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Olga Bykova, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Isabelle Chuine
Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Ken-Ichi Nonomura
In angiosperms, germline precursors and germ cells are always attached to or engulfed within somatic companion cells until just before fertilization. This is because sperm and egg cells develop as part of the multicellular gametophyte. Thus, the non-cell-autonomous regulation by somatic companions plays important roles in efficient reproduction, in addition to the cell-autonomous regulation. Epigenetic silencing of transposable elements is one of the central events by which the germline transmits the error-free genome to the next generation...
January 19, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Zhong Chen, Pian Rao, Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaoxing Su, Tianyun Zhao, Kai Gao, Xiong Yang, Xinmin An
To obtain a comprehensive overview of the dynamic transcriptome during male floral bud development in Populus tomentosa, high-throughput RNA-seq was conducted during eight flowering-related stages. Among the 109,212 de novo assembled unigenes, 6,959 were differentially expressed during the eight stages. The overrepresented classed of genes identified by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment included 'response to environmental stimuli' and 'plant-type spore development'. One-third of the differentially expressed genes were transcription factors (TFs)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongzhan Liu, Gaisheng Zhang, Junsheng Wang, Jingjing Li, Yulong Song, Lin Qiao, Na Niu, Junwei Wang, Shoucai Ma, Lili Li
BACKGROUND: Heterosis is widely used to increase the yield of many crops. However, as wheat is a self-pollinating crop, hybrid breeding is not so successful in this organism. Even though male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents is an important aspect of crossbreeding, the mechanisms by which these agents induce male sterility in wheat is not well understood. RESULTS: We performed proteomic analyses using the wheat Triticum aestivum identify those proteins involved in physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent CHA SQ-1...
January 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Shuangping Heng, Jie Gao, Chao Wei, Fengyi Chen, Xianwen Li, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is primarily caused by chimeric genes located in the mitochondrial genomes. In Brassica juncea, orf288 has been identified as a CMS-associated gene in the hau CMS line; however, neither the specific abortive stage nor the molecular function of the gene have been determined. We therefore characterized the hau CMS line, and found that defective mitochondria affect the development of archesporial cells during the L2 stage, leading to male sterility. The expression level of the orf288 transcript was higher in the male-sterility line than in the fertility-restorer line, although no significant differences were apparent at the protein level...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xianhai Zhao, Nian Liu, Na Shang, Wei Zeng, Berit Ebert, Carsten Rautengarten, Qing-Yin Zeng, Huiling Li, Xiaoyang Chen, Cherie Beahan, Antony Bacic, Joshua L Heazlewood, Ai-Min Wu
UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) is synthesized by UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylases, also termed UDP-Xyl synthases (UXSs). The Arabidopsis genome encodes six UXSs, which fall into two groups based upon their subcellular location: the Golgi lumen and the cytosol. The latter group appears to play an important role in xylan biosynthesis. Cytosolic UDP-Xyl is transported into the Golgi lumen by three UDP-Xyl transporters (UXT1, 2, and 3). However, while single mutants affected in the UDP-Xyl transporter 1 (UXT1) showed a substantial reduction in cell wall xylose content, a double mutant affected in UXT2 and UXT3 had no obvious effect on cell wall xylose deposition...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ko Mochizuki, Atsushi Kawakita
Background and aims: Pollination by fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae) is uncommon, but is nevertheless known to occur in 20 genera among eight angiosperm families. Because many fungus gnat-pollinated plants possess a dark red floral display, we hypothesized that fungus gnat pollination is more widespread among plants with similar floral display than currently known. We thus studied the pollination biology of flowers with dark red pigmentation in five families, focusing particularly on plants having small, flat, actinomorphic flowers with exposed nectaries and short stamens, because these floral characteristics mirror those of a known fungus gnat-pollinated genus (Mitella)...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
Pratikshya Borah, Jitendra P Khurana
Regulated proteolysis by the Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system challenges transcription and phosphorylation in magnitude and is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in plants. This article describes the characterization of a rice auxin-responsive Kelch-domain containing F-box protein, OsFBK1, found to be a component of an SCF E3 ligase by interaction studies in yeast. Rice transgenics of OsFBK1 displayed variations in anther and root secondary cell wall content; it could be corroborated by electron/confocal microscopy and lignification studies, with no apparent changes in auxin content/signalling pathway...
January 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Bo Wang, Jing-Shi Xue, Ya-Hui Yu, Si-Qi Liu, Jia-Xin Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Yao, Zhi-Xue Liu, Xiao-Feng Xu, Zhong-Nan Yang
BACKGROUND: In Arabidopsis, the tapetum and microsporocytes are critical for pollen formation. Previous studies have shown that ARF17 is expressed in microsporocytes and tetrads and directly regulates tetrad wall synthesis for pollen formation. ARF17 is the direct target of miR160, and promoterARF17::5mARF17 (5mARF17/WT) transgenic plants, which have five silent mutations within the miR160-complementary domain, are sterile. RESULTS: Here, we found that ARF17 is also expressed in the tapetum, which was defective in arf17 mutants...
