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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334177/genetic-and-environmental-integration-of-the-hawkmoth-pollination-syndrome-in-ruellia-humilis-acanthaceae
#1
John S Heywood, Joseph S Michalski, Braden K McCann, Amber D Russo, Kara J Andres, Allison R Hall, Tessa C Middleton
Background and Aims: The serial homology of floral structures has made it difficult to assess the relative contributions of selection and constraint to floral integration. The interpretation of floral integration may also be clouded by the tacit, but largely untested, assumption that genetic and environmental perturbations affect trait correlations in similar ways. In this study, estimates of both the genetic and environmental correlations between components of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome are presented for chasmogamous flowers of Ruellia humilis , including two levels of control for serial homology...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331576/bumblebees-require-visual-pollen-stimuli-to-initiate-and-multimodal-stimuli-to-complete-a-full-behavioral-sequence-in-close-range-flower-orientation
#2
Saskia Wilmsen, Robin Gottlieb, Robert R Junker, Klaus Lunau
Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331486/corrigendum-transcriptome-analysis-of-hamelia-patens-rubiaceae-anthers-reveals-candidate-genes-for-tapetum-and-pollen-wall-development
#3
Lin Yue, David Twell, Yanfeng Kuang, Jingping Liao, Xianqiang Zhou
[This corrects the article on p. 1991 in vol. 7, PMID: 28119704.].
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324683/thermal-stress-impacts-reproductive-development-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Shakeel Arshad, Muhammad Farooq, Folkard Asch, Jagadish S V Krishna, P V Vara Prasad, Kadambot H M Siddique
Rice is highly sensitive to temperature stress (cold and heat), particularly during the reproductive and grain-filling stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of low- and high-temperature sensitivity in rice at various reproductive stages (from meiosis to grain development) and propose strategies for improving the tolerance of rice to terminal thermal stress. Cold stress impacts reproductive development through (i) delayed heading, due to its effect on anther respiration, which increases sucrose accumulation, protein denaturation and asparagine levels, and decreases proline accumulation, (ii) pollen sterility owing to tapetal hypertrophy and related nutrient imbalances, (iii) reduced activity of cell wall bound invertase in the tapetum of rice anthers, (iv) impaired fertilization due to inhibited anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity and ability of the pollen tube to germinate through the style towards the ovary, and (v) floret sterility, which increases grain abortion, restricts grain size, and thus reduces grain yield...
March 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323862/is-floral-structure-a-reliable-indicator-of-breeding-system-in-the-brassicaceae
#5
Phillip A Salisbury, Yvonne J Fripp, Allison M Gurung, Warren M Williams
This study investigated the usefulness of floral characters as a potential indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae. Initially, pod set, seed set and pollen tube growth experiments were carried out to confirm the breeding systems of 53 lines representing 25 different cultivated and weedy species from the Brassicaceae. The results of the pod set tests clearly differentiated between self-compatible and self-incompatible species. Floral characters were then evaluated on one or more lines of each of the 25 species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299429/anther-preferential-expressing-gene-pmr-is-essential-for-the-mitosis-of-pollen-development-in-rice
#6
Yaqin Liu, Ya Xu, Sheng Ling, Shasha Liu, Jialing Yao
Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice...
