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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100297/transcriptional-analysis-of-mating-and-pre-infection-stages-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#1
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078801/abnormal-pollen-vacuolation1-apv1-is-required-for-male-fertility-by-contributing-to-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-in-maize
#2
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071676/transcriptome-analysis-of-neo-tetraploid-rice-reveals-specific-differential-gene-expressions-associated-with-fertility-and-heterosis
#3
Haibin Guo, Jean Nestor Mendrikahy, Lei Xie, Junfeng Deng, Zijun Lu, Jinwen Wu, Xiang Li, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Xiangdong Liu
Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#4
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052078/morphological-characterization-of-a-new-and-easily-recognizable-nuclear-male-sterile-mutant-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor
#5
Zhanguo Xin, Jian Huang, Ashley R Smith, Junping Chen, John Burke, Scott E Sattler, Dazhong Zhao
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049856/irregular-pollen-exine1-is-a-novel-factor-in-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation
#6
Xiaoyang Chen, Hua Zhang, Huayue Sun, Hongbing Luo, Li Zhao, Zhaobin Dong, Shuangshuang Yan, Cheng Zhao, Renyi Liu, Chunyan Xu, Song Li, Huabang Chen, Weiwei Jin
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are protective barriers for pollen development and fertilization. Despite that several regulators have been identified for anther cuticle and pollen exine development in rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), few genes have been characterized in maize (Zea mays) and the underlying regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report a novel male-sterile mutant in maize, irregular pollen exine1 (ipe1), which exhibited a glossy outer anther surface, abnormal Ubisch bodies, and defective pollen exine...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039130/associations-between-sex-organ-deployment-and-morph-bias-in-related-heterostylous-taxa-with-different-stylar-polymorphisms
#7
Victoria Ferrero, Spencer C H Barrett, Danny Rojas, Juan Arroyo, Luis Navarro
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Populations of heterostylous species are characterized by two or three floral morphs with reciprocal positioning of stigmas and anthers. Theoretical models predict equal morph frequencies (isoplethy) when disassortative mating is prevalent in populations, but biased morph ratios may occur when variation in the expression of heterostyly causes deviations from intermorph mating. METHODS: We explore the role of sex-organ deployment in governing morph ratios in two closely related genera of Boraginaceae, exhibiting striking variation in floral traits associated with the heterostylous syndrome...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012227/widespread-selective-sweeps-throughout-the-genome-of-model-plant-pathogenic-fungi-and-identification-of-effector-candidates
#8
H Badouin, P Gladieux, J Gouzy, S Siguenza, G Aguileta, A Snirc, S Le Prieur, C Jeziorski, A Branca, T Giraud
Identifying the genes underlying adaptation, their distribution in genomes, and the evolutionary forces shaping genomic diversity, are key challenges in evolutionary biology. Very few studies have investigated the abundance and distribution of selective sweeps in species with high-quality reference genomes, outside of a handful of model species. Pathogenic fungi are tractable eukaryote models for investigating the genomics of adaptation. By sequencing 53 genomes of two species of anther-smut fungi and mapping them against a high-quality reference genome, we showed that selective sweeps were abundant and scattered throughout the genome in one species, affecting near 17% of the genome, but much less numerous and in different genomic regions in its sister species, where they left footprints in only 1% of the genome...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011871/cell-death-and-cell-cycle-arrest-of-silene-latifolia-stamens-and-pistils-after-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae-infection
#9
Hiroki Kawamoto, Kaori Yamanaka, Ayako Koizumi, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
Mechanisms of suppression of pistil primordia in male flowers and of stamen primordia in female flowers differ in diclinous plants. In this study, we investigated how cell death and cell cycle arrest are related to flower organ formation in Silene latifolia. Using in situ hybridization and a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, we detected both cell cycle arrest and cell death in suppressed stamens of female flowers and suppressed pistils of male flowers in S. latifolia...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011338/phylogenetic-relationships-of-burmeistera-campanulaceae-lobelioideae-combining-whole-plastome-with-targeted-loci-data-in-a-recent-radiation
#10
Simon Uribe-Convers, Monica M Carlsen, Laura P Lagomarsino, Nathan Muchhala
The field of molecular systematics has benefited greatly with the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS), making large genomic datasets commonplace. However, a large number of targeted Sanger sequences produced by many studies over the last two decades are publicly available and should not be overlooked. In this study, we elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of the plant genus Burmeistera (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae), while investigating how to best combine targeted Sanger loci with HTS data. We sequence, annotate, and analyze complete to nearly complete plastomes for a subset of the genus...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995002/reproductive-biology-and-breeding-system-of-saraca-asoca-roxb-de-wilde-a-vulnerable-medicinal-plant
#11
G R Smitha, V Thondaiman
Ashoka (Saraca asoca) is a perennial, evergreen tree valued for its ornamental flowers and medicinal values. This species is classified as 'vulnerable' under IUCN list due to its dwindling population because of destructive harvesting from natural habitats. Therefore, conservation and multiplication of this species is need of the hour to utilize its astonishing medicinal uses eternally. Conservation approaches of any plant species require in-depth study of its reproductive biology, which is lacking in this species...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968991/wsa206-a-paralog-of-duplicated-mpf2-like-mads-box-family-is-recruited-in-fertility-function-in-withania
