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Low income

Jing Huang, Guohe Huang, Chunjiang An, Yuan He, Yao Yao, Peng Zhang, Jian Shen
Global water safety is facing great challenges due to increased population and demand. There is an urgent need to develop suitable water treatment strategy for small rural and remote communities in low-income developing countries. In order to find a low-cost solution, the reduction of E. coli using ceramic water disk coated with nano ZnO was investigated in this study. The performance of modified ceramic disk filters was influenced by several factors in the filter production process. Based on the factorial analysis, the pore size of the disk filters was the most significant factor for influencing E...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cha-Nam Shin, Elizabeth Reifsnider, Darya McClain, Mihyun Jeong, David P McCormick, Michael Moramarco
BACKGROUND: Most Hispanic infants are fed formula during the first 6 weeks, and although 80% of Hispanic women initiate breastfeeding, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are much lower. Research aim: The purpose was to examine the influence of acculturation and cultural values on the breastfeeding practices of pregnant women of Mexican descent participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children who were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial that aimed to reduce child obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Erica Reynolds, Christine Johnson, Jennifer A Jamieson, Hannah Mawhinney
PURPOSE: University students may be at risk for food insecurity (FI) due to low income coupled with rising tuition, housing, and food costs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FI and potential correlates among students at a small, rural Canadian university. METHODS: Health Canada's 10-item household food security survey module (HFSSM) was adapted to assess food security status within the postsecondary student population. An additional 11 items measured food access and demographics...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Elizabeth Ruvalcaba, Shang-En Chung, Cynthia Rand, Kristin A Riekert, Michelle Eakin
OBJECTIVE: Asthma disproportionately affects minority groups, low income populations, and young children under 5. Head Start (HS) programs predominantly serve this high-risk population, yet staff are not trained on asthma management. The objective of this study was to assess a 5-year, multicomponent HS staff asthma education program in Baltimore City HS programs. METHODS: All HS programs were offered annual staff asthma education by a medical research team that included didactic lectures and hands-on training...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Kimberly L Savin, Emily R Hamburger, Alexandra D Monzon, Niral J Patel, Katia M Perez, Jadienne H Lord, Sarah S Jaser
Family conflict in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to worse disease management (i.e., glycemic control, adherence to treatment regimen) and reduced quality of life. We sought to examine parental risk factors associated with increased levels of diabetes-specific family conflict and to investigate the discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict. Adolescents with T1D and their parents (N = 120 dyads) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict. Adolescents also reported on health-related quality of life, and parents reported on demographic information...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Emily J Gach, Ka I Ip, Arnold J Sameroff, Sheryl L Olson
Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Lucy M Butcher, Therese A O'Sullivan, Maria M Ryan, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Currently, two food sufficiency questions are utilised as a proxy measure of national food security status in Australia. These questions do not capture all dimensions of food security and have been attributed with underreporting of the problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate food security using the short form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) within an Australian context; and explore the relationship between food security status and multiple socio-demographic variables...
March 15, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Christiane Scheffler, Louisa-Marie Krützfeldt, Parasmani Dasgupta, Michael Hermanussen
Body height has traditionally been looked upon as a mirror of the condition of society, short height being an indicator of poor nutritional status, poor education, and low social status and income. This view has recently been questioned. We aimed to quantify the effects of nutrition, education, sibship size, and household income, factors that are conventionally considered to be related to child growth, on body height of children and adolescents raised under urban Indian conditions. Sample and methods: We re-analyzed several anthropometric measurements and questionnaires with questions on sibship size, fathers' and mother's education, and monthly family expenditure, from two cross-sectional growth studies performed in Kolkata, India...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
G H Renier Botha, Grant Theron, Rob Warren, Marisa Klopper, Kheertan Dheda, Paul van Helden, Thomas R Niesler
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly diseases. Although several effective diagnosis methods exist, in lower income countries clinics may not be in a position to afford expensive equipment and employ the trained experts needed to interpret results. In these situations, symptoms including cough are commonly used to identify patients for testing. However, self-reported cough has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, which may be improved by digital detection. This study investigates a simple and easily applied method for TB screening based on the automatic analysis of coughing sounds...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Sarah A Amin, Paula J Duquesnay, Catherine M Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Jennifer M Sacheck
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may impact children's physical activity (PA) behaviors and confidence to participate in PA. We examined how SES modifies the relationship between children's perceived athletic competence (PAC) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). METHODS: Children (N = 1157; 45% male; grades 3-4) were recruited for the Fueling Learning through Exercise study. Free/reduced price lunch eligibility was used as an indicator of SES. Seven-day accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) was used to measure daily MVPA, out-of-school MVPA (O-MVPA), and school-time MVPA...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Christina Krudy, Kavita Shah Arora
The United States, along with other resource-rich countries, leads global health care by advancing medical care through randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While most medical research is conducted in these resource-rich areas, RCTs, including replications of previous trials, are additionally carried out in low- and middle-income countries. On the basis of positive findings from several RCTs conducted in high-income countries, the Antenatal Corticosteroids Trial (ACT) evaluated the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids in reducing neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Tagbo Oguonu, Ijeoma N Obumneme-Anyim, Joy N Eze, Adaeze C Ayuk, Chinyere V Okoli, Ikenna K Ndu
Background Biofuels and other cooking fuels are used in households in low- and middle-income countries. Aim To investigate the impact of cooking fuels on lung function in children in urban and rural households in South-East Nigeria. Methods The multi-stage sampling method was used to enroll children exposed to cooking fuel in the communities. Lung function values FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio, were measured with ndd EasyOneR spirometer. Airflow limitation was determined with FEV1/FVC Z-score values at -1...
March 15, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: Some studies have used the follow-up method to analyze real behavioral changes in research involving physical activity (PA) interventions. This has great scientific value; however, it is hard to apply without satisfactory resources and research funding. Little is known about how many studies have used this method to analyze PA interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, especially Brazil. PURPOSE: To describe Brazilian studies using follow-up analysis after PA interventions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Ramadhani Kigume, Stephen Maluka, Peter Kamuzora
While decentralisation of health systems has been on the policy agenda in low-income and middle-income countries since the 1970s, many studies have focused on understanding who has more decision-making powers but less attention is paid to understand what those powers encompass. Using the decision space approach, this study aimed to understand the amount of decision-making space transferred from the central government to institutions at the periphery in the decentralised health system in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that the decentralisation process in Tanzania has provided authorities with a range of decision-making space...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Shana Ginar da Silva, Kelly R Evenson, Inácio Crochemore M Silva, Márcio A Mendes, Marlos R Domingues, Mariângela F Silveira, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Ulf Ekelund, Pedro C Hallal
Objective methods to measure physical activity (PA) have become available and widely used given the high degree of precision to evaluate PA. However, few studies have used accelerometers to measure PA during pregnancy, especially in low-and-middle income countries. We assessed overall PA, moderate, vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) objectively-measured among pregnant women and their correlates in a population-based study. PA was assessed for seven consecutive days using a raw triaxial wrist-worn accelerometer in women interviewed around 16 and 24 weeks of gestation in the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study...
March 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Brian Custer, Shimian Zou, Simone A Glynn, Julie Makani, Claude Tayou Tagny, Magdy El Ekiaby, Ester C Sabino, Nabajyoti Choudhury, Diana Teo, Kenrad Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, LeShawndra Price, Michael M Engelgau
In April 2017, a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, and the Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science was held to discuss blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify research opportunities for implementation science (IS) to improve the availability of safe blood and blood components and transfusion practices in LMICs. IS describes the late stages of the translational research spectrum and studies optimal and sustainable strategies to deliver proven-effective interventions...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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