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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815278/phenotypic-genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-7b-1-a-conditional-male-sterile-mutant-in-tomato
#1
Anna Pucci, Maurizio Enea Picarella, Andrea Mazzucato
We characterized the photoperiod-sensitive 7B - 1 male-sterile mutant in tomato, showing its allelism with stamenless - 2 . Mapping experiments indicated SlGLO2 , a B-class MADS-box family member, as a strong candidate to underlie the 7B - 1 mutation. The interest in male sterility (MS) dates back to a long time due to its perspective use in hybrid seed production. Here, we characterize 7B-1, a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile (ms) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), in which stamens are restored to fertility by permissive growth conditions in short days (SD)...
August 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814920/garcinia-hopii-clusiaceae-a-new-species-from-bidoup-nui-ba-national-park-southern-vietnam
#2
Hironori Toyama, Van-Son Dang, Shuichiro Tagane, Ngoc Van Nguyen, Akiyo Naiki, Hidetoshi Nagamasu, Tetsukazu Yahara
A new species, Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798768/laccase-13-regulates-seed-setting-rate-by-affecting-hydrogen-peroxide-dynamics-and-mitochondrial-integrity-in-rice
#3
Yang Yu, Quan-Feng Li, Jin-Ping Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yan-Fei Zhou, Yan-Zhao Feng, Yue-Qin Chen, Yu-Chan Zhang
Seed setting rate is one of the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, only several genes regulating setting rate have been identified in plant. In this study, we showed that laccase-13 (OsLAC13), a member of laccase family genes which are known for their roles in modulating phenylpropanoid pathway and secondary lignification in cell wall, exerts a regulatory function in rice seed setting rate. OsLAC13 expressed in anthers and promotes hydrogen peroxide production both in vitro and in the filaments and anther connectives...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792972/three-dimensional-ultrastructural-study-of-the-anther-of-silene-latifolia-infected-with-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#4
Hiroki Kawamoto, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
When Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects a male Silene latifolia, M. lychnidis-dioicae smut spores develop in the pollen sac instead of pollen. In contrast, when M. lychnidis-dioicae infects a female S. latifolia, the female flowers become male-like, promoting stamen formation. However, it is unclear when and how M. lychnidis-dioicae invades the anther. It is important to investigate not only whether hyphae exist when the apical meristem tissue differentiates into flowers and anthers, but also whether hyphae exist when stamen filaments form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790088/transitions-from-distyly-to-homostyly-are-associated-with-floral-evolution-in-the-buckwheat-genus-fagopyrum
#5
Ling-Yun Wu, Bo Wang, Daniel J Schoen, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Documenting trait transitions among species with dimorphic flowers can help to test whether similar patterns of selection are responsible for divergence in floral traits among different species. Heterostyly is thought to promote outcrossing. Theory suggests that the evolutionary transition from heterostylous to homostylous flowers should be accompanied by a reduction in floral size in which pollen size and style length are expected to covary. Patterns of such correlated floral trait evolution have not, however, been widely examined...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783252/the-polyketide-synthase-ospks2-is-essential-for-pollen-exine-and-ubisch-body-patterning-in-rice
#6
Xiaolei Zhu, Jing Yu, Jianxin Shi, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Sagit Meir, Asaph Aharoni, Dawei Xu, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Lipid and phenolic metabolism are important for pollen exine formation. In Arabidopsis, polyketide synthases (PKSs) are essential for both sporopollenin biosynthesis and exine formation. Here, we characterized the role of a polyketide synthase (OsPKS2) in male reproduction of rice (Oryza sativa). Recombinant OsPKS2 catalyzed the condensation of fatty acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to generate triketide and tetraketide α-pyrones, the main components of pollen exine. Indeed, the ospks2 mutant had defective exine patterning and was male sterile...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769961/tightly-controlled-expression-of-bhlh142-is-essential-for-timely-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-and-pollen-development-in-rice
#7
Swee-Suak Ko, Min-Jeng Li, Yi-Jyun Lin, Hong-Xian Hsing, Ting-Ting Yang, Tien-Kuan Chen, Chung-Min Jhong, Maurice Sun-Ben Ku
Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa) causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142) under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762598/heteranthery-as-a-solution-to-the-demands-for-pollen-as-food-and-for-pollination-legitimate-flower-visitors-reject-flowers-without-feeding-anthers
#8
José Neiva Mesquita-Neto, Bruna Karen Pinheiro Costa, Clemens Schlindwein
Heteranthery, the presence of feeding and pollinating anthers in the same flower, seems to mediate the evolutionary dilemma for plants to protect their gametes and yet provide food for pollinators. This study aims to elucidate the role of heteranthery in the buzz-pollinated Senna reniformis. The fecundity of pollen from long, medium and short-sized anthers was determined by hand cross-pollination experiments, and the quantity, size, ornamentation and viability of pollen of different anthers were compared. Rates of flower rejection by bees were measured in anther removal experiments to assess the preferences of flower visitors for feeding or pollinating anthers...
