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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#1
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230612/nationwide-survey-of-pediatric-acute-osteomyelitis-in-the-usa
#2
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia Testa
: The epidemiology of pediatric acute osteomyelitis in the USA, such as annual hospitalization rates and disparities with respect to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, remains unknown. We obtained discharge records of hospitalized patients with acute osteomyelitis younger than 20 years of age from the Kids Inpatient Database for 2006, 2009, and 2012. We weighted the records to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the USA and calculated the annual rates of hospitalization because of acute osteomyelitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230458/progression-to-type-2-diabetes-and-its-effect-on-health-care-costs-in-low-income-and-insured-patients-with-prediabetes-a-retrospective-study-using-medicaid-claims-data
#3
Jun Wu, Eileen Ward, Tiffaney Threatt, Z Kevin Lu
BACKGROUND: Prediabetes is a high-risk factor for progression to diabetes. Without lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and moderate physical activity, 15%-30% of people with prediabetes are projected to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years. Progression to diabetes increases the financial burden significantly for patients and health care systems. Populations with low socioeconomic status are associated with a higher risk of diabetes. However, knowledge is limited about the effect of transition to diabetes on future costs incurred in low-income populations...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230400/the-interplay-of-maternal-sensitivity-and-toddler-engagement-of-mother-in-predicting-self-regulation
#4
Jean M Ispa, Chang Su-Russell, Francisco Palermo, Gustavo Carlo
Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a cross-lag mediation model was tested to examine longitudinal relations among low-income mothers' sensitivity; toddlers' engagement of their mothers; and toddler's self-regulation at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (N = 2,958). Age 1 maternal sensitivity predicted self-regulation at ages 2 and 3 years, and age 2 engagement of mother mediated the relation between age 1 maternal sensitivity and age 3 self-regulation. Lagged relations from toddler self-regulation at ages 1 and 2 years to later maternal sensitivity were not significant, suggesting stronger influence from mother to toddler than vice versa...
March 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230243/global-disparities-in-cancer-pain-management-and-palliative-care
#5
Madhuri Are, Amanda McIntyre, Suresh Reddy
Palliative care and pain management constitute an integral part of the multi-disciplinary approach to treating patients with cancer. There are major disparities in the global presence of sustainable palliative care models and universal availability of effective pain medications, especially in low and middle income countries with the highest predicted future burden of cancer. Active intervention is needed to improve the availability of palliative care and effective pain control worldwide.
February 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229562/out-of-pocket-costs-and-burden-among-rural-breast-cancer-survivors
#6
Maria Pisu, Andres Azuero, Rachel Benz, Patrick McNees, Karen Meneses
Little is known about out-of-pocket (OOP) costs incurred for medical and health needs by rural breast cancer survivors and what factors may be associated with higher OOP costs and the associated economic burden. Data were examined for 432 survivors participating in the Rural Breast Cancer Survivor Intervention trial. OOP costs were collected using the Work and Finances Inventory survey at baseline and four assessments every 3 months. Mean and median OOP costs and burden (percent of monthly income spent on OOP costs) were reported and factors associated with OOP costs and burden identified with generalized linear models fitted with over-dispersed gamma distributions and logarithmic links (OOP costs) and with beta distributions with logit link (OOP burden)...
