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Alberto Campanaro, Raffaella Battaglia, Massimo Galbiati, Ari Sadanandom, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
SUMOylation and anther growth. During fertilization, stamen elongation needs to be synchronized with pistil growth. The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) promotes stamen growth by stimulating the degradation of growth repressing DELLA proteins. DELLA accumulation is negatively regulated by GAs through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a proportion of DELLAs is also conjugated to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein, which stabilizes DELLAs. Increased DELLA levels occur in the SUMO protease-deficient OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 and 2 (ots1 ots2) double mutants, especially under salt stress conditions...
October 19, 2016: Plant Reproduction
Naga Pavan Kumar Chevala, Naga Thirumalesh Chevala, Kirubakaran Dhanakodi, Rama Rao Nadendla, Chandrashekara Krishnappa Nagarathna
BACKGROUND: Tea is an economic important crop with high medicinal value due to rich polyphenols content. In the present research we studied the accumulation of polyphenols of in vitro regenerated callus from anthers. OBJECTIVE: Callus induction of tea anthers and in vitro accumulation of phenolic compounds from the anther-derived callus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardization of callus induction for tea anthers. In vitro generated callus was screened for in vivo accumulation of catechins and its isomers were screened by FC reagent staining technique...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Xiaojie Yang, Yuanming Zhao, Deyi Xie, Yao Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Nardana Esmaeili, Zuoren Yang, Ye Wang, Guo Yin, Shuping Lv, Lihong Nie, Zhongjie Tang, Fu'an Zhao, Wu Li, Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Wei Zhu, Weiping Fang
Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huiwu Tang, Xingmei Zheng, Chuliang Li, Xianrong Xie, Yuanling Chen, Letian Chen, Xiucai Zhao, Huiqi Zheng, Jiajian Zhou, Shan Ye, Jingxin Guo, Yao-Guang Liu
New gene origination is a major source of genomic innovations that confer phenotypic changes and biological diversity. Generation of new mitochondrial genes in plants may cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which can promote outcrossing and increase fitness. However, how mitochondrial genes originate and evolve in structure and function remains unclear. The rice Wild Abortive type of CMS is conferred by the mitochondrial gene WA352c (previously named WA352) and has been widely exploited in hybrid rice breeding...
October 11, 2016: Cell Research
Xinnian Li, Norman C Duke, Yuchen Yang, Lishi Huang, Yuxiang Zhu, Zhang Zhang, Renchao Zhou, Cairong Zhong, Yelin Huang, Suhua Shi
Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage...
2016: PloS One
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer Ch Barrett
Most heterostylous plants possess a reciprocal arrangement of stigmas and anthers (reciprocal herkogamy), heteromorphic self-incompatibility and ancillary polymorphisms of pollen and stigmas. The topographical complementarity hypothesis proposes that ancillary polymorphisms function in the rejection of incompatible pollen thus promoting disassortative pollination. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating patterns of pollen transfer and capture in populations of dimorphic Armeria maritima and A. pubigera and distylous Limonium vulgare (Plumbaginaceae), and by studying pollen adherence and germination patterns in A...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Chao Wu, Kehui Cui, Wencheng Wang, Qian Li, Shah Fahad, Qiuqian Hu, Jianliang Huang, Lixiao Nie, Shaobing Peng
Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qili Fei, Li Yang, Wanqi Liang, Dabing Zhang, Blake C Meyers
Dissection of the genetic pathways and mechanisms by which anther development occurs in grasses is crucial for both a basic understanding of plant development and for examining traits of agronomic importance such as male sterility. In rice, MULTIPLE SPOROCYTES1 (MSP1), a leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinase, plays an important role in anther development by limiting the number of sporocytes. OsTDL1a (a TPD1-like gene in rice) encodes a small protein that acts as a cofactor of MSP1 in the same regulatory pathway...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
C M Silva-Neto, L L Bergamini, M A S Elias, G L Moreira, J M Morais, B A R Bergamini, E V Franceschinelli
Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Silvio Tundo, Michela Janni, Ilaria Moscetti, Giulia Mandalà, Daniel Savatin, Ann Blechl, Francesco Favaron, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the precise means of pathogen entry and colonization of floral tissue is crucial to providing effective protection against FHB. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the activity of polygalacturonases (PGs), a class of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes secreted by microbial pathogens, including Fusaria...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiaohong Yan, Xinhua Zeng, Shasha Wang, Keqi Li, Rong Yuan, Hongfei Gao, Junling Luo, Fang Liu, Yuhua Wu, Yunjing Li, Li Zhu, Gang Wu
Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aiguo Su, Wei Song, Jinfeng Xing, Yanxin Zhao, Ruyang Zhang, Chunhui Li, Minxiao Duan, Meijie Luo, Zi Shi, Jiuran Zhao
S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) is the largest group among the three major types of CMS in maize. CMS-S exhibits fertility instability as a partial fertility restoration in a specific nuclear genetic background, which impedes its commercial application in hybrid breeding programs. The fertility instability phenomenon of CMS-S is controlled by several minor quantitative trait locus (QTLs), but not the major nuclear fertility restorer (Rf3). However, the gene mapping of these minor QTLs and the molecular mechanism of the genetic modifications are still unclear...
