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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1-in-anther-cell-fate-determination
#1
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) are essential for plant growth, development and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as co-regulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as co-regulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914204/the-genetic-architecture-of-tristyly-and-its-breakdown-to-self-fertilization
#2
Ramesh Arunkumar, Wei Wang, Stephen I Wright, Spencer C H Barrett
The floral polymorphism tristyly involves three style morphs with a reciprocal arrangement of stigma and anther heights governed by two diallelic loci (S and M). Tristyly functions to promote cross-pollination, but modifications to stamen position commonly cause transitions to selfing. Here, we integrate whole genome sequencing and genetic mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of the M locus and the genetic basis of independent transitions to selfing in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata. We crossed independently derived semi-homostylous selfing variants of the long- and mid-styled morph fixed for alternate alleles at the M locus (ssmm and ssMM, respectively) and backcrossed the F1 to the parental ssmm genotype...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913638/ms23-a-master-basic-helix-loop-helix-factor-regulates-the-specification-and-development-of-tapetum-in-maize
#3
Guo-Ling Nan, Jixian Zhai, Siwaret Arikit, Darren Morrow, John Fernandes, Lan Mai, Nhi Nguyen, Blake C Meyers, Virginia Walbot
Successful male gametogenesis involves orchestration of sequential gene regulation for somatic differentiation in pre-meiotic anthers. We report here the cloning of Male Sterile23 (Ms23), encoding an anther-specific predicted basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor required for tapetal differentiation; transcripts localize initially to the precursor secondary parietal cells then predominantly to daughter tapetal cells. In knockout ms23-ref mutant anthers, five instead of the normal four wall layers are observed...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909301/genetic-architecture-and-evolution-of-the-s-locus-supergene-in-primula-vulgaris
#4
Jinhong Li, Jonathan M Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Margaret A Webster, Mark McMullan, Sarah Dyer, David Swarbreck, Mario Caccamo, Cock van Oosterhout, Philip M Gilmartin
Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908260/-a-proteomics-approach-to-discover-drought-tolerance-proteins-in-wheat-pollen-grain-at-meiosis-stage
#5
Reza Fotovat, Mehdi Alikhani, Mostafa Valizadeh, Mehdi Mirzaei, Ghasem Hossein Salekdeh
Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis...
November 30, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903351/-expanding-test-and-normalization-for-hiv-aids-prevention-and-control
#6
S Z Lin, H J Dong, J P Sun
Expanding real-name HIV test is the basis of the real-time reporting system in China, and it plays an important role for the progress. In year of 2003, there were 45 092 cases of HIV positives reported cumulatively, which accounted for only 5.4% of the estimated population of HIV positives. Since implementation of real-name HIV test and establishment, real-time reporting system, up to year 2005, the total of reported HIV positives was 577 000, which took up 67.9% of the estimated HIV positives. Also among reported cases, 387 000 cases have received the anti-retroviral treatment...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#7
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibing Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generate all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a miRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884449/functional-characterization-and-expression-of-gascl1-and-gascl2-two-anther-specific-chalcone-synthase-like-enzymes-from-gerbera-hybrida
#8
Juha Kontturi, Raisa Osama, Xianbao Deng, Hany Bashandy, Victor A Albert, Teemu H Teeri
The chalcone synthase superfamily consists of type III polyketidesynthases (PKSs), enzymes responsible for producing plant secondary metabolites with various biological and pharmacological activities. Anther-specific chalcone synthase-like enzymes (ASCLs) represent an ancient group of type III PKSs involved in the biosynthesis of sporopollenin, the main component of the exine layer of moss spores and mature pollen grains of seed plants. In the latter, ASCL proteins are localized in the tapetal cells of the anther where they participate in sporopollenin biosynthesis and exine formation within the locule...