August 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761138/an-atypical-strictosidine-synthase-osstrl2-plays-key-roles-in-anther-development-and-pollen-wall-formation-in-rice
#9
Ting Zou, Shuangcheng Li, Mingxing Liu, Tao Wang, Qiao Xiao, Dan Chen, Qiao Li, Yanling Liang, Jun Zhu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li
Strictosidine synthase (STR) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and is expressed in a range of active meristematic tissues of higher plants. STR proteins are involved in different physiological and biochemical pathways. However, the function of STR proteins in rice development remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified 21 possible STR-like (OsSTRL) family members in rice genome and found that only one gene, OsSTRL2, exhibited a pre-emergency specific florescence expression pattern...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743949/the-rice-phytochrome-genes-phya-and-phyb-have-synergistic-effects-on-anther-development-and-pollen-viability
#10
Wei Sun, Xiao Hui Xu, Xingbo Lu, Lixia Xie, Bo Bai, Chongke Zheng, Hongwei Sun, Yanan He, Xian-Zhi Xie
Phytochromes are the main plant photoreceptors regulating multiple developmental processes. However, the regulatory network of phytochrome-mediated plant reproduction has remained largely unexplored. There are three phytochromes in rice, phyA, phyB and phyC. No changes in fertility are observed in the single mutants, whereas the seed-setting rate of the phyA phyB double mutant is significantly reduced. Histological and cytological analyses showed that the reduced fertility of the phyA phyB mutant was due to defects in both anther and pollen development...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738207/translocation-of-heavy-metals-from-soils-into-floral-organs-and-rewards-of-cucurbita-pepo-implications-for-plant-reproductive-fitness
#11
Erna Xun, Yanwen Zhang, Jimin Zhao, Jixun Guo
Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724622/transcription-factor-myb26-is-key-to-spatial-specificity-in-anther-secondary-thickening-formation
#12
Caiyun Yang, Jie Song, Alison Ferguson, Doris Klisch, Kim Simpson, Rui Mo, Benjamin Taylor, Zoe A Wilson
Successful fertilisation relies on the production and effective release of viable pollen. Failure of anther opening (dehiscence), results in male sterility although the pollen may be fully functional. MYB26 regulates the formation of secondary thickening in the anther endothecium, which is critical for anther dehiscence and fertility. Here we show that the although the MYB26 transcript shows expression in multiple floral organs the MYB26 protein is localised specifically to the anther endothecium nuclei and that it directly regulates two NAC domain genes, NST1 and NST2, which are critical for the induction of secondary thickening biosynthesis genes...