#12
Muhammad Ramzan Khan, Humera Ihsan, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
Best known for their implication in calyx inflation, MPF2-like genes pertinent to the STMADS11 clade of the MADS-box family exert their functions in leaf development, flowering time, inflorescence architecture and floral reversion to just name but a few. However, our knowledge about their involvement in fertility function remained obscure. Therefore the major thrust of this study was to probe the recruitment of WSA206 (MPF2-like) protein in fertility function. The WSA206 functions were revealed by knocking down and overexpressing this protein in Withania somnifera...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968990/an-abc-transporter-osabcg26-is-required-for-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-and-pollen-pistil-interactions-in-rice
#13
Zhenyi Chang, Zhufeng Chen, Wei Yan, Gang Xie, Jiawei Lu, Na Wang, Qiqing Lu, Nan Yao, Guangzhe Yang, Jixing Xia, Xiaoyan Tang
Wax, cutin and sporopollenin are essential components for the formation of the anther cuticle and the pollen exine, respectively. Their lipid precursors are synthesized by secretory tapetal cells and transported to the anther and microspore surface for deposition. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the anther cuticle and pollen exine are poorly understood in rice. Here, we characterized a rice male sterile mutant osabcg26. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed a point mutation in the gene encoding an ATP binding cassette transporter G26 (OsABCG26)...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936079/high-temperature-induced-defects-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-anther-and-pollen-development-are-associated-with-reduced-expression-of-b-class-floral-patterning-genes
#14
Florian Müller, Jiemeng Xu, Lieke Kristensen, Mieke Wolters-Arts, Peter F M de Groot, Stuart Y Jansma, Celestina Mariani, Sunghun Park, Ivo Rieu
Sexual reproduction is a critical process in the life-cycle of plants and very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To better understand the effect of high temperature on plant reproduction, we cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in continuous mild heat. Under this condition we observed a simultaneous reduction in pollen viability and appearance of anthers with pistil-like structures, while in a more thermotolerant genotype, both traits were improved. Ectopic expression of two pistil-specific genes, TRANSMITTING TISSUE SPECIFIC and TOMATO AGAMOUS LIKE11, in the anthers confirmed that the anthers had gained partial pistil identity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-ems1-to-control-anther-cell-fate-determination
#15
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914204/the-genetic-architecture-of-tristyly-and-its-breakdown-to-self-fertilization
#16
Ramesh Arunkumar, Wei Wang, Stephen I Wright, Spencer C H Barrett
The floral polymorphism tristyly involves three style morphs with a reciprocal arrangement of stigma and anther heights governed by two diallelic loci (S and M). Tristyly functions to promote cross-pollination, but modifications to stamen position commonly cause transitions to selfing. Here, we integrate whole-genome sequencing and genetic mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of the M locus and the genetic basis of independent transitions to selfing in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata. We crossed independently derived semi-homostylous selfing variants of the long- and mid-styled morph fixed for alternate alleles at the M locus (ssmm and ssMM, respectively), and backcrossed the F1 to the parental ssmm genotype...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913638/ms23-a-master-basic-helix-loop-helix-factor-regulates-the-specification-and-development-of-tapetum-in-maize
#17
Guo-Ling Nan, Jixian Zhai, Siwaret Arikit, Darren Morrow, John Fernandes, Lan Mai, Nhi Nguyen, Blake C Meyers, Virginia Walbot
Successful male gametogenesis involves orchestration of sequential gene regulation for somatic differentiation in pre-meiotic anthers. We report here the cloning of Male Sterile23 (Ms23), encoding an anther-specific predicted basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor required for tapetal differentiation; transcripts localize initially to the precursor secondary parietal cells then predominantly to daughter tapetal cells. In knockout ms23-ref mutant anthers, five instead of the normal four wall layers are observed...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909301/genetic-architecture-and-evolution-of-the-s-locus-supergene-in-primula-vulgaris
#18
Jinhong Li, Jonathan M Cocker, Jonathan Wright, Margaret A Webster, Mark McMullan, Sarah Dyer, David Swarbreck, Mario Caccamo, Cock van Oosterhout, Philip M Gilmartin
Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908260/-a-proteomics-approach-to-discover-drought-tolerance-proteins-in-wheat-pollen-grain-at-meiosis-stage
#19
Reza Fotovat, Mehdi Alikhani, Mostafa Valizadeh, Mehdi Mirzaei, Ghasem Hossein Salekdeh
Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis...
November 30, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903351/-expanding-test-and-normalization-for-hiv-aids-prevention-and-control
#20
S Z Lin, H J Dong, J P Sun
Expanding real-name HIV test is the basis of the real-time reporting system in China, and it plays an important role for the progress. In year of 2003, there were 45 092 cases of HIV positives reported cumulatively, which accounted for only 5.4% of the estimated population of HIV positives. Since implementation of real-name HIV test and establishment, real-time reporting system, up to year 2005, the total of reported HIV positives was 577 000, which took up 67.9% of the estimated HIV positives. Also among reported cases, 387 000 cases have received the anti-retroviral treatment...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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