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Helena Štorchová
The interactions between mitochondria and nucleus substantially influence plant development, stress response and morphological features. The prominent example of a mitochondrial-nuclear interaction is cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), when plants produce aborted anthers or inviable pollen. The genes responsible for CMS are located in mitochondrial genome, but their expression is controlled by nuclear genes, called fertility restorers. Recent explosion of high-throughput sequencing methods enabled to study transcriptomic alterations in the level of non-coding RNAs under CMS biogenesis...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xueyi Tian, Pu Zou, Mingzhi Miao, Zulin Ning, Jingping Liao
Proper establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity is essential for the development of lateral organs, while former researches were mostly focused on the polarity regulation in leaves, and little is known in stamens, especially in the asymmetric ones. Canna indica (Zingiberales: Cannaceae) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant and the representative species to study the evolutionary development of Zingiberales. The androecium of Canna indica comprises 3-4 petaloid staminodes and a fertile stamen (FS), which consists of a one-theca anther and a petaloid appendage...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
P R Whitehorn, C Wallace, M Vallejo-Marin
Neonicotinoid pesticides have been linked to global declines of beneficial insects such as bumblebees. Exposure to trace levels of these chemicals causes sub-lethal effects, such as reduced learning and foraging efficiency. Complex behaviours may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of neonicotinoids. Such behaviours may include buzz pollination (sonication), in which pollinators, usually bees, use innate and learned behaviours to generate high-frequency vibrations to release pollen from flowers with specialised anther morphologies...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
L V Kovaleva, A S Voronkov, E V Zakharova, I M Andreev
The formation of fertile male gametophyte is known to require timely degeneration of polyfunctional tapetum tissue. The last process caused by the programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of the anther program maturation which leads to sequential anther tissue destruction coordinated with pollen differentiation. In the present work, distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in developing anthers of male-fertile and male-sterile lines of petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) was analyzed by using the immunohistochemical method...
November 13, 2017: Protoplasma
Xiaojing Li, Juanying Ye, Hong Ma, Pingli Lu
Protein lysine acetylation (KAC) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, playing important biological roles in many organisms. Although KAC was shown to affect reproductive development and meiosis in yeast and animals, similar studies are largely lacking in flowering plants, especially in a proteome-scale investigation for a certain reproductive stage. Here, we reported results from a proteomic investigation to detect KAC status of the developing rice anthers near the time of meiosis (RAM), providing strong biochemical evidence for roles of many KAC-affected proteins during rice anther development and meiosis...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Quddoos H Muqaddasi, Klaus Pillen, Jörg Plieske, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder
The production and cultivation of hybrid wheat is a possible strategy to close the yield gap in wheat. Efficient hybrid wheat seed production largely depends on high rates of cross-pollination which can be ensured through high anther extrusion (AE) by male parental lines. Here, we report the AE capacity and elucidate its genetics in 514 elite European winter wheat varieties via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We observed a wide range of variation among genotypes and a high heritability (0.80) for AE...
2017: PloS One
Sang-Joo Lee, Byung Ha Lee, Jae-Hak Jung, Soon Ki Park, Jong Tae Song, Jeong Hoe Kim
We investigated the biological roles of the Arabidopsis thaliana GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) transcriptional complex in the development of gynoecia and anthers. There are nine GRFs and three GIFs in A. thaliana, and seven GRFs are post-transcriptionally silenced by microRNA396 (miR396). We found that overexpression of MIR396 in the gif1 gif2 double mutant background (gif1 gif2 35S:MIR396) resulted in neither ovary nor pollen. Histological and molecular marker-based analyses revealed that the mutant gynoecial primordia failed to develop carpel margin meristems (CMMs) and mature flowers lacked the ovary, consisting only of the stigma, style, and replum-like tissues...
