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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141230/sub-minute-phosphoregulation-of-cell-cycle-systems-during-plasmodium-gamete-formation
#1
Brandon M Invergo, Mathieu Brochet, Lu Yu, Jyoti Choudhary, Pedro Beltrao, Oliver Billker
The transmission of malaria parasites to mosquitoes relies on the rapid induction of sexual reproduction upon their ingestion into a blood meal. Haploid female and male gametocytes become activated and emerge from their host cells, and the males enter the cell cycle to produce eight microgametes. The synchronized nature of gametogenesis allowed us to investigate phosphorylation signaling during its first minute in Plasmodium berghei via a high-resolution time course of the phosphoproteome. This revealed an unexpectedly broad response, with proteins related to distinct cell cycle events undergoing simultaneous phosphoregulation...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139256/-correlative-analysis-advance-of-chemical-constituents-of-polyporus-umbellatus-and-armillaria-mellea
#2
REVIEW
Jing-Wen Huang, Chang-Jiang-Sheng Lai, Yuan Yuan, Min Zhang, Jun-Hui Zhou, Lu-Qi Huang
Medicinal Polyporus umbellatus is the dry sclerotia of P. umbellatus, with the effect of diuresis; Armillaria mellea is a parasitic fungus which can infect plants up to 300 genera, with sedative, anticonvulsant and some other biological activities. As the medicinal value of P. umbellatus and A. mellea is increasingly wide concerned, the market quantity demanded of them is gradually increased and the demand outstrips the supply. The symbiotic A. mellea and P. umbellatus are both the medicinal and edible fungi with diverse activities, including hypoglycemic action, improve immunity and antitumor and so on...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136171/mating-system-and-effective-population-size-of-the-overexploited-neotropical-tree-myroxylon-peruiferum-l-f-and-their-impact-on-seedling-production
#3
Ellida de Aguiar Silvestre, Kaiser Dias Schwarcz, Carolina Grando, Jaqueline Bueno de Campos, Patricia Sanae Sujii, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi, Camila Menezes Trindade Macrini, José Baldin Pinheiro, Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion, Maria Imaculada Zucchi
The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136042/effects-of-small-scale-clustering-of-flowers-on-pollinator-foraging-behaviour-and-flower-visitation-rate
#4
Asma Akter, Paolo Biella, Jan Klecka
Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134709/light-sensing-by-opsins-and-fungal-ecology-nop-1-modulates-entry-into-sexual-reproduction-in-response-to-environmental-cues
#5
Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C Dunlap, Jeffrey P Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the switch-but fungal genomes harbor diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes, but homologs of the Fusarium opsin-like protein CarO were present only in plant-associated fungi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134443/circadian-clock-during-plant-development
#6
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134407/epiphytic-bacteria-alter-floral-scent-emissions
#7
Carola Helletsgruber, Stefan Dötterl, Ulrike Ruprecht, Robert R Junker
Floral scents are key mediators of biotic interactions between flowers and various organisms such as pollinators, antagonistic animals and bacteria. It has been shown that emissions of floral volatiles are influenced by interactions with other organisms at the levels of roots, leaves and flowers. However, it is largely unknown whether and how epiphytic bacteria associated with flowers affect the composition of floral scent. By comparing volatiles of sterile and inoculated plants we found that bacteria may add components, induce or reduce the emission of compounds, and potentially catabolize others...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134290/re-emergence-of-lilium-callosum-sieb-et-zucc-in-taiwan-after-a-fire-allows-propagation-and-renews-the-possibility-of-conservation
#8
Ying Chun Chen, Yang Jung Huang, Chiu Mei Wang, Chin An Chiu, Huey Ling Lin, Pei Fang Lee, Ya Ming Cheng, Chen Chang
BACKGROUND: Lilium callosum is native to Taiwan, but little is known about it since it has been considered extinct since 1915. After the rediscovery of this rare species after a fire in 2011 in Tunghsiao Township, intensive work has been conducted to count the number in the wild population, to develop a conservation strategy, and to understand its reproductive characteristics and even economic potential. RESULTS: To conserve the germplasm of this population, three scales from a wild L...
