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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209842/phosphorylation-of-sporocyteless-nozzle-by-the-mpk3-6-kinase-is-required-for-anther-development
#1
Feng Zhao, Ya-Feng Zheng, Ting Zeng, Rui Sun, Ji-Yuan Yang, Yuan Li, Dongtao Ren, Hong Ma, Zhi-Hong Xu, Shu-Nong Bai
Germ cells are indispensable carriers of genetic information from one generation to the next. In contrast to the well-understood process in animals, information on the mechanism of germ cell initiation in plants is very limited. SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE (SPL/NZZ) was previously identified as an essential regulator of diploid germ cell (archesporial cell) differentiation in the stamens and ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although SPL transcription is activated by the floral organ identity regulator AGAMOUS (AG) and epigenetically regulated by SET DOMAIN GROUP2 (SDG2), little is known about the regulation of the SPL protein...
February 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202455/in-the-interface-of-caesalpinioids-and-mimosoids-comparative-floral-development-elucidates-shared-characters-in-dimorphandra-mollis-and-pentaclethra-macroloba-leguminosae
#2
Thais C De Barros, Giseli D Pedersoli, Juliana V Paulino, Simone P Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pentaclethra and Dimorphandra (Leguminosae) have long been considered a possible enigmatic link between caesalpinioids and mimosoids because they both have an imbricate calyx and heteromorphic androecium, floral features that are rare among mimosoids but common among caesalpinioids. This study compared the developing flowers of Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba to determine whether the shared floral conditions also have the same ontogenetic origin. METHODS: Buds of different sizes and flowers were processed for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) examination...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202451/losing-one-s-touch-evolution-of-the-touch-sensitive-stigma-in-the-mimulus-guttatus-species-complex
#3
Jannice Friedman, Katherine S Hart, Meghan C den Bakker
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The stigmas of several species are touch sensitive and respond to pressure by closing. Previous research suggests that stigma closure could prevent self pollination within a flower during a pollinator's visit or enhance male function by increasing pollen export. Both factors could be favored in outcrossers, and neither would be beneficial in selfers. METHODS: We investigated variation in stigma-closing and the duration of closure in annual and perennial populations of the variable species Mimulus guttatus and whether four closely related selfing species (M...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193629/evolution-of-gene-expression-balance-among-homoeologs-of-natural-polyploids
#4
Jasdeep S Mutti, Ramanjot K Bhullar, Kulvinder S Gill
Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes, yet the expression balance of homoeologs in natural polyploids is largely unknown. To study this expression balance, expression pattern of 2180 structurally well-characterized genes of wheat was studied of which 813 had the expected three copies and 375 had less than three. Copy number of the remaining 992 ranged from 4-14 including homoeologs, orthologs and paralogs. Of the genes with three structural copies corresponding to homoeologs, 55% expressed from all three, 38% from two, and the remaining 7% expressed from only one of the three copies...
February 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193162/genome-wide-characterization-of-jasmonate-zim-domain-transcription-repressors-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Yukun Wang, Linyi Qiao, Jianfang Bai, Peng Wang, Wenjing Duan, Shaohua Yuan, Guoliang Yuan, Fengting Zhang, Liping Zhang, Changping Zhao
BACKGROUND: The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. RESULTS: Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187145/a-new-sythetic-hybrid-a1d5-between-gossypium-herbaceum-and-g-raimondii-and-its-morphological-cytogenetic-molecular-characterization
#6
Yuxiang Wu, Di Chen, Shuijin Zhu, Lufei Zhang, Lingjiao Li
The diploid species G. herbaceum (A1) and G. raimondii (D5) are the progenitors of allotetraploid cotton, respectively. However, hybrids between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii haven't been reported. In the present study, hybridization between G. herbaceum and G. raimondii was explored. Morphological, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were used to assess the hybridity. The interspecific hybrid plants were successfully obtained. Most of the morphological characteristics of the hybrids were intermediate between G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182328/overexpression-of-the-leucine-rich-receptor-like-kinase-gene-lrk2-increases-drought-tolerance-and-tiller-number-in-rice
#7
Junfang Kang, Jianmin Li, Shuang Gao, Chao Tian, Xiaojun Zha
Drought represents a key limiting factor of global crop distribution. Receptor-like kinases play major roles in plant development and defense responses against stresses such as drought. In this study, LRK2, which encodes a leucine-rich receptor-like kinase, was cloned and characterized and found to be localized on the plasma membrane in rice. Promoter-GUS analysis revealed strong expression in tiller buds, roots, nodes and anthers. Transgenic plants overexpressing LRK2 exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress due to an increased number of lateral roots compared to the wild-type at the vegetative stage...
