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Second eye refinement

X L Bai, X Xu, M Lu, J N He, X Xu, X Du, B Zhang, X G He, L N Lu, J F Zhu, H D Zou, J L Zhao
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, underlying causes and risk factors of moderate or severe visual impairment and blindness in a population with type 2 diabetes in Xinjing Town, Shanghai, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among local Han adult residents, who were previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetes, was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. The survey was preceded by a pilot study; operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. The best corrected visual acuity was recorded and classified following the modified World Health Organization grading system...
November 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Jennifer Nadal, Rolf Fimmers, Moritz Lindner, Frank G Holz, Matthias Schmid, Monika Fleckenstein
PURPOSE: To analyze and model visual acuity (VA) in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: The course of VA was analyzed using Turnbull's estimator in 226 eyes with uni- or bilateral GA due to AMD (151 patients; mean age 74.0 ± 7.6 years; mean follow-up time 33.4 ± 23.4 months) from the natural history FAM (Fundus-Autofluorescence Imaging in AMD) study. The variables 'age at baseline', 'gender', 'lesion size', 'diagnosis of the fellow eye', 'status of the fovea', 'focality of the lesion' and 'pattern' were evaluated for effects on predicting VA using linear mixed-effects models...
2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Sijie Niu, Luis de Sisternes, Qiang Chen, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among elderly individuals. Geographic atrophy (GA) is a phenotypic manifestation of the advanced stages of non-exudative AMD. Determination of GA extent in SD-OCT scans allows the quantification of GA-related features, such as radius or area, which could be of important value to monitor AMD progression and possibly identify regions of future GA involvement. The purpose of this work is to develop an automated algorithm to segment GA regions in SD-OCT images...
February 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Haidong Zou, Xian Xu, Jiangnan He, Xun Xu, Xuan Du, Xuelin Bai, Bo Zhang, Xiangui He, Lina Lu, Jianfeng Zhu, Jialiang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of mild vision loss in adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Beixinjing Community, Shanghai, China. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional survey among 2 216 Chinese Han adult patients with type 2 diabetes was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015.Random cluster sampling was used to enroll diabetic patients based on the local Chronic Diseases Prevention and Control System data.The survey was preceded by a pilot study in which operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out...
January 19, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Hai-Feng Li, Wen-Zhi Sun, Yong-Lei Jia, Teng-Fei Ma, Ji-Peng Fu, Da Li, Su Zhang, Li-Hong Jiang, Ran Pang, Cheng-Yu Li
A series of new long afterglow phosphors Ca2 SnO4:xTm(3+) were synthesized by using traditional solid-state reactions. XRD measurements and Rietveld refinement revealed that the incorporation of the Tm(3+) dopants generated no second phase other than the original one of Ca2 SnO4, which indicated that the dopants completely merged into the host. The corresponding optical properties were further systematically studied by photoluminescence, phosphorescence, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. The results show that the Tm(3+)-related defects account for the bright bluish green afterglow emission from the characteristic f-f transitions of Tm(3+) ions...
November 2015: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During adulthood, electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are used to distinguish wake, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep states. The close association between behavioral states and EEG rhythms is reached late during development, after birth in humans and by the end of the second postnatal week in rats and mice. This critical time is also when cortical activity switches from a discontinuous to a continuous pattern. We review the major cellular and network changes that can account for this transition...
June 15, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
Jeffrey H Boatright, Nupur Dalal, Micah A Chrenek, Christopher Gardner, Alison Ziesel, Yi Jiang, Hans E Grossniklaus, John M Nickerson
PURPOSE: Our goal was to optimize procedures for assessing shapes, sizes, and other quantitative metrics of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and contact- and noncontact-mediated cell-to-cell interactions across a large series of flatmount RPE images. METHODS: The two principal methodological advances of this study were optimization of a mouse RPE flatmount preparation and refinement of open-access software to rapidly analyze large numbers of flatmount images...
2015: Molecular Vision
M Balls, N Berg, L H Bruner, R D Curren, O de Silva, L K Earl, D J Esdaile, J H Fentem, M Liebsch, Y Ohno, M K Prinsen, H Spielmann, A P Worth
This is the report of the thirty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures...
January 1999: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Joan M Cook, Tatyana Biyanova, James C Coyne
An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session...
2009: Professional Psychology, Research and Practice
Christopher J Brady, Andrea C Villanti, Jennifer L Pearson, Thomas R Kirchner, Omesh P Gupta, Chirag P Shah
BACKGROUND: Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading...
