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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088261/parquetina-nigrescens-leaves-chemical-profile-and-influence-on-the-physical-and-biochemical-indices-of-sexual-activity-of-male-wistar-rats
#1
Omowumi Titilola Kayode, Musa Toyin Yakubu
OBJECTIVE: The leaves of Parquetina nigrescens have been claimed in folk medicine to be useful for managing sexual dysfunction, but there is inadequate scientific evidence for this claim. This investigation was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (AEPN) in rats induced with sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Male rats were allocated into various groups after being induced into sexual dysfunction with paroxetine hydrochloride...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#2
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#3
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081487/comparative-genome-wide-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-sbp-genes-from-potato-solanum-tuberosum
#4
Musa Kavas, Aslıhan Kurt Kızıldoğan, Büşra Abanoz
Flowering time is a very important phase in transition to reproductive stage of life in higher plants. SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP) gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in regulation of several developmental processes, especially flowering. Although SBP-box genes have been identified in different plants, there have been no study indicating the regulatory effect of SBP box in potato flowering. Here, we report for the first time the identification and characterization of SBP-box transcription factors as well as determination of expression level of SBP-box genes in Solanum tuberosum L...
January 4, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079938/an-enigmatic-hawaiian-moth-is-a-missing-link-in-the-adaptive-radiation-of-schiedea
#5
Stephen G Weller, Ann K Sakai, Diane R Campbell, John M Powers, Sean R Peña, Matthew J Keir, Alexander K Loomis, Scott M Heintzman, Lauren Weisenberger
Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#6
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078623/identification-of-host-fruit-volatiles-from-snowberry-symphoricarpos-albus-attractive-to-rhagoletis-zephyria-flies-from-the-western-united-states
#7
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078486/two-nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-por-isoforms-play-distinct-roles-in-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#8
Choon-Tak Kwon, Suk-Hwan Kim, Giha Song, Dami Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077773/low-functional-diversity-promotes-niche-changes-in-natural-island-pollinator-communities
#9
Masayoshi K Hiraiwa, Atushi Ushimaru
Functional diversity loss among pollinators has rapidly progressed across the globe and is expected to influence plant-pollinator interactions in natural communities. Although recent findings suggest that the disappearance of a certain pollinator functional group may cause niche expansions and/or shifts in other groups, no study has examined this prediction in natural communities with high plant and pollinator diversities. By comparing coastal pollination networks on continental and oceanic islands, we examined how community-level flower visit patterns are influenced by the relative biomass of long-tongued pollinators (RBLP)...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076366/plum-fruit-development-occurs-via-gibberellin-sensitive-and-insensitive-della-repressors
#10
Islam El-Sharkawy, Sherif Sherif, Mahboob Abdulla, Subramanian Jayasankar
Fruit growth depends on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by triggering degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which such proteins contribute to GA-mediated fruit development remains to be clarified. Three new plum genes encoding DELLA proteins, PslGAI, PslRGL and PslRGA were isolated and functionally characterized. Analysis of expression profile during fruit development suggested that PslDELLA are transcriptionally regulated during flower and fruit ontogeny with potential positive regulation by GA and ethylene, depending on organ and developmental stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075480/costs-of-selfing-prevent-the-spread-of-a-self-compatibility-mutation-that-causes-reproductive-assurance
#11
Nathan C Layman, M Thilina R Fernando, Christopher R Herlihy, Jeremiah W Busch
In flowering plants, shifts from outcrossing to partial or complete self-fertilization have occurred independently thousands of times, yet the underlying adaptive processes are difficult to discern. Selfing's ability to provide reproductive assurance when pollination is uncertain is an oft-cited ecological explanation for its evolution, but this benefit may be outweighed by genetic costs diminishing its selective advantage over outcrossing. We directly studied the fitness effects of a self-compatibility (SC) mutation that was backcrossed into a self-incompatible (SI) population of Leavenworthia alabamica, illuminating the direction and magnitude of selection on the mating-system modifier...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#12
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073905/feeding-by-melanaphis-sacchari-hemiptera-aphididae-facilitates-use-of-sorghum-by-rhopalosiphum-padi-hemiptera-aphididae-but-reciprocal-effects-are-negative
