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Catalina Gutiérrez-Chacón, Felix Fornoff, Rodulfo Ospina-Torres, Alexandra-Maria Klein
The contribution of wild pollinators to food production has recently been assessed for many crops, although it remains unclear for several tropical crops. Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss), a crop native to the tropical Andes, is one such crop where a gap exists regarding comprehensive knowledge about its pollination system. In a field experiment in the Colombian Andes, we 1) describe flower visitors in terms of visit quantity (visitation rate) and quality (touches of flower-reproductive structures), 2) assess the pollination system by comparing fruit set and fruit weight per flower in three pollination treatments: pollinator exclusion, open pollination, and supplementary pollination, and 3) evaluate pollination deficits (difference between open and supplementary pollination) in relation to pollinator density...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Xian-Feng Jiang, Xing-Fu Zhu, Qing-Jun Li
Distyly is a widespread floral polymorphism characterized by the flowers within a population showing reciprocal placement of the anthers and stigma. Darwin hypothesizes that distyly evolves to promote precise pollen transfer between morphs. Primula chungensis exhibits two types of anther heights, and these two types of anthers show pollen of two different size classes. To understand whether the stigma could capture more pollen grains from the anthers of the pollen donor as the separation between the stigma of pollen receiver and the anther of pollen donor decreased, the present research assessed the source of the pollen load in a series of open-pollinated flowers with continuous variation of style lengths...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Dan Wang, Lei Ling, Wenrui Zhang, Yan Bai, Yongjun Shu, Changhong Guo
Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can kill gametes that lack them by causing chromosomal breakage to ensure their preferential transmission, and have been exploited in genetic breeding. The present study investigated the possible roles of small RNAs (sRNA) in Gc action. By sequencing two small RNA libraries from the anthers of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and Chinese Spring-Gc 3C chromosome monosomic addition line (CS-3C), we identified 239 conserved and 72 putative novel microRNAs (miRNAs), including 135 differentially expressed miRNAs...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Callin M Switzer, Stacey A Combes, Robin Hopkins
The astonishing amount of floral diversity has inspired countless assumptions about the function of diverse forms and their adaptive significance, yet many of these hypothesized functions are untested. We investigated an often-repeated adaptive hypothesis about how an extreme floral form functions. In this study, we conducted four investigations to understand the adaptive function of explosive pollination in Kalmia latifolia, the mountain laurel. We first performed a kinematic analysis of anther movement. Second, we constructed a heat map of pollen trajectories in three-dimensional space...
June 2018: American Naturalist
Conrado Augusto Rosi-Denadai, Priscila Cássia Souza Araújo, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Lirio Cosme, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes
Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution...
May 8, 2018: Insect Science
Longqing Sun, Genlou Sun, Chenxia Shi, Dongfa Sun
BACKGROUND: 337S is a novel bi-pole-photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line in wheat, and sensitive to both long day length/high temperature and short day length/low temperature condition. Although the regulatory function of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in reproductive development has been increasingly studied, their roles in pre-meiotic and meiotic cells formation of plants have not been clearly explored. Here, we explored the roles of miRNAs in regulating male sterility of 337S at short day length/low temperature condition...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tetsuya Murakami, Tomohiko Kazama, Kinya Toriyama
BACKGROUND: Male sterility is a useful agronomic trait for breeding of self-pollinating crops and is often observed in the progenies of hybrids of distantly related species, for example, Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica and O. sativa L. subsp. japonica. To explore new male sterile lines in rice, we performed successive backcrosses using a japonica cultivar Taichung 65 (T65) as a recurrent pollen parent and various indica cultivars as the initial female parents. FINDINGS: We observed male sterile plants in the backcross progeny from an indica cultivar, Lebed...
May 3, 2018: Rice
Gaoming Zhang, Jiali Ye, Yulin Jia, Lingli Zhang, Xiyue Song
A “two-line hybrid system” was developed, previously based on thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in Aegilops kotschyi (K-TCMS), which can be used in wheat breeding. The K-TCMS line exhibits complete male sterility and it can be used to produce hybrid wheat seeds during the normal wheat-growing season; it propagates via self-pollination at high temperatures. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analyses of the TCMS line KTM3315A were conducted under different fertility conditions to understand the mechanisms of fertility conversion in the pollen development stages...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jinju Guo, Chen Liu, Peng Wang, Qing Cheng, Liang Sun, Wencai Yang, Huolin Shen
Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Although many genes associated with anther and pollen development have been identified, little is known about the mechanism of pollen abortion in pepper. Here, we identified and isolated two putative aborted microspore ( AMS ) isoforms from pepper flowers: CaAMS1 and CaAMS2 . Sequence analysis showed that CaAMS2 was generated by retention of the fourth intron in CaAMS1 pre-mRNA. CaAMS1 encodes a putative protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain belonging to the MYC subfamily of bHLH transcription factors, and it is localized to the nucleus...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Benjamin Burrows, Andrew McCubbin
Recent findings on the molecular basis of heteromorphic self-incompatibility in Primula have shown that the controlling self-incompatibility ( S )-locus is not allelic, but is instead a small hemizygous region of only a few genes in the thrum genotype. How these genes alter the development of floral morphology and the specificity of self-incompatibility is still not completely clear. In order to start to identify genes regulated by the S -locus and elucidate the large-scale biological processes affected, we used RNA-seq data from floral buds of heteromorphic P...
