michal Behuliak, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and hypertension development. The available information concerning mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. This might be due to various reference genes used as internal controls. We therefore searched for suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression of genes of catecholaminergic system between these strains...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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