November 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jiapei Yan, Ju-Chen Chia, Huajin Sheng, Ha-Il Jung, Tetiana-Olena Zavodna, Zhang Lu, Rong Huang, Chen Jiao, Eric Craft, Zhangjun Fei, Leon Vincent Kochian, Olena K Vatamaniuk
A deficiency of the micronutrient copper (Cu) leads to infertility and grain/seed yield reduction in plants. How Cu affects fertility, which reproductive structures require Cu, and which transcriptional networks coordinate Cu delivery to reproductive organs is poorly understood. Using RNA-seq analysis, we showed that the expression of a gene encoding a novel transcription factor, CITF1 (Cu-deficiency Induced Transcription Factor 1), was strongly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers subjected to Cu deficiency...
November 7, 2017: Plant Cell
Hao Chen, Ju Luo, Peng Zheng, Xiaobo Zhang, Cuicui Zhang, Xinyuan Li, Mugui Wang, Yuqing Huang, Xuejiao Liu, Mehmood Jan, Yujun Liu, Peisong Hu, Jumin Tu
The presence of genetically modified (GM) protein in the endosperm is important information for the public when considering the biological safety of transgenic rice. To limit the expression of GM proteins to rice green tissues, we developed a modified Cre-lox gene switch using two cassettes named KEY and LOCK. KEY contains a nuclear-localized Cre recombinase driven by the green-tissue-specific promoter rbcS. LOCK contains a Nos terminator (NosT), which is used to block the expression of the gene of interest (GOI), bounded by two loxP sites...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rocío Pérez-Barrales, César A Abarca, Rocío Santos-Gally, Florian P Schiestl, Juan Arroyo
Narcissus papyraceus is a style dimorphic species with two floral forms, with anthers at similar height and stigmas above (long-styled L) and below (short-styled S) the anther level. The species is self-incompatible, but intra and inter-morph compatible. Populations are either dimorphic (including both morphs) in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar, or L-monomorphic (with only L plants) in the inland of the Iberian Peninsula. This variation correlates with the most common floral visitors, be these primarily long-tongued and short-tongued pollinators respectively, a rare condition in Mediterranean plants...
November 4, 2017: Plant Biology
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant...
November 4, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Yourong Fan, Qifa Zhang
A review on photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility in rice. Male sterility in plants, facilitating the development of hybrid crops, has made great contribution to crop productivity worldwide. Environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS), including photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS), has provided a special class of germplasms for the breeding of "two-line" hybrids in several crops. In rice, the finding of the PGMS NK58S mutant in 1973 started the journey of research and breeding of two-line hybrids...
November 2, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Alex Harkess, Jinsong Zhou, Chunyan Xu, John E Bowers, Ron Van der Hulst, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, Francesco Mercati, Paolo Riccardi, Michael R McKain, Atul Kakrana, Haibao Tang, Jeremy Ray, John Groenendijk, Siwaret Arikit, Sandra M Mathioni, Mayumi Nakano, Hongyan Shan, Alexa Telgmann-Rauber, Akira Kanno, Zhen Yue, Haixin Chen, Wenqi Li, Yanling Chen, Xiangyang Xu, Yueping Zhang, Shaochun Luo, Helong Chen, Jianming Gao, Zichao Mao, J Chris Pires, Meizhong Luo, Dave Kudrna, Rod A Wing, Blake C Meyers, Kexian Yi, Hongzhi Kong, Pierre Lavrijsen, Francesco Sunseri, Agostino Falavigna, Yin Ye, James H Leebens-Mack, Guangyu Chen
Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes many times across the eukaryote phylogeny. Several models have been proposed to explain this transition, some involving male and female sterility mutations linked in a region of suppressed recombination between X and Y (or Z/W, U/V) chromosomes. Comparative and experimental analysis of a reference genome assembly for a double haploid YY male garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) individual implicates separate but linked genes as responsible for sex determination...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
Yan-Fang Wang, Ge Li, Ling Tang, Chun-Yong Yang, Rong-Ying Li
In order to study the effect elements of anthers opening-closing movement of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and its cell morphology regulatory mechanism. Anthers daily opening in the morning and closing in the evening and its corresponding ecological elements changes were recorded. Different light, temperature, humidity experiment and artificial rainfall experiment were designed to observe the effect on anthers opening-closing movement, paraffin sections were made to observe the cell morphology change when the anthers daily opening and closing...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Gundra Sivakrishna Rao, Priyanka Deveshwar, Malini Sharma, Sanjay Kapoor, Khareedu Venkateswara Rao