February 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229248/promoting-social-nurturance-and-positive-social-environments-to-reduce-obesity-in-high-risk-youth
#7
REVIEW
Dawn K Wilson, Allison M Sweeney, Heather Kitzman-Ulrich, Haylee Gause, Sara M St George
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228841/an-update-on-the-management-of-breast-cancer-in-africa
#8
REVIEW
V Vanderpuye, S Grover, N Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H Simonds, F Olopade, D C Stefan
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228457/impact-of-workplace-physical-activity-interventions-on-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-health-among-working-age-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Jennifer L Reed, Stephanie A Prince, Cara G Elliott, Kerri-Anne Mullen, Heather E Tulloch, Swapnil Hiremath, Lisa M Cotie, Andrew L Pipe, Robert D Reid
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Physical activity is protective for cardiovascular disease. The realities of modern life require working-age women to address work-related, family, and social demands. Few working-age women meet current moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Given that working-age women spend a substantial proportion of their waking hours at work, places of employment may be an opportune and a controlled setting to implement programs, improving MVPA levels and enhancing cardiometabolic health...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228140/should-co-payments-for-financially-deprived-patients-be-lowered-primary-care-physicians-perspectives-using-a-mixed-methods-approach-in-a-survey-study-in-tokyo
#10
Machiko Inoue, Yuko Kachi
BACKGROUND: Japan's stagnant economy has produced increasing income disparities, and the effect of poverty on health and health-care utilization is a significant issue. Co-payments could be a trade-off for patients when seeking medical care and limit health-care utilization. We sought primary care physicians' experiences in dealing with financially deprived patients and their perspectives about reducing co-payments by low-income patients. METHODS: We used a convergent mixed-methods approach in a mail survey; it was distributed to 1989 primary care physicians practicing in areas with the highest proportions of socially disadvantaged individuals in Tokyo...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228128/leveraging-the-private-sector-for-child-health-a-qualitative-examination-of-caregiver-and-provider-perspectives-on-private-sector-care-for-childhood-pneumonia-in-uttar-pradesh-india
#11
Aurélie Brunie, Rachel Lenzi, Anamika Lahiri, Rasa Izadnegahdar
BACKGROUND: The private health sector is a primary source of curative care for childhood illnesses in many low- and middle-income countries. Therefore ensuring appropriate private sector care is an important step towards improving outcomes from illnesses like pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of childhood mortality worldwide. This study aimed to provide evidence on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in Uttar Pradesh, India, by simultaneously exploring providers' knowledge and practices and caregivers' experiences...
February 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228061/suicidal-plans-and-attempts-among-adolescents-in-mongolia
#12
Sarantsetseg Davaasambuu, Suvd Batbaatar, Susan Witte, Phillip Hamid, Maria A Oquendo, Marjorie Kleinman, Michael Olivares, Madelyn Gould
BACKGROUND: Although 75% of suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries, few studies have examined suicidal behaviors among young people in these countries. AIMS: This study aimed to examine what individual characteristics were associated with suicidal plans and attempts among Mongolian youth and whether suicidal risks and behaviors varied by urban and rural locations. METHOD: Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate suicidal plans and attempts among 5,393 adolescents using the Global Student Health Survey - 2013...
February 23, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226305/effect-of-maternal-rumination-and-disengagement-during-childhood-on-offspring-neural-response-to-reward-in-late-adolescence
#13
Judith K Morgan, Daniel S Shaw, Rachel H Jacobs, Sarah E Romens, Stephanie L Sitnick, Erika E Forbes
Maternal rumination is a cognitive-affective trait that could influence offspring's ability to respond flexibly to positive and negative events, depending on the quality of maternal problem-solving behaviors with which rumination co-occurs. As reward circuitry is sensitive to stressors and related to risk for depression, reward circuitry is an appropriate candidate mechanism for how maternal characteristics influence offspring. We evaluated the independent and combined effect of maternal rumination and disengagement on adolescent neural response to reward win and loss...
February 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226066/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-young-pregnant-women-in-southern-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Mariângela Freitas da Silveira, Iândora Krolow Timm Sclowitz, Ludmila Gonçalves Entiauspe, Marilia Arndt Mesenburg, Dulce Stauffert, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira Bicca, Carine Pieniz, Adriane Brod Manta
This study estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy in a sample of women up to 29 years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and investigated socio-demographic risk factors such as maternal age, marital status, maternal schooling, and family income. C. trachomatis infection was diagnosed with PCR using BD ProbeTecTM CT/GC Amplified DNA Assay. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and reproductive data were collected using structured questionnaires. All collections were performed by previously trained medical students...