2016: PloS One
A Kheiri, S A Moosawi Jorf, A Malihipour, H Saremi, M Nikkhah
Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important diseases of wheat in humid and warm areas. This disease significantly reduces yield as well as seed quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of control of FHB by chitosan (CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (CS/NPs). In vitro, the application of various concentrations of CS and CS/NPs showed significant inhibition of both radial mycelial growth and number of colonies formed against F. graminearum...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Juan M Palazzini, Christopher A Dunlap, Michael J Bowman, Sofía N Chulze
Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Jing Yu, Zhaolu Meng, Wanqi Liang, Joerg Kudla, Matthew R Tucker, Zhijing Luo, Mingjiao Chen, Dawei Xu, Guochao Zhao, Jie Wang, Siyi Zhang, Yu-Jin Kim, Dabing Zhang
In flowering plants, successful male reproduction requires the sophisticated interaction between somatic anther wall layers and reproductive cells. Timely degradation of the innermost tissue of the anther wall layer, tapetal layer, is critical for pollen development. Ca2+ is a well-known stimulus for plant development, however, whether it plays a role in affecting male reproduction remains elusive. Here we report a role of OsDEX1 (Defective in Exine Formation 1 in rice), a Ca2+ binding protein, in regulating rice tapetal cell degradation and pollen formation...
September 23, 2016: Plant Physiology
Valentina Cecchetti, Daniela Celebrin, Nadia Napoli, Roberta Ghelli, Patrizia Brunetti, Paolo Costantino, Maura Cardarelli
Here, we investigated the role of auxin distribution in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana late stamen development. We analysed auxin distribution in anthers by monitoring DR5 activity: at different flower developmental stages; inhibiting auxin transport; in the rpk2-3 and ems1 mutants devoid of middle layer (ML) or tapetum, respectively; and in the auxin biosynthesis yuc6 and perception afb1-3 mutants. We ran a phenotypic, DR5::GUS and gene expression analysis of yuc6rpk2 and afb1rpk2 double mutants, and of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-treated flower buds...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Shuhong Wei
WAG-2 is a C-class MADS-box gene, which is orthologous to AGAMOUS (AG) in Arabidopsis. The AG group C-class MADS-box genes are involved in stamen and pistil identity. In this study, two WAG-2 transcripts, namely, WAG-2f and WAG- 2g, were isolated and characterized from Aegilops tauschii. The open reading frames of WAG-2f and WAG-2g were 825 and 822 bp, respectively, encoding 275 and 274 amino acid residues. BLAST searches of partial WAG-2 genomic sequence against the draft sequence of Ae. tauschii genome database revealed the complex structure of WAG-2 gene, which consisted of seven exons and six introns...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M de Vos, Alexander N Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D Thomson, Elena Conti
The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
R Delgado-Dávila, S Martén-Rodríguez, G Huerta-Ramos
This study tested the hypothesis that self-compatibility would be associated with floral traits that facilitate autonomous self-pollination to ensure reproduction under low pollinator visitation. In a comparison of two pairs of Ipomoea species with contrasting breeding systems, we predicted that self-compatible (SC) species would have smaller, less variable flowers, reduced herkogamy, lower pollinator visitation and higher reproductive success than their self-incompatible (SI) congeners. We studied sympatric species pairs, I...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biology
Lulu Xie, Pingli Liu, Zhixin Zhu, Shifan Zhang, Shujiang Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Guoliang Li, Yunxiao Wei, Rifei Sun
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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