November 13, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132437/hap2-a-novel-gene-in-babesia-bigemina-is-expressed-in-tick-stages-and-specific-antibodies-block-zygote-formation
#9
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127927/hitching-a-ride-seed-accrual-rates-on-different-types-of-vehicles
#10
Lisa J Rew, Tyler J Brummer, Fredric W Pollnac, Christian D Larson, Kimberley T Taylor, Mark L Taper, Joseph D Fleming, Harold E Balbach
Human activities, from resource extraction to recreation, are increasing global connectivity, especially to less-disturbed and previously inaccessible places. Such activities necessitate road networks and vehicles. Vehicles can transport reproductive plant propagules long distances, thereby increasing the risk of invasive plant species transport and dispersal. Subsequent invasions by less desirable species have significant implications for the future of threatened species and habitats. The goal of this study was to understand vehicle seed accrual by different vehicle types and under different driving conditions, and to evaluate different mitigation strategies...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127912/pesticides-contaminated-dust-exposure-risk-diagnosis-and-exposure-markers-in-occupational-and-residential-settings-of-lahore-pakistan
#11
Sidra Waheed, Crispin Halsall, Andrew J Sweetman, Kevin C Jones, Riffat Naseem Malik
There are few studies documenting the dust loaded with pesticides as a potential non-dietary exposure source for occupational worker and populations living near agricultural farms and pesticides formulation plants. In present study we have evaluated the pesticide concentration in dust from potential sites and relevant health risk from dust ingestion. Furthermore, the effect of currently used pesticides was investigated on blood and urine parameters of subjects: farmer, factory worker, urban resident and rural resident and controlled subjects with presumably different levels of exposure...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#12
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#13
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125947/to-grow-or-not-to-grow-a-power-saving-program-induced-in-dormant-buds
#14
REVIEW
Elena Sánchez Martín-Fontecha, Carlos Tarancón, Pilar Cubas
Plant shoot branching patterns determine leaf, flower and fruit production, and thus reproductive success and yield. Branch primordia, or axillary buds, arise in the axils of leaves and their decision to either grow or enter dormancy is coordinated at the whole plant level. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles of axillary buds entering dormancy have identified a shared set of responses that closely resemble a Low Energy Syndrome. This syndrome is aimed at saving carbon use to support essential maintenance functions, rather than additional growth, and involves growth arrest (thus dormancy), metabolic reprogramming and hormone signalling...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125852/processes-affecting-altitudinal-distribution-of-invasive-ageratina-adenophora-in-western-himalaya-the-role-of-local-adaptation-and-the-importance-of-different-life-cycle-stages
#15
Arunava Datta, Ingolf Kühn, Mustaqeem Ahmad, Stefan Michalski, Harald Auge
The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation) and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124795/proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-provides-strong-evidence-for-acetylated-proteins-involved-in-plant-meiosis-and-tapetum-function
#16
Xiaojing Li, Juanying Ye, Hong Ma, Pingli Lu
Protein lysine acetylation (KAC) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, playing important biological roles in many organisms. Although KAC was shown to affect reproductive development and meiosis in yeast and animals, similar studies are largely lacking in flowering plants, especially in a proteome-scale investigation for a certain reproductive stage. Here, we reported results from a proteomic investigation to detect KAC status of the developing rice anthers near the time of meiosis (RAM), providing strong biochemical evidence for roles of many KAC-affected proteins during rice anther development and meiosis...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124341/phytophagy-of-omnivorous-predator-macrolophus-pygmaeus-affects-performance-of-herbivores-through-induced-plant-defences
#17
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore...
November 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123539/the-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-drnl-modulates-gynoecium-development-and-affects-its-response-to-cytokinin
#18
Yolanda Durán-Medina, Joanna Serwatowska, J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123538/sex-specific-response-to-stress-in-populus
#19
REVIEW
Nataliya V Melnikova, Elena V Borkhert, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Alexey A Dmitriev
Populus is an effective model for genetic studies in trees. The genus Populus includes dioecious species, and the differences exhibited in males and females have been intensively studied. This review focused on the distinctions between male and female poplar and aspen plants under stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrient deficiency on morphological, physiological, proteome, and gene expression levels. In most studies, males of Populus species were more adaptive to the majority of the stress conditions and showed less damage, better growth, and higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity than that of the females...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123532/food-legumes-and-rising-temperatures-effects-adaptive-functional-mechanisms-specific-to-reproductive-growth-stage-and-strategies-to-improve-heat-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Bindumadhava HanumanthaRao, Ramakrishnan M Nair, P V Vara Prasad, Shiv Kumar, Pooran M Gaur, Muhammad Farooq, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Harsh Nayyar
Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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