#13
J P Michaud, Yun Zhang, Clint Bain
In the process of feeding, aphids modify the physiology of their host plants in species-specific ways, and plant responses to these aggressions are often genotype- or cultivar-specific. Thus, different aphid species sharing a host can influence each other's fitness via plant-mediated interactions, usually with negative and asymmetric impacts. Here, we show that feeding by the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner, can improve the suitability of sorghum as a host plant for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073535/new-oxylipins-produced-at-the-end-of-a-diatom-bloom-and-their-effects-on-copepod-reproductive-success-and-gene-expression-levels
#14
Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Vittoria Roncalli, Angela Amoresano, Carolina Fontanarosa, Mauro Bastianini, Federica Braga, Ylenia Carotenuto, Adrianna Ianora
Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. However, these unicellular organisms produce secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, collectively termed oxylipins, with negative effects on predators, such as copepods, that feed on them (e.g. reduction in survival, egg production and hatching success) and, indirectly, on higher trophic levels. Here, a multidisciplinary study (oxylipin measurements, copepod fitness, gene expression analyses, chlorophyll distribution, phytoplankton composition, physico-chemical characteristics) was carried out at the end of the spring diatom bloom in April 2011 in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) in order to deeply investigate copepod-diatom interactions, chemical communication and response pathways...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#15
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071671/effect-of-seed-morph-and-light-level-on-growth-and-reproduction-of-the-amphicarpic-plant-amphicarpaea-edgeworthii-fabaceae
#16
Keliang Zhang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang
Amphicarpic plants produce aerial and subterranean fruits on an individual plant, and these heteromorphic diaspores give rise to plants that differ in growth and ecology. Amphicarpaea edgeworthii is a summer annual amphicarpic species that grows over a range of light levels. We aimed to compare the response to shading intensity of plants of A. edgeworthii grown throughout their life cycle from aerial seeds (ASP) and from subterranean seeds (SSP). We hypothesized that vegetative and reproductive growth of plants from ASP and SSP respond differently to light...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070736/genome-wide-analysis-of-mirnas-and-tasi-rnas-in-zea-mays-in-response-to-phosphate-deficiency
#17
Saurabh Gupta, Manju Kumari, Himansu Kumar, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
Globally important cereal crop maize provides important nutritions and starch in dietary foods. Low phosphate (LPi) availability in the soil frequently limits the maize quality and yield across the world. Small non-coding RNAs (Snc-RNAs) play crucial roles in growth and adaptation of plants to the environment. Snc-RNAs like microRNAs (miRs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (Tasi-Rs) play important functions in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, which controls plant development, reproduction, and biotic/abiotic stress responses...
January 9, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#18
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068913/microrna-157-targeted-spl-genes-regulate-floral-organ-size-and-ovule-production-in-cotton
#19
Nian Liu, Lili Tu, Lichen Wang, Haiyan Hu, Jiao Xu, Xianlong Zhang
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been involved in regulation of diverse spectrum of plant development processes in many species. In cotton, few miRNAs have been well characterised in floral organ development. Floral organ, which should be finely tuned, is a crucial factor affecting the yield of cotton. Therefore, it is well worth revealing the function of miRNAs in regulation of floral organ development. Here, we report the role of miRNA156/157 in regulation of floral organ size in cotton...
January 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068345/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-mechanisms-limit-heading-date-1-hd1-function-to-adapt-rice-to-high-latitudes
#20
Daniela Goretti, Damiano Martignago, Martina Landini, Vittoria Brambilla, Jorge Gómez-Ariza, Nerina Gnesutta, Francesca Galbiati, Silvio Collani, Hiroki Takagi, Ryohei Terauchi, Roberto Mantovani, Fabio Fornara
Rice flowering is controlled by changes in the photoperiod that promote the transition to the reproductive phase as days become shorter. Natural genetic variation for flowering time has been largely documented and has been instrumental to define the genetics of the photoperiodic pathway, as well as providing valuable material for artificial selection of varieties better adapted to local environments. We mined genetic variation in a collection of rice varieties highly adapted to European regions and isolated distinct variants of the long day repressor HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) that perturb its expression or protein function...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
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