May 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Fanny E Hartmann, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Fantin Carpentier, Tatiana Giraud
Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M...
May 2, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Xiujuan Yang, Gang Li, Yuesheng Tian, Yu Song, Wanqi Liang, Dabing Zhang
In organisms, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play a housekeeping role in cellular protein synthesis, but little is understood about how these aaRSs are involved in organ development. Here we report that, in the model crop rice (Oryza sativa), a glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (OsERS1) maintains proper somatic cell organization and limits the over-proliferation of male germinal cells during early anther development. The expression of OsERS1 is specifically detectable in meristematic layer 2-derived (L2-d) cells of the early anther, and osers1 exhibits over-proliferation and disorganization of L2-d cells, producing fused lobes and extra germinal cells in early anthers...
May 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Shinnosuke Mori, Hiroshi Fukui, Masanori Oishi, Masayuki Sakuma, Mari Kawakami, Junko Tsukioka, Katsumi Goto, Nobuhiro Hirai
Flowering plants attract pollinators via various stimuli such as odor, color, and shape. Factors determining the foraging behavior of pollinators remain a major theme in ecological and evolutionary research, although the floral traits and cognitive ability of pollinators have been investigated for centuries. Here we show that the autofluorescence emitted from pollen and anthers under UV irradiation may act as another attractant for flower-visiting insects. We have identified fluorescent compounds from pollen and anthers of five plant species as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Victor M Zuñiga-Mayo, Cesar R Baños-Bayardo, David Díaz-Ramírez, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
Hormones are an important component in the regulatory networks guiding plant development. Cytokinins are involved in different physiological and developmental processes in plants. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin application during gynoecium development produces conspicuous phenotypes. On the other hand, Brassica napus, also known as canola, is a crop plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, as A. thaliana. This makes B. napus a good candidate to study whether the cytokinin responses observed in A...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saleh Tamim, Zhaoxia Cai, Sandra M Mathioni, Jixian Zhai, Chong Teng, Qifa Zhang, Blake C Meyers
Post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants results from independent activities of diverse small RNA types. In anthers of grasses, hundreds of loci yield noncoding RNAs that are processed into 21- and 24-nucleotide (nt) phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs); these are triggered by miR2118 and miR2275. We characterized these 'reproductive phasiRNAs' from rice (Oryza sativa) panicles and anthers across seven developmental stages. Our computational analysis identified characteristics of the 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs that impact their biogenesis, stability, and potential functions...
April 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Xiao Dong Zhou, Juan Zhou, Xue Song Zhang, Xiao Dong Jiang, Lian Xin Yang, Yu Long Wang
Recent research progress in the impact of abiotic stress on florets sterility was summarized in this review to reveal key processes in determining the floret sterility resulted from abiotic stress and their coherent connections. The spikelet fertility was mainly determined by four key processes, including behavior of tapetum, anther dehiscence and pollen release, pollen germination and fertilization. Abiotic stress affected these processes and led to the spikelet sterility. Abnormal changes at the early-stage of anther growth could impact the development of germ cell and fertilization...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Martin Cheek, Sékou Magassouba, Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Tokpa Doré, Saïdou Doumbouya, Denise Molmou, Aurélie Grall, Charlotte Couch, Isabel Larridon
A new genus Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae) is described with a single species, Kindia gangan , based on collections made in 2016 during botanical exploration of Mt Gangan, Kindia, Republic of Guinea in West Africa. The Mt Gangan area is known for its many endemic species including the only native non-neotropical Bromeliaceae Pitcairnia feliciana . Kindia is the fourth endemic vascular plant genus to be described from Guinea . Based on chloroplast sequence data, the genus is part of Clade II of tribe Pavetteae...
2018: PeerJ
Sunok Moon, Moe Moe Oo, Backki Kim, Hee-Jong Koh, Sung Aeong Oh, Gihwan Yi, Gynheung An, Soon Ki Park, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Understanding late pollen development, including the maturation and pollination process, is a key component in maintaining crop yields. Transcriptome data obtained through microarray or RNA-seq technologies can provide useful insight into those developmental processes. Six series of microarray data from a public transcriptome database, the Gene Expression Omnibus of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, are related to anther and pollen development. RESULTS: We performed a systematic and functional study across the rice genome of genes that are preferentially expressed in the late stages of pollen development, including maturation and germination...
April 23, 2018: Rice
Cheng Huang, Rui Zhang, Jinshan Gui, Yu Zhong, Laigeng Li
During the growth and development of land plants, some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, undergo secondary cell wall thickening. Secondary cell walls contain additional lignin, compared with primary cell walls, thus providing mechanical strength and potentially improving defenses against pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms that initiate wall thickening are unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, encoded by AtVRLK1 (Vascular-Related RLK 1), that is specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening...
April 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Fan Wu, Daiyu Zhang, Blaise Pascal Muvunyi, Qi Yan, Yufei Zhang, Zhuanzhuan Yan, Mingshu Cao, Yanrong Wang, Jiyu Zhang
Cleistogenes songorica, a grass species that exhibits two spatially different type of inflorescence, chastogamy (CH), flowers localized at the top, and cleistogamy (CL) flowers embedded in leaf sheath. This study aimed at dissecting reasons underlying these distinct floral development patterns at morphological and microRNA level. Phenotyping for CH and CL was conducted and four small RNA libraries were constructed from the CH and CL flowers for high-throughput sequencing to identify the differentiated miRNAs...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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