March 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270625/gametophyte-development-needs-mitochondrial-coproporphyrinogen-iii-oxidase-function
#7
Pritu Pratibha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Shripad Ramchandra Bhat, Yelam Sreenivasulu
Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is one of the most essential metabolic pathways in almost all organisms. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO) catalyzes the conversion of Coproporphyrinogen III into Protoporphyrinogen IX in this pathway. Here we report that mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana CPO coding gene At5g63290 (AtHEMN1) adversely affects silique length, ovule number and seed set. Athemn1 mutant alleles were transmitted via both male and female gametes but homozygous mutants were never recovered. Plants carrying Athemn1 mutant allele showed defects in gametophyte development including non-viable pollen and embryo sacs with unfused polar nuclei...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262713/bhlh142-regulates-various-metabolic-pathway-related-genes-to-affect-pollen-development-and-anther-dehiscence-in-rice
#8
Rajeev Ranjan, Reema Khurana, Naveen Malik, Saurabh Badoni, Swarup K Parida, Sanjay Kapoor, Akhilesh K Tyagi
Apposite development of anther and its dehiscence are important for the reproductive success of the flowering plants. Recently, bHLH142, a bHLH transcription factor encoding gene of rice has been found to show anther-specific expression and mutant analyses suggest its functions in regulating tapetum differentiation and degeneration during anther development. However, our study on protein level expression and gain-of-function phenotype revealed novel aspects of its regulation and function during anther development...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261319/non-destructive-determination-of-floral-staging-in-cereals-using-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct
#9
Saoirse R Tracy, José Fernández Gómez, Craig J Sturrock, Zoe A Wilson, Alison C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Accurate floral staging is required to aid research into pollen and flower development, in particular male development. Pollen development is highly sensitive to stress and is critical for crop yields. Research into male development under environmental change is important to help target increased yields. This is hindered in monocots as the flower develops internally in the pseudostem. Floral staging studies therefore typically rely on destructive analysis, such as removal from the plant, fixation, staining and sectioning...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261229/function-identification-of-the-nucleotides-in-key-cis-element-of-dysfunctional-tapetum1-dyt1-promoter
#10
Shumin Zhou, Hongli Zhang, Ruisha Li, Qiang Hong, Yang Li, Qunfang Xia, Wei Zhang
As a core regulatory gene of the anther development, DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) was expressed in tapetum preferentially. Previous study had confirmed that a "CTCC" sequence within DYT1 promoter was indispensable for correct DYT1 expression. However, precise analysis on the function of each nucleotide of this sequence still lacks. Here we employed site mutation assay to identify the function roles of the nucleotides. As a result, the "T" and final "C" of "CTCC" were found essential for the temporal and spatial specificity of DYT1 expression, whereas the other two "C" nucleotides exhibited substitutable somewhat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231407/co-occurrence-and-hybridization-of-anther-smut-pathogens-specialized-on-dianthus-hosts
#11
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209842/phosphorylation-of-sporocyteless-nozzle-by-the-mpk3-6-kinase-is-required-for-anther-development
#12
Feng Zhao, Ya-Feng Zheng, Ting Zeng, Rui Sun, Ji-Yuan Yang, Yuan Li, Dongtao Ren, Hong Ma, Zhi-Hong Xu, Shu-Nong Bai
Germ cells are indispensable carriers of genetic information from one generation to the next. In contrast to the well-understood process in animals, information on the mechanism of germ cell initiation in plants is very limited. SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE (SPL/NZZ) was previously identified as an essential regulator of diploid germ cell (archesporial cell) differentiation in the stamens and ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although SPL transcription is activated by the floral organ identity regulator AGAMOUS (AG) and epigenetically regulated by SET DOMAIN GROUP2 (SDG2), little is known about the regulation of the SPL protein...
February 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202455/in-the-interface-of-caesalpinioids-and-mimosoids-comparative-floral-development-elucidates-shared-characters-in-dimorphandra-mollis-and-pentaclethra-macroloba-leguminosae
#13
Thais C De Barros, Giseli D Pedersoli, Juliana V Paulino, Simone P Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pentaclethra and Dimorphandra (Leguminosae) have long been considered a possible enigmatic link between caesalpinioids and mimosoids because they both have an imbricate calyx and heteromorphic androecium, floral features that are rare among mimosoids but common among caesalpinioids. This study compared the developing flowers of Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba to determine whether the shared floral conditions also have the same ontogenetic origin. METHODS: Buds of different sizes and flowers were processed for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) examination...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202451/losing-one-s-touch-evolution-of-the-touch-sensitive-stigma-in-the-mimulus-guttatus-species-complex
#14
Jannice Friedman, Katherine S Hart, Meghan C den Bakker
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The stigmas of several species are touch sensitive and respond to pressure by closing. Previous research suggests that stigma closure could prevent self pollination within a flower during a pollinator's visit or enhance male function by increasing pollen export. Both factors could be favored in outcrossers, and neither would be beneficial in selfers. METHODS: We investigated variation in stigma-closing and the duration of closure in annual and perennial populations of the variable species Mimulus guttatus and whether four closely related selfing species (M...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193629/evolution-of-gene-expression-balance-among-homoeologs-of-natural-polyploids
#15
Jasdeep S Mutti, Ramanjot K Bhullar, Kulvinder S Gill
Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes, yet the expression balance of homoeologs in natural polyploids is largely unknown. To study this expression balance, expression pattern of 2180 structurally well-characterized genes of wheat was studied of which 813 had the expected three copies and 375 had less than three. Copy number of the remaining 992 ranged from 4-14 including homoeologs, orthologs and paralogs. Of the genes with three structural copies corresponding to homoeologs, 55% expressed from all three, 38% from two, and the remaining 7% expressed from only one of the three copies...
