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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786865/infection-with-phytopathogenic-bacterium-inhibits-melatonin-biosynthesis-decreases-longevity-of-its-vector-and-suppresses-the-free-radical-defense
#1
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB; also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biological processes, such as growth and multiplication...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783978/climatic-differentiation-in-polyploid-apomictic-ranunculus-auricomus-complex-in-europe
#2
Juraj Paule, Franz G Dunkel, Marco Schmidt, Thomas Gregor
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy and apomixis are important factors influencing plant distributions often resulting in range shifts, expansions and geographical parthenogenesis. We used the Ranunculus auricomus complex as a model to asses if the past and present distribution and climatic preferences were determined by these phenomena. RESULTS: Ecological differentiation among diploids and polyploids was tested by comparing the sets of climatic variables and distribution modelling using 191 novel ploidy estimations and 561 literature data...
May 21, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781797/from-plants-to-nematodes-serratia-grimesii-bxf1-genome-reveals-an-adaptation-to-the-modulation-of-multi-species-interactions
#3
Francisco Nascimento, Cláudia Vicente, Peter Cock, Maria Tavares, Márcio Rossi, Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota
Serratia grimesii BXF1 is a bacterium with the ability to modulate the development of several eukaryotic hosts. Strain BXF1 was isolated from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease affecting pine forests worldwide. This bacterium potentiates Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reproduction, acts as a beneficial pine endophyte, and possesses fungal and bacterial antagonistic activities, further indicating a complex role in a wide range of trophic relationships. In this work, we describe and analyse the genome sequence of strain BXF1, and discuss several important aspects of its ecological role...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781573/overexpression-of-ostf1l-a-rice-hd-zip-transcription-factor-promotes-lignin-biosynthesis-and-stomatal-closure-that-improves-drought-tolerance
#4
Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought stress seriously impacts on plant development and productivity. Improvement of drought tolerance without yield penalty is a great challenge in crop biotechnology. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene, OsTF1L (Oryza sativa transcription factor 1-like), is a key regulator of drought tolerance mechanisms. Overexpression of the OsTF1L in rice significantly increased drought tolerance at the vegetative stages of growth and promoted both effective photosynthesis and a reduction in the water loss rate under drought conditions...
May 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780216/rapid-genotype-independent-zea-mays-l-maize-transformation-via-direct-somatic-embryogenesis
#5
Keith Lowe, Mauricio La Rota, George Hoerster, Craig Hastings, Ning Wang, Mark Chamberlin, Emily Wu, Todd Jones, William Gordon-Kamm
Constitutive expression of the Zea mays L. (maize) morphogenic transcription factors Baby Boom ( Bbm ) and Wuschel2 ( Wus2 ) in maize can not only greatly increase transformation efficiency but can also induce phenotypic abnormalities and sterility. In an effort to alleviate the pleiotropic effects of constitutive expression, a genome wide search was undertaken to find suitable maize promoters to drive tissue and timing-specific expression of the transformation enhancing genes Bbm and Wus2 . A promoter from a maize phospholipid transferase protein gene ( Zm - PLTP pro ) was identified based on its expression in leaves, embryos, and callus while being downregulated in roots, meristems, and reproductive tissues...
2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780174/cereal-progenitors-differ-in-stand-harvest-characteristics-from-related-wild-grasses
#6
Catherine Preece, Natalie F Clamp, Gemma Warham, Michael Charles, Mark Rees, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
The domestication of crops in the Fertile Crescent began approximately 10,000 years ago indicating a change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, agriculture-based existence. The exploitation of wild plants changed during this transition, such that a small number of crops were domesticated from the broader range of species gathered from the wild. However, the reasons for this change are unclear.Previous studies have shown unexpectedly that crop progenitors are not consistently higher yielding than related wild grass species, when growing without competition...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779125/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-a-rare-endemic-cactus-and-an-assessment-of-its-genetic-relationship-with-a-more-common-congener
#7
Niraj Rayamajhi, Jyotsna Sharma
Endemic, obligate outcrossing plant species with narrow geographic distributions and disjunct populations are prone to loss of genetic diversity. Simultaneously, delineating clear species boundaries is important for targeted conservation efforts. The rare and endemic cactus, Sclerocactus brevihamatus subsp. tobuschii (SBT), has a parapatric relationship with Sclerocactus brevihamatus subsp. brevihamatus (SBB) but genetic distance between the two taxa is unknown. We: (1) developed taxon-specific polymorphic microsatellites, (2) assessed genetic diversity within and among nine populations of SBT, and within one population of SBB, and (3) estimated the genetic relationship between the two subspecies...