December 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Luchang Deng, Siwei Zhang, Geling Wang, Shijun Fan, Meng Li, Weilan Chen, Bin Tu, Jun Tan, Yuping Wang, Bingtian Ma, Shigui Li, Peng Qin
Anther and pollen development are crucial processes of plant male reproduction. Although a number of genes involved in these processes have been identified, the regulatory networks of pollen and anther development are still unclear. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2b (OsEMF2b) is important for rice development. Its biological function in floral organ, flowering time and meristem determinacy have been well-studied, but its role, if only, on male reproduction is still unknown, because null mutants of OsEMF2b barely have anthers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Camille Madec
Is variation in pollen-related floral traits linked to variation in the composition and abundance of pollinators present in an area? Parker et al. (2017) found that, in the wildflower Claytonia virginica, pollen release by anthers was slower and more staggered at northern sites dominated by a pollen-foraging bee than at southern sites where the main pollinator is a nectar-collecting bee fly. Their findings suggest that C. virginica populations may be adapted to their local pollinator environment. This article is protected by copyright...
December 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Qian Zhao, Lujian Zhou, Jianchao Liu, Xiaoxia Du, Muhammad-Asad-Ullah Asad, Fudeng Huang, Gang Pan, Fangmin Cheng
High temperature (HT) at meiosis stage is one of most important environment constraint affecting spikelet fertility and rice yield. In this paper, the effects of HT exposure at meiosis stage on the ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation, various superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC1.15.1.11) isozymes in developing anther, and its relationship with HT-induced decline in pollen viability and floret fertility were investigated by using four rice cultivars differing in heat tolerance under well-controlled climatic condition...
November 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Takashi Okada, J E A Ridma M Jayasinghe, Moureen Nansamba, Mathieu Baes, Patricia Warner, Allan Kouidri, David Correia, Vy Nguyen, Ryan Whitford, Ute Baumann
Bread wheat is strongly autogamous; however, an opportunity for outcrossing occurs when self-pollination fails and florets open. The first phase of floret opening at anthesis is short and induced by lodicule turgidity. Some wheat florets re-open post-anthesis for several days, known as the 'second opening', for which the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed detailed physiological, anatomical, and histological investigations to understand the biological basis of the flower opening process...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Youhui Tian, Senlin Xiao, Juan Liu, Yamuna Somaratne, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Huairen Zhang, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
The anther cuticle and pollen wall function as physical barriers that protect genetic material from various environmental stresses. The anther cuticle is composed of wax and cutin, the pollen wall includes exine and intine, and the components of the outer exine are collectively called sporopollenin. Other than cuticle wax, cutin and sporopollenin are biopolymers compounds. The precise constituents and developmental mechanism of these biopolymeric are poorly understood. Here, we reported a complete male sterile mutant, male sterile6021, in maize...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, Eric C Rouchka, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host, Silene latifolia, serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores...
December 1, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Tinglu Yuan, Wei-Jie Huang, Juan He, Dong Zhang, Weihua Tang
In flowering plants, germ lines are induced from somatic meristems within reproductive organs. Within anthers, germinal cell initials first undergo several rounds of mitotic proliferation before synchronously entering meiosis. Our understanding of the progression and the molecular basis of this mitosis to meiosis transition is still limited. Taking advantage of the correlation between anther length and pre-meiotic germinal cell development in maize, we studied the transcriptome dynamics of germinal cells at three sequential stages, i...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Shigeo Takumi
The ability to cause reproductive isolation often varies among individuals within a plant species. We addressed whether such polymorphism influenced speciation of the allopolyploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome) by evaluating the expression of pre-pollination (outcrossing potential) and post-pollination (crossability) barriers in Aegilops tauschii Coss. (the D genome progenitor). In total, 201 Ae. tauschii accessions representing the entire natural habitat range of the species were used for anther length measurement and artificial crosses with a Triticum turgidum L...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Hnin Pwint Wai, Hongliang Xiong, Xianhua Shen, Haohua He, Song Yan
High temperature stress is a major obstacle in rice productivity. Considerable progress has been made on studying heat tolerance (HT) at different stages. However, the genetic basis of HT at the booting stage is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the morphological features of a heat-sensitive japonica cultivar Sasanishiki under natural high temperature stress at the booting stage. The anthers became smaller and the number, and fertility, of pollen grains were decreased significantly. As a result, there was a dramatic reduction in spikelet fertility...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
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