We have developed a unique male-sterility and fertility-restoration system in rice by combining Brassica napus cysteine-protease gene (BnCysP1) with anther-specific P12 promoter of rice for facilitating production of hybrid varieties. In diverse crop plants, male-sterility has been exploited as a useful approach for production of hybrid varieties to harness the benefits of hybrid vigour. The promoter region of Os12bglu38 gene of rice has been isolated from the developing panicles and was designated as P12. The promoter was fused with gusA reporter gene and was expressed in Arabidopsis and rice systems...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Kim Osman, Jianhua Yang, Elisabeth Roitinger, Christophe Lambing, Stefan Heckmann, Elaine Howell, Maria Cuacos, Richard Imre, Gerhard Dürnberger, Karl Mechtler, Sue Armstrong, F Chris H Franklin
During meiosis, formation of crossovers (COs) generates genetic variation and provides physical links essential for accurate chromosome segregation. COs occur in the context of a proteinaceous chromosome axis. The transcriptomes and proteomes of anthers and meiocytes comprise several thousand genes and proteins but due to the level of complexity relatively few have been functionally characterised. Understanding of the physical and functional interactions between meiotic proteins is also limited. Here we use affinity proteomics to analyse the proteins that are associated with the meiotic chromosome axis protein, ASY1, in Brassica oleracea anthers and meiocytes...
October 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
P Thaowetsuwan, E N Honorio Coronado, L P Ronse De Craene
Background and Aims: Ophiocaryon is a lesser known genus in Sabiaceae. This study examines flowers of six Ophiocaryon species in comparison with Meliosmaalba, to identify taxonomically informative characters for understanding relationships within the family Sabiaceae, to imply previously unknown pollination mechanisms of Ophiocaryon, and to contribute to the placement of Sabiaceae within the early-diverging eudicots. Methods: Floral morphology and anatomy of six Ophiocaryon species and M...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
Xiangjun Kong, Dongmei Liu, Xiaofang Liao, Jie Zheng, Yong Diao, Yiding Liu, Ruiyang Zhou
In this study, the tetrad stage of microspore development in a new cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line, H276A, was identified using paraffin sections at the abortion stage. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying CMS in cotton, a comparative transcriptome analysis between the CMS line H276A and its maintainer line H276B at the tetrad stage was conducted using an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. The comparison of H276A with H276B revealed a total of 64,675 genes, which consisted of 59,255 known and 5420 novel genes...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emma Larsson, Adam Vivian-Smith, Remko Offringa, Eva Sundberg
The plant hormone auxin is a vital component for plant reproduction as it regulates the development of both male and female reproductive organs, including ovules and gynoecia. Furthermore, auxin plays important roles in the development and growth of seeds and fruits. Auxin responses can be detected in ovules shortly after fertilization, and it has been suggested that this accumulation is a prerequisite for the developmental reprogramming of the ovules to seeds, and of the gynoecium to a fruit. However, the roles of auxin at the final stages of ovule development, and the sources of auxin leading to the observed responses in ovules after fertilization have remained elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alison J Parker, Neal M Williams, James D Thomson
Geographical variation in pollinators visiting a plant can produce plant populations adapted to local pollinator environments. We documented two markedly different pollinator climates for the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica: in more northern populations, the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae dominated, but in more southern populations, A. erigeniae visited rarely and the bee-fly Bombylius major dominated. Plants in the northern populations experience faster pollen depletion than plants in southern populations...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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