February 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178307/transcriptional-regulation-of-male-sterility-in-7b-1-male-sterile-tomato-mutant
#8
Vahid Omidvar, Irina Mohorianu, Tamas Dalmay, Yi Zheng, Zhangjun Fei, Anna Pucci, Andrea Mazzucato, Vendula Večeřová, Michaela Sedlářova, Martin Fellner
The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177828/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-pollen-specific-promoter-in-maize%C3%AF-i-zea-mays-l-i-%C3%AF
#9
He Wang, Mingxia Fan, Guohong Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Lei Shi, Zhengyi Wei, Wenjuan Ma, Jing Chang, Senxin Huang, Feng Lin
<i>ZmSTK2_USP</i>, located on the long arm of chromosome 4, belongs to the serine/threonine kinase gene in maize. The sequence analysis of 2,100 bp upstream from the start codon ATG has shown that it contains <i>cis</i>-element motifs and two types of anther/pollen-specific promoter elements (GTGA and AGAAA), suggesting that it is the pollen-specific promoter. To investigate the function of <i>ZmSTK2_USP</i> promoter, the GUS gene fusion system was employed. In pro<i>ZmSTK2_USP-GUS</i> genetically modified plants, GUS activity was detected in mature pollen grains and pollen tubes but not found in other floral and vegetable tissues...
January 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167027/development-of-an-inducible-male-sterility-system-in-rice-through-pollen-specific-expression-of-l-ornithinase-arge-gene-of-e-coli
#10
Gundra Sivakrishna Rao, Akhilesh Kumar Tyagi, Khareedu Venkateswara Rao
In the present investigation, an inducible male-sterility system has been developed in the rice. In order to introduce inducible male-sterility, the coding region of l-ornithinase (argE) gene of E. coli was fused to the Oryza sativa indica pollen allergen (OSIPA) promoter sequence which is known to function specifically in the pollen grains. Transgenic plants were obtained with argE gene and the transgenic status of plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the tissue-specific expression of argE in the anthers of transgenic rice plants...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163591/cytological-characterization-of-a-thermo-sensitive-cytoplasmic-male-sterile-wheat-line-having-k-type-cytoplasm-of-aegilops-kotschyi
#11
Liying Meng, Zihan Liu, Lingli Zhang, Gan Hu, Xiyue Song
Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135024/selection-on-intra-individual-variation-in-stigma-anther-distance-in-the-tropical-tree-ipomoea-wolcottiana-convolvulaceae
#12
Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, C Fabian Vargas, Victor Parra-Tabla
It is well known that animals can exert strong selective pressures on plant traits. However, studies on the evolutionary consequences of plant-animal interactions have mainly focused on understanding how these interactions shape trait means, while overlooking its potential direct effect on the variability among structures within a plant (e.g. flowers and fruits). The degree of within-plant variability can have strong fitness effects but few studies have evaluated its role as a potential target of selection...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132144/oat-anther-culture-and-use-of-dh-lines-for-genetic-mapping
#13
Elina Kiviharju, Sirpa Moisander, Pirjo Tanhuanpää
Possibility to make doubled haploids (DHs) from varying crossing populations is a useful tool for enhancing cultivar breeding, and a source of valuable material for genetic research. Oats is reported to be recalcitrant in anther culture with low response and genotype dependency. However, the best recoveries reported have reached up to 30 green regenerants per 100 isolated anthers, which clearly addresses the potential of this technique. In this chapter, one successful oat anther culture protocol is described in detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130768/promoter-trapping-and-deletion-analysis-show-arabidopsis-thaliana-apetala2-gene-promoter-is-bidirectional-and-functions-as-a-pollen-and-ovule-specific-promoter-in-the-reverse-orientation
#14
Pooja Sharma, Vajinder Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shweta Thakur, Priyanka Siwach, Yelam Sreenivasulu, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Shripad Ramachandra Bhat
The Arabidopsis thaliana promoter trap mutant Bitrap-112 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in the ovules was found to carry transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion at -309 position of the APETALA2 (AP2) gene. Bitrap-112 line did not show phenotype associated with the AP2 mutation, suggesting that T-DNA insertion did not interrupt the AP2 promoter. Further, head-to-head orientation of GFP and AP2 genes indicated that the AP2 promoter could be bidirectional. A detailed deletion analysis of the upstream sequences of the AP2 gene was done to identify the promoter...
January 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103252/comparative-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-grass-pollen-allergens-using-brachypodium-distachyon-as-a-model-system
#15
Akanksha Sharma, Niharika Sharma, Prem Bhalla, Mohan Singh
Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100297/transcriptional-analysis-of-mating-and-pre-infection-stages-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#16
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078801/abnormal-pollen-vacuolation1-apv1-is-required-for-male-fertility-by-contributing-to-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-in-maize
#17
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071676/transcriptome-analysis-of-neo-tetraploid-rice-reveals-specific-differential-gene-expressions-associated-with-fertility-and-heterosis
#18
Haibin Guo, Jean Nestor Mendrikahy, Lei Xie, Junfeng Deng, Zijun Lu, Jinwen Wu, Xiang Li, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Xiangdong Liu
Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#19
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052078/morphological-characterization-of-a-new-and-easily-recognizable-nuclear-male-sterile-mutant-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor
#20
Zhanguo Xin, Jian Huang, Ashley R Smith, Junping Chen, John Burke, Scott E Sattler, Dazhong Zhao
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)...
2017: PloS One
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