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Plant reproduction

Tetsuya Higashiyama
Many receptor-like kinases localized at the pollen tube tip precisely control tube functions in flowering plants. Two recent reports have identified autocrine peptide ligands and receptor systems, providing insight into the molecular machinery that controls pollen tube growth and termination.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Katri Nissinen, Virpi Virjamo, Lauri Mehtätalo, Anu Lavola, Anu Valtonen, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
In boreal woody plants, concentrations of defensive phenolic compounds are expected to be at a high level during the juvenile phase and decrease in maturity, although there is variation between plant species. Females of dioecious species, like most of the Salicaceae, are expected to invest their resources in defense and reproduction, while males are expected to be more growth-oriented. We studied age- and sex-dependent changes in leaf and stem phenolics, and in height and diameter growth in a dioecious Salix myrsinifolia plants over a seven-year time period...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hector Urbina, Martin F Breed, Weizhou Zhao, Kanaka Lakshmi Gurrala, Siv G E Andersson, Jon Ågren, Sandra Baldauf, Anna Rosling
Biotic and abiotic conditions in soil pose major constraints on growth and reproductive success of plants. Fungi are important agents in plant soil interactions but the belowground mycobiota associated with plants remains poorly understood. We grew one genotype each from Sweden and Italy of the widely-studied plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in organic topsoil local to the Swedish genotype, and harvested after ten weeks. Total DNA was extracted from three belowground compartments: endosphere (sonicated roots), rhizosphere and bulk soil, and fungal communities were characterized from each by amplification and sequencing of the fungal barcode region ITS2...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
A Benatto, A F Mogor, S C Penteado, L S Pereira, F J S Salas, M A C Zawadneak
Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the predominant aphid in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) production systems in Brazil. This pest species directly damages the plants and is also responsible for spreading viruses. Further, C. fragaefolii often renders strawberry cultivation unviable, because of its high reproductive rate, as well as the large number of individuals generated through parthenogenesis. The present study aimed to (1) evaluate the feeding behavior of C. fragaefolii in four strawberry cultivars (Albion, Aromas, Camarosa, and San Andreas) and (2) identify the resistance factors associated with the number and type of trichomes in the cultivars, and also its effect on the feeding behavior of C...
March 17, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Tiago Falótico, Paulo Henrique M Coutinho, Carolina Q Bueno, Henrique P Rufo, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are proficient tool users, and the use of stone tools occurs in several populations, mostly to crack open encased foods. Two well-studied Brazilian populations of Sapajus libidinosus inhabit Fazenda Boa Vista and Serra da Capivara National Park and present different behavioral sets regarding tool use. Serra das Confusões National Park (SCoNP) lies between those sites, but little is known about the capuchin monkey population that lives there. To begin unraveling the capuchin behavior in this area, we conducted a brief survey for tool use sites...
March 17, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Mark A Lee
Forage plants are valuable because they maintain wild and domesticated herbivores, and sustain the delivery of meat, milk and other commodities. Forage plants contain different quantities of fibre, lignin, minerals and protein, and vary in the proportion of their tissue that can be digested by herbivores. These nutritive components are important determinants of consumer growth rates, reproductive success and behaviour. A dataset was compiled to quantify variation in forage plant nutritive values within- and between-plant species, and to assess variation between plant functional groups and bioclimatic zones...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Lejon Kralemann, Romain Scalone, Lars Andersson, Lars Hennig
During the last centuries, the North-American common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) invaded a large part of the globe. Local adaptation of this species was revealed by a common garden experiment, demonstrating that the distribution of the species in Europe could extend considerably to the North. Our study compares two populations of common ragweed (one from the native range and one from the invaded range) that differ in flowering time in the wild: the invasive population flowers earlier than the native population under non-inductive long-day photoperiods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) is an important legume crop, which often experience drought stress especially at the flowering and grain filling phenological stages. The availability of efficient and robust screening tools based on relevant non-destructive quantifiable traits would facilitate research on crop improvement for drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of 37 lentil genotypes using infrared thermal imaging (IRTI), drought tolerance parameters and multivariate data analysis...