February 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193162/genome-wide-characterization-of-jasmonate-zim-domain-transcription-repressors-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#16
Yukun Wang, Linyi Qiao, Jianfang Bai, Peng Wang, Wenjing Duan, Shaohua Yuan, Guoliang Yuan, Fengting Zhang, Liping Zhang, Changping Zhao
BACKGROUND: The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. RESULTS: Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187145/a-new-sythetic-hybrid-a1d5-between-gossypium-herbaceum-and-g-raimondii-and-its-morphological-cytogenetic-molecular-characterization
#17
Yuxiang Wu, Di Chen, Shuijin Zhu, Lufei Zhang, Lingjiao Li
The diploid species G. herbaceum (A1) and G. raimondii (D5) are the progenitors of allotetraploid cotton, respectively. However, hybrids between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii haven't been reported. In the present study, hybridization between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii was explored. Morphological, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were used to assess the hybridity. The interspecific hybrid plants were successfully obtained. Most of the morphological characteristics of the hybrids were intermediate between G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182328/overexpression-of-the-leucine-rich-receptor-like-kinase-gene-lrk2-increases-drought-tolerance-and-tiller-number-in-rice
#18
Junfang Kang, Jianmin Li, Shuang Gao, Chao Tian, Xiaojun Zha
Drought represents a key limiting factor of global crop distribution. Receptor-like kinases play major roles in plant development and defense responses against stresses such as drought. In this study, LRK2, which encodes a leucine-rich receptor-like kinase, was cloned and characterized and found to be localized on the plasma membrane in rice. Promoter-GUS analysis revealed strong expression in tiller buds, roots, nodes and anthers. Transgenic plants overexpressing LRK2 exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress due to an increased number of lateral roots compared to the wild-type at the vegetative stage...
February 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178307/transcriptional-regulation-of-male-sterility-in-7b-1-male-sterile-tomato-mutant
#19
Vahid Omidvar, Irina Mohorianu, Tamas Dalmay, Yi Zheng, Zhangjun Fei, Anna Pucci, Andrea Mazzucato, Vendula Večeřová, Michaela Sedlářova, Martin Fellner
The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177828/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-pollen-specific-promoter-in-maize%C3%AF-i-zea-mays-l-i-%C3%AF
#20
He Wang, Mingxia Fan, Guohong Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Lei Shi, Zhengyi Wei, Wenjuan Ma, Jing Chang, Senxin Huang, Feng Lin
<i>ZmSTK2_USP</i>, located on the long arm of chromosome 4, belongs to the serine/threonine kinase gene in maize. The sequence analysis of 2,100 bp upstream from the start codon ATG has shown that it contains <i>cis</i>-element motifs and two types of anther/pollen-specific promoter elements (GTGA and AGAAA), suggesting that it is the pollen-specific promoter. To investigate the function of <i>ZmSTK2_USP</i> promoter, the GUS gene fusion system was employed. In pro<i>ZmSTK2_USP-GUS</i> genetically modified plants, GUS activity was detected in mature pollen grains and pollen tubes but not found in other floral and vegetable tissues...
January 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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