May 19, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778584/evaluating-the-capacity-of-california-s-publicly-funded-universities-to-provide-medication-abortion
#8
Sarah Raifman, Patricia Anderson, Shelly Kaller, Diane Tober, Daniel Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the capacity of the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) student health centers to provide medication abortion (MA), to identify gaps in resources required to implement proposed Senate Bill 320, which would mandate the provision of MA on UC and CSU campuses, and to explore California student health center staff perspectives on the benefits and challenges of providing MA. STUDY DESIGN: UC and CSU student health center (SHC) staff participated in a self-administered online survey; we conducted in-depth data collection including site visits and conference calls at a subset of campuses...
May 17, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777000/nmt1-and-nmt3-n-methyltransferase-activity-is-critical-to-lipid-homeostasis-morphogenesis-and-reproduction
#9
Weihua Chen, Hooman Salari, Matthew C Taylor, Ricarda Jost, Oliver Berkowitz, Russell Barrow, Deyun Qiu, Remi Branco, Josette Masle
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major membrane phospholipid and a precursor for most signalling molecules. Understanding its synthesis is important for improving plant growth, nutritional value and resistance to stress. PC synthesis is complex, involving several interconnected pathways, one of which proceeds from serine-derived phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to form phosphocholine (PCho) through three sequential phospho-base methylations catalysed by phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PEAMTs). The contribution of this pathway to the production of PC and plant growth has been a matter of some debate...
May 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773129/in-vitro-acaricide-and-anticholinesterase-activities-of-digitaria-insularis-poaceae-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus
#10
Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Soraia de Souza Santa Rosa, Nayana Borges das Mercês, Taiane Menezes Serra, Rosângela Soares Uzeda, Isabella Mary Alves Reis, Mariana Borges Botura, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
Medicinal plants have been proposed as an alternative for acaricide control, aiming to develop lower-cost and eco-friendly ectoparasiticide products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves of Digitaria insularis on the reproductive efficacy of the bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Also, we investigated the possible relation with the anticholinesterase mechanism. The effect of the crude hydroethanolic (CH), hexanic (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT) and residual hydroethanolic (RH) extracts, as well as four fractions of HE, were evaluated using adult immersion test...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772073/julius-sachs-1868-the-father-of-plant-physiology
#11
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
The year 2018 marks the 150th anniversary of the first publication of Julius von Sachs' (1832-1897) Lehrbuch der Botanik (Textbook of Botany), which provided a comprehensive summary of what was then known about the plant sciences. Three years earlier, in 1865, Sachs produced the equally impressive Handbuch der Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Handbook of Experimental Plant Physiology), which summarized the state of knowledge in all aspects of the discipline known today as plant physiology. Both of these books provided numerous insights based on Sachs' seminal experiments...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771908/elevated-temperature-increases-meiotic-crossover-frequency-via-the-interfering-type-i-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Hongkuan Wang, Ashley R Albright, Scott M Lewis, Alexander R Bennett, Jiyue Huang, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang, Gregory P Copenhaver
For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770613/in-situ-chemically-specific-mapping-of-agrochemical-seed-coatings-using-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy
#13
Chun-Chin Wang, Siân Moorhouse, Chris Stain, Mark Seymour, Ellen Green, Steven Penfield, Julian Moger
Providing sufficient, healthy food for the increasing global population is putting a great deal of pressure on the agrochemical industry to maximise crop yields without sustaining environmental damage. The growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination and emergence of sown seeds, which is affected greatly by seed disease. This can be most effectively controlled by treating seeds with pesticides before they are sown. An effective seed coating treatment requires a high surface coverage and adhesion of active ingredients onto the seed surface and the addition of adhesive agents in coating formulations plays a key role in achieving this...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768998/tuber-lectins-with-potentially-exploitable-bioactivities