March 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Natthanon Leelarasamee, Lei Zhang, Cynthia Gleason
Root-knot nematodes secrete effectors that manipulate their host plant cells so that the nematode can successfully establish feeding sites and complete its lifecycle. The root-knot nematode feeding structures, their "giant cells," undergo extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. Previous cytological studies have shown the cytoplasmic actin within the feeding sites looks diffuse. In an effort to study root-knot nematode effectors that are involved in giant cell organogenesis, we have identified a nematode effector called MiPFN3 (Meloidogyne incognita Profilin 3)...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Xue Yong, Xuehua Xie, Yu Han, Yushu Li, Lidan Sun, Qixiang Zhang
The survival in freezing temperature for woody plants is exclusively dependent on the perception of coldness and induction of dormancy. CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factors join cold-response conduits and the DAM genes, especially PmDAM6, are well-known regulators of dormancy. Despite the immense importance, little is documented on the association between CBF proteins and the complexity of the promoter region in PmDAM6 with the function of bud dormancy in P. mume. Therefore, this study was based on the cloning of PmDAM6 and six PmCBFs to evaluate their integral roles in the process of bud development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina Pfaff, Hans F Ehrnsberger, Maria Flores-Tornero, Brian B Soerensen, Thomas Schubert, Gernot Längst, Joachim Griesenbeck, Stefanie Sprunck, Marion Grasser, Klaus D Grasser
The regulated transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to the cytosol is a critical step linking transcript synthesis and processing with translation. However, in plants, only few of the factors that act in the mRNA export pathway have been functionally characterised. Flowering plant genomes encode several members of the ALY protein family, which function as mRNA export factors in other organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana ALY1-4 are commonly detected in root and leaf cells, but are differentially expressed in reproductive tissue...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Keigo Nakamura, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Koichi Fujimoto, Keiji Nakajima, Hirofumi Wada
The female sex organ of the liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ) has a characteristic parasol-like form highly suitable for collecting water droplets containing sperm for fertilization. Motivated by this observation and using three-dimensional printing techniques, we develop a parasol-like rigid object that can grab, transport and release water droplets of a maximum size of about 1 cm. By combining experiments and scaling theory, we quantify the object's fundamental wetting and fluid dynamical properties. We construct a stability phase diagram and suggest that it is largely insensitive to properties of liquids such as surface tension and viscosity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Christina Maria Franck, Jens Westermann, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier
Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls protecting them from a myriad of environmental challenges. For successful habitat adaptation, extracellular cues are perceived at the cell wall and relayed to downstream signaling constituents to mediate dynamic cell wall remodeling and adapted intracellular responses. Plant malectin-like receptor kinases, also known as Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like proteins (CrRLK1Ls), take part in these perception and relay processes. CrRLK1Ls are involved in many different plant functions...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Raffaele Rani, Konrad Abramowicz, Daniel S Falster, Frank Sterck, Åke Brännström
Allocation of carbohydrates between competing organs is fundamental to plant development, growth and productivity. Carbohydrates are synthesized in mature leaves and distributed via the phloem vasculature to developing buds where they are consumed to produce new biomass. The distribution and mass-allocation processes within the plant remain poorly understood and may involve complex feedbacks between different plant functions, with implications for the emergent structure of the plant. Here, we investigate how the order in which dormant buds are flushed affects the development of tree size and reproductive output during the first 20 years of growth in full light and shaded canopy environments...
March 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Lindsay D Leverett, George F Schieder Iv, Kathleen Donohue
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenology, the seasonal timing of development, can alter biotic interactions. Emergence from dormant or quiescent stages often occurs earlier when neighbors are present, which may reduce the neighbors' competitive effects. Delayed emergence in response to neighbors also has been observed, but the