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722132/evolution-of-the-selfing-syndrome-anther-orientation-and-herkogamy-together-determine-reproductive-assurance-in-a-self-compatible-plant
#13
Per Toräng, Linus Vikström, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, George Coupland, Jon Ågren
Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702163/slow-stamen-movement-in-a-perennial-herb-decreases-male-male-and-male-female-interference
#14
Lingyan Wang, Yu Bao, Hanxi Wang, Chunguang He, Ping Wang, Lianxi Sheng, Zhanhui Tang
Approximately 80 % of angiosperm species produce hermaphroditic flowers, which face the problem of male-male sexual interference (one or more anthers gets in the way of disseminating pollen from other anthers) or male-female sexual interference (the pistil interferes with disseminating pollen from the anthers by preventing the anther from touching a pollinator, or the anther prevents pollinator from depositing outcross pollen on the stigma). Slow stamen movement in hermaphrodite flowers has been interpreted as an adaptation for reducing male-male sexual interference...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698790/sequential-stamen-maturation-and-movement-in-a-protandrous-herb-mechanisms-increasing-pollination-efficiency-and-reducing-sexual-interference
#15
Chang-Long Xiao, Hui Deng, Gan-Ju Xiang, Kadiori Edwin Luguba, You-Hao Guo, Chun-Feng Yang
Successive stamen movement directly controls pollen presentation schedules through sequential stamen maturation and changes the extent of herkogamy by altering the positions of sexual organs. However, the implications of such movements in terms of pollination are not well understood. Pollen presentation theory predicts that staggered pollen presentation should be favoured when plants are subject to diminishing returns on pollen transfer. Herkogamy on the other hand, has been interpreted as an adaptive trait that reduces sexual interference in hermaphrodite flowers...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665021/proteomes-and-phosphoproteomes-of-anther-and-pollen-availability-and-progress
#16
REVIEW
Zaibao Zhang, Menghui Hu, Xiaobing Feng, Andong Gong, Lin Cheng, Hongyu Yuan
In flowering plants, anther development plays crucial role in sexual reproduction. Within the anther, microspore mother cells meiosis produces microspores, which further develop into pollen grains that play decisive role in plant reproduction. Previous studies on anther biology mainly focused on single gene functions relying on genetic and molecular methods. Recently, anther development has been expanded from multiple OMICS approaches like transcriptomics, proteomics/phosphoproteomics, and metabolomics. The development of proteomics techniques allowing increased proteome coverage and quantitative measurements of proteins which can characterize proteomes and their modulation during normal development, biotic and abiotic stresses in anther development...
June 30, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649269/a-comprehensive-technique-for-artificial-hybridization-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#17
Shweta Kalve, Million Tadege
BACKGROUND: Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. The important reason for the low success rate of the two procedures could be lack of detailed information on the flowering stages chosen for crossing together with the environment where plants grow...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640973/production-of-red-flowered-oilseed-rape-via-the-ectopic-expression-of-orychophragmus-violaceus-ovpap2
#18
Wenqin Fu, Daozong Chen, Qi Pan, Fengfeng Li, Zhigang Zhao, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which has yellow flowers, is both an important oil crop and a traditional tourism resource in China, whereas the Orychophragmus violaceus, which has purple flowers, likely possesses a candidate gene or genes to alter the flower color of oilseed rape. A previously established B. napus line has a particular pair of O. violaceus chromosomes (M4) and exhibits slightly red petals. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis of M4, B. napus (H3), and O. violaceus with purple petals (OvP) and with white petals (OvW) revealed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in both M4 and OvP...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635129/micrornas-involved-in-auxin-signalling-modulate-male-sterility-under-high-temperature-stress-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#19
Yuanhao Ding, Yizan Ma, Nian Liu, Jiao Xu, Qin Hu, Yaoyao Li, Yuanlong Wu, Sai Xie, Longfu Zhu, Ling Min, Xianlong Zhang
Male sterility caused by long-term high temperature (HT) stress occurs widely in crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, play an important role in the plant response to various abiotic stresses. To dissect the working principle of miRNAs in male sterility under HT stress in cotton, a total of 112 known miRNAs, 270 novel miRNAs and 347 target genes were identified from anthers of HT-insensitive (84021) and HT-sensitive (H05) cotton cultivars under normal temperature (NT) and HT conditions through small RNA and degradome sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630332/evolutionary-strata-on-young-mating-type-chromosomes-despite-the-lack-of-sexual-antagonism
#20
Sara Branco, Hélène Badouin, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jérôme Gouzy, Fantin Carpentier, Gabriela Aguileta, Sophie Siguenza, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Marco A Coelho, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Sex chromosomes can display successive steps of recombination suppression known as "evolutionary strata," which are thought to result from the successive linkage of sexually antagonistic genes to sex-determining genes. However, there is little evidence to support this explanation. Here we investigate whether evolutionary strata can evolve without sexual antagonism using fungi that display suppressed recombination extending beyond loci determining mating compatibility despite lack of male/female roles associated with their mating types...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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