2014: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Marlou J G Kooiker, Johannes van der Steen, Johan J M Pel
BACKGROUND: From the need for a quantitative method to examine visual processing in young children, we measured ocular orienting responses to visual stimuli (form, motion, expansion, color, contrast, cartoons). Reliability and applicability of this method were assessed. NEW METHOD: 80 children (1-12 years) with visual impairments and a reference group of 118 typically developing children (1-6 years) completed two sessions. Test-retest reliability was measured by calculating differences in reaction time and fixation accuracy between the two sessions...
August 15, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shaobo Lei, Herbert C Goltz, Mano Chandrakumar, Agnes M F Wong
PURPOSE: The postillumination pupil response (PIPR) is produced by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). We aimed to refine the testing conditions for PIPR by investigating whether a greater PIPR can be induced using full-field light stimuli of shorter duration and lower intensity than that produced by existing protocols that use central-field stimuli. METHODS: Pupil response was recorded with an eye tracker in 10 visually-normal subjects...
July 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Florence Chenu, François Pellegrino, Harriet Jisa, Michel Fayol
Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
K L Fritz, H J Kaese, S J Valberg, J A Hendrickson, A K Rendahl, R R Bellone, K M Dynes, M L Wagner, M A Lucio, F M Cuomo, C L Brinkmeyer-Langford, L C Skow, J R Mickelson, M S Rutherford, M E McCue
Appaloosa horses are predisposed to equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), an immune-mediated disease characterized by recurring inflammation of the uveal tract in the eye, which is the leading cause of blindness in horses. Nine genetic markers from the ECA1 region responsible for the spotted coat color of Appaloosa horses, and 13 microsatellites spanning the equine major histocompatibility complex (ELA) on ECA20, were evaluated for association with ERU in a group of 53 Appaloosa ERU cases and 43 healthy Appaloosa controls...
June 2014: Animal Genetics
Xian-zhi Ma, Jia-liang Zhao, Leon B Ellwein, Bin Wei, Jing Chen, Ying Ye, Xiao-dong Tang, Mei Yang, Yu Wang, Xue-cheng Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. METHODS: It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out...
September 2013: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
R Sheard
Biometry has become one of the most important steps in modern cataract surgery and, according to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists Cataract Surgery Guidelines, what matters most is achieving excellent results. This paper is aimed at the NHS cataract surgeon and intends to be a critical review of the recent literature on biometry for cataract surgery, summarising the evidence for current best practice standards and available practical strategies for improving outcomes for patients. With modern optical biometry for the majority of patients, informed formula choice and intraocular lens (IOL) constant optimisation outcomes of more than 90% within ± 1 D and more than 60% within ± 0...
February 2014: Eye
Rebecca S Millington, Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The arrival of large datasets and the on-going refinement of neuroimaging technology have led to a number of recent advances in our understanding of visual pathway disorders. This work can broadly be classified into two areas, both of which are important when considering the optimal management strategies. The first looks at the delineation of damage, teasing out subtle changes to (specific components of) the visual pathway, which may help evaluate the severity and extent of disease...
February 2014: Current Opinion in Neurology
Musallam Al-Araimi, Bishwanath Pal, James A Poulter, Maria M van Genderen, Ian Carr, Tomas Cudrnak, Lawrence Brown, Eamonn Sheridan, Moin D Mohamed, John Bradbury, Manir Ali, Chris F Inglehearn, Carmel Toomes
PURPOSE: We have previously described two families with unique phenotypes involving foveal hypoplasia. The first family (F1) presented with foveal hypoplasia and anterior segment dysgenesis, and the second family (F2) presented with foveal hypoplasia and chiasmal misrouting in the absence of albinism. A genome-wide linkage search in family F1 identified a 6.5 Mb locus for this disorder on chromosome 16q23.2-24.1. The aim of this study was to determine if both families have the same disorder and to see if family F2 is also linked to the 16q locus...
2013: Molecular Vision
László Marsovszky
The history of the cataract operations dates back to thousands of years ago. Initially, surgery was carried out using rudimentary operating techniques resulting in the loss of many eyes. Cataract surgery has evolved immersely and now it is a highly refined surgical practice. Evolution of the cataract surgery was closely linked to broadening of anatomical-pathological knowledge and to the development of the instruments applied. Although Daviel performed the first intentional cataract removal in 1747, almost one hundred years passed before the extracapsular cataract extraction method finally replaced the old couching technique...
November 1, 2013: Orvosi Hetilap
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Robert D Rafal, Janet H Bultitude
Five patients with lesions involving intra-parietal cortex (IPCx) were tested in a rapid version of the double step paradigm to investigate the role of the IPCx in the rapid, online, updating of a saccade program. Saccades were executed to a single target in either the contra- or the ipsilesional visual field. In two thirds of the trials, a step change in target position required that the saccade shifted to a new location within the same field but in the contra- or the ipsilesional direction, allowing us to investigate whether patients are able to update their saccade program given new exogenous information about the required endpoint of the saccade...
December 2013: Neuropsychologia
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