February 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225871/factors-related-to-non-adherence-to-mammography-in-a-city-of-the-brazilian-amazonian-area-a-population-based-study
#15
Camila Iasmim de Andrade Souza, Daniela Souza Araújo, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas Teles, Stéphanie Gomes Lins de Carvalho, Kyldery Wendell Moura Cavalcante, Wendell Lima Rabelo, Cibelli Navarro Rodrigues Alves, Allex Jardim da Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of mammography use and factors related to non-adherence in Boa Vista, capital of Roraima, Brazil. METHOD: A cross sectional study, quantitative analysis, based on household survey was performed between June and August 2013, using a face-to-face interview with a pre-tested form. Target population was women between 40 and 69 years. The sample size target was 240 participants, and the sampling method was random cluster sampling. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Federal University of Roraima...
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225730/the-medical-legal-partnership-approach-to-teaching-social-determinants-of-health-and-structural-competency-in-residency-programs
#16
Edward G Paul, Mallory Curran, Elizabeth Tobin Tyler
Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) embed civil legal services lawyers into health care settings and interprofessional health care teams delivering care to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities. MLPs present the opportunity to instill in residents a practical understanding of the social determinants of health and provide them with concrete tools to address them. MLP training helps residents develop structural competency and build the skills necessary to address barriers to health at the patient, institutional, and population levels...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224758/physical-and-social-determinants-of-dietary-variety-among-older-adults-living-alone-in-japan
#17
Yoshiharu Fukuda, Midori Ishikawa, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Tatsumi Hayashi, Tomoki Nakaya, Yukari Takemi, Kaoru Kusama, Nobuo Yoshiike, Miho Nozue, Kaori Yoshiba, Nobuko Murayama
AIM: Food security and sufficient nutrient intake are critical to longevity and active aging. The present study aimed to elucidate physical and social factors related to dietary variety among single-living older adults in Japanese communities. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey with a self-administrated questionnaire was carried out for all older adults living alone aged 65 years and older in three cities of Japan during 2014. Dietary variety score (DVS) was determined by counting the number of 10 food groups consumed at least once in 2 days using a food frequency questionnaire...
February 22, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224724/economic-and-social-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-low-income-country-a-case-control-study-in-sudan
#18
Hind Elrayah-Eliadarous, Claes-Göran Östensson, Mohamed Eltom, Pia Johansson, Vibeke Sparring, Rolf Wahlström
AIMS: Diabetes mellitus accounts for 11% of total health expenditures worldwide, and the majority of all persons with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the economic and social impact attributed to diabetes in Sudan by calculating out-of-pocket medical expenditures and the health and social impact of the disease for persons with diabetes (n = 375) and their families, compared to a non-diabetic control group (n = 375), matched for age, sex and residence area...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224435/factors-associated-with-trait-anger-level-of-juvenile-offenders-in-hubei-province-a-binary-logistic-regression-analysis
#19
Li-Na Tang, Xiao-Zhou Ye, Qiu-Ge Yan, Hong-Juan Chang, Yu-Qiao Ma, De-Bin Liu, Zhi-Gen Li, Yi-Zhen Yu
The risk factors of high trait anger of juvenile offenders were explored through questionnaire study in a youth correctional facility of Hubei province, China. A total of 1090 juvenile offenders in Hubei province were investigated by self-compiled social-demographic questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). The risk factors were analyzed by chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS 19.0. A total of 1082 copies of valid questionnaires were collected...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224426/nutritional-status-of-under-five-children-from-urban-low-income-families-in-xiangtan-and-jilin-in-china
#20
Yan-Fang Guo, Yin-Yan Gan, Chao-Nan Guo, Ju Sun, Li-Ping Hao
There have been many studies on the nutrition and the growth status of children from rural and remote western regions of China, whereas researches on children from urban low-income families are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the growth and nutritional status of children under five years of age from urban low-income families in China. There were 169 children aged 25-60 months recruited from Xiangtan and Jilin, two cities with a population of 2.81 million and 4.26 million respectively, in China in this cluster cross-sectional study...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
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