#14
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong, Ryno Naude, Krzysztof Rolka, Tak Fu Tse, Helen Chan, Ryan Tse, Stephen Cho Wing Sze
Lectins are a group of proteins or glycoproteins with various potentially exploitable bioactivities and have been capturing more interest recently. They have been isolated and reported from various tissues of a diversity of plant species. Tubers are modified and enlarged plant structures derived from stems or roots that are used for nutrient storage and asexual reproduction. A number of plants such as yam, taro and potato are grown for their edible tubers, and lectins are found to be one of the major storage proteins...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767553/mating-system-in-the-brown-rot-pathogens-monilinia-fructicola-monilinia-laxa-and-monilinia-fructigena
#15
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766387/comparative-morphological-analysis-of-two-parallel-mycoheterotrophic-transitions-reveals-divergent-and-convergent-traits-in-the-genus-pyrola-pyroleae-ericaceae
#16
Kohtaroh Shutoh, Kenji Suetsugu, Shingo Kaneko, Takahide Kurosawa
The genus Pyrola includes species with different degree of mycoheterotrophy; some species possess individuals that rely on all carbon through their associations with fungi (full mycoheterotrophy, FM), whereas some species obtain carbon through both fungi and photosynthesis by itself (partial mycoheterotrophy, PM). To investigate how plant functional traits of photosynthesis and reproduction are related to the degree of mycoheterotrophy in the initial stage of the transition from PM to FM, we determined morphological traits in FM (or nearly FM) and PM species in two independent lineages, P...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765103/identification-of-a-flagellar-protein-implicated-in-the-gravitaxis-in-the-flagellate-euglena-gracilis
#17
Adeel Nasir, Aude Le Bail, Viktor Daiker, Janine Klima, Peter Richter, Michael Lebert
Flagellated cells are of great evolutionary importance across animal and plant species. Unlike higher plants, flagellated cells are involved in reproduction of macro-algae as well as in early diverging land plants. Euglena gracilis is an emerging flagellated model organism. The current study reports that a specific calmodulin (CaM2) involved in gravitaxis of E. gracilis interacts with an evolutionary conserved flagellar protein, EgPCDUF4201. The subsequent molecular analysis showed clearly that EgPCDUF4201 is also involved in gravitaxis...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764982/superman-regulates-floral-whorl-boundaries-through-control-of-auxin-biosynthesis
#18
Yifeng Xu, Nathanaël Prunet, Eng-Seng Gan, Yanbin Wang, Darragh Stewart, Frank Wellmer, Jiangbo Huang, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka Tatsumi, Mikiko Kojima, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Thomas P Jack, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Toshiro Ito
Proper floral patterning, including the number and position of floral organs in most plant species, is tightly controlled by the precise regulation of the persistence and size of floral meristems (FMs). In Arabidopsis , two known feedback pathways, one composed of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and the other composed of AGAMOUS (AG) and WUS, spatially and temporally control floral stem cells, respectively. However, mounting evidence suggests that other factors, including phytohormones, are also involved in floral meristem regulation...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#19
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761655/fennel-induces-cytotoxic-effects-against-testicular-germ-cells-in-mice-evidences-for-suppressed-pre-implantation-embryo-development
#20
Aram Minas, Gholamreza Najafi, Ali Shalizar Jalali, Mazdak Razi
Foeniculum vulgare (FVE; fennel) is an aromatic plant belonging to Umbelliferae family, which is widely used in traditional societies because of its different pharmaceutical properties. To uncover the fennel-derived essential oil (FVEO)-induced effects on male reproductive potential, 24 mature male albino mice were divided into, control, 0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 mg kg-1 FVEO-received groups. Following 35 days, the animals were euthanized and the testicular tissue and sperm samples were collected. The histological alterations, tubular differentiation (TDI), spermiogenesis (SPI) indices, apoptosis ratio, and RNA damage of germinal cells were analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
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