November 21, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878652/genome-wide-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-chalcone-synthase-gene-family-in-rice
#9
Lifang Hu, Haohua He, Changlan Zhu, Xiaosong Peng, Junru Fu, Xiaopeng He, Xiaorong Chen, Linjuan Ouyang, Jianmin Bian, Shiqiang Liu
The enzymes of the chalcone synthase family are also known as type III polyketide synthases (PKS), and produce a series of secondary metabolites in bacteria, fungi and plants. In a number of plants, genes encoding PKS comprise a large multigene family. Currently, detailed reports on rice (Oryza sativa) PKS (OsPKS) family genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. Here, 27 candidate OsPKS genes were identified in the rice genome,and 23 gene structures were confirmed by EST and cDNA sequencing; phylogenetic analysis has indicated that these 23 OsPKS members could be clustered into three groups (I-III)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871243/osacos12-an-orthologue-of-arabidopsis-acyl-coa-synthetase5-plays-an-important-role-in-pollen-exine-formation-and-anther-development-in-rice
#10
Yueling Li, Dandan Li, Zongli Guo, Qiangsheng Shi, Shuangxi Xiong, Cheng Zhang, Jun Zhu, Zhongnan Yang
BACKGROUND: Sporopollenin is a major component of the pollen exine pattern. In Arabidopsis, acyl-CoA synthetase5 (ACOS5) is involved in sporopollenin precursor biosynthesis. In this study, we identified its orthologue, OsACOS12, in rice (Oryza sativa) and compared the functional conservation of ACOS in rice to Arabidopsis. RESULTS: Sequence analysis showed that OsACOS12 shares 63.9 % amino acid sequence identity with ACOS5. The osacos12 mutation caused by a pre-mature stop codon in LOC_Os04g24530 exhibits defective sexine resulting in a male sterile phenotype in rice...
November 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869347/myb-transcription-factor-gene-involved-in-sex-determination-in-asparagus-officinalis
#11
Kohji Murase, Shuji Shigenobu, Sota Fujii, Kazuki Ueda, Takanori Murata, Ai Sakamoto, Yuko Wada, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Yuriko Osakabe, Keishi Osakabe, Akira Kanno, Yukio Ozaki, Seiji Takayama
Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832131/polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetrapolar-anther-smut-fungus-microbotryum-saponariae-based-on-genome-sequencing
#12
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alodie Snirc, Hélène Badouin, Jérome Gouzy, Sophie Siguenza, Diane Esquerre, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
BACKGROUND: Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829802/revision-of-the-lima-clade-miconia-sect-lima-miconieae-melastomataceae-of-the-greater-antilles
#13
Lucas C Majure, Eldis R Bécquer, Walter S Judd
Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea. The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821729/illuminating-a-plant-s-tissue-specific-metabolic-diversity-using-computational-metabolomics-and-information-theory
#14
Dapeng Li, Sven Heiling, Ian T Baldwin, Emmanuel Gaquerel
Secondary metabolite diversity is considered an important fitness determinant for plants' biotic and abiotic interactions in nature. This diversity can be examined in two dimensions. The first one considers metabolite diversity across plant species. A second way of looking at this diversity is by considering the tissue-specific localization of pathways underlying secondary metabolism within a plant. Although these cross-tissue metabolite variations are increasingly regarded as important readouts of tissue-level gene function and regulatory processes, they have rarely been comprehensively explored by nontargeted metabolomics...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818381/rye-secale-cereale-supernumerary-b-chromosomes-associated-with-heat-tolerance-during-early-stages-of-male-sporogenesis
#15
H Sofia Pereira, Margarida Delgado, Wanda Viegas, João M Rato, Augusta Barão, Ana D Caperta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rye supernumerary (B) chromosomes have an accumulation mechanism involving the B subtelomeric domain highly enriched in D1100- and E3900-related sequences. In this work, the effects of heat stress during the early stages of male meiosis in 0B and +B plants were studied. METHODS: In-depth cytological analyses of chromatin structure and behaviour were performed on staged rye meiocytes utilizing DAPI, fluorescence in situ hybridization and 5-methylcytosine immune labelling...
November 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799422/monensin-sensitivity-1-mon1-calcium-caffeine-zinc-sensitivity-1-ccz1-mediated-rab7-activation-regulates-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-and-pollen-development
#16
Yong Cui, Qiong Zhao, Hong-Tao Xie, Wing Shing Wong, Xiangfeng Wang, Caiji Gao, Yu Ding, Yuqi Tan, Takashi Ueda, Yan Zhang, Liwen Jiang
Program cell death (PCD)-triggered degradation of plant tapetum is essential for microspore development and pollen coat formation, however, little is known about the cellular mechanism regulating tapetal PCD. Here, we demonstrate that Rab7-mediated vacuolar transport of tapetum degradation-related cysteine proteases is crucial for tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis, with the following evidence: 1) The mon1 mutants, which are defective in Rab7 activation, showed impaired male fertility due to a combined defect in both tapetum and male gametophyte development; 2) In anthers, MON1 showed preferential high level expression in tapetal cell layers and pollen; 3) The mon1 mutants exhibited delayed tapetum degeneration and tapetal PCD, resulting in abnormal pollen coat formation and decreased male fertility; 4) MON1/CCZ1-mediated Rab7 activation was indispensable for vacuolar trafficking of tapetum degradation-related cysteine proteases, supporting that PCD-triggered tapetum degeneration requires Rab7-mediated vacuolar trafficking of these cysteine proteases; and 5) MON1 mutations also resulted in defective pollen germination and tube growth...
October 31, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796586/application-of-rice-microspore-preferred-promoters-to-manipulate-early-pollen-development-in-arabidopsis-a-heterologous-system
#17
Tien Dung Nguyen, Sunok Moon, Moe Moe Oo, Rupesh Tayade, Moon-Soo Soh, Jong Tae Song, Sung Aeong Oh, Ki Hong Jung, Soon Ki Park
Rice microspore-promoters. Based on microarray data analyzed for developing anthers and pollen grains, we identified nine rice microspore-preferred (RMP) genes, designated RMP1 through RMP9. To extend their biotechnological applicability, we then investigated the activity of RMP promoters originating from monocotyledonous rice in a heterologous system of dicotyledonous Arabidopsis. Expression of GUS was significantly induced in transgenic plants from the microspore to the mature pollen stages and was driven by the RMP1, RMP3, RMP4, RMP5, and RMP9 promoters...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787905/biphasic-regulation-of-the-transcription-factor-aborted-microspores-ams-is-essential-for-tapetum-and-pollen-development-in-arabidopsis
#18
Alison C Ferguson, Simon Pearce, Leah R Band, Caiyun Yang, Ivana Ferjentsikova, John King, Zheng Yuan, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Viable pollen is essential for plant reproduction and crop yield. Its production requires coordinated expression at specific stages during anther development, involving early meiosis-associated events and late pollen wall formation. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) transcription factor is a master regulator of sporopollenin biosynthesis, secretion and pollen wall formation in Arabidopsis. Here we show that it has complex regulation and additional essential roles earlier in pollen formation. An inducible-AMS reporter was created for functional rescue, protein expression pattern analysis, and to distinguish between direct and indirect targets...
October 27, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787603/investigating-triticeae-anther-gene-promoter-activity-in-transgenic-brachypodium-distachyon
#19
Mohsin A Zaidi, Stephen J B O'Leary, Shaobo Wu, Denise Chabot, Steve Gleddie, André Laroche, François Eudes, Laurian S Robert
In this report, we demonstrate that Brachypodium distachyon could serve as a relatively high throughput in planta functional assay system for Triticeae anther-specific gene promoters. There remains a vast gap in our knowledge of the promoter cis-acting elements responsible for the transcriptional regulation of Triticeae anther-specific genes. In an attempt to identify conserved cis-elements, 14 pollen-specific and 8 tapetum-specific Triticeae putative promoter sequences were analyzed using different promoter sequence analysis tools...
October 27, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782132/atsweet13-and-atsweet14-regulate-gibberellin-mediated-physiological-processes
#20
Yuri Kanno, Takaya Oikawa, Yasutaka Chiba, Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takafumi Shimizu, Naoto Sano, Tomokazu Koshiba, Yuji Kamiya, Minoru Ueda, Mitsunori Seo
Transmembrane transport of plant hormones is required for plant growth and development. Despite reports of a number of proteins that can transport the plant hormone gibberellin (GA), the mechanistic basis for GA transport and the identities of the transporters involved remain incomplete. Here, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis SWEET proteins, AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14, which are members of a family that had previously been linked to sugar transport, are able to mediate cellular GA uptake when expressed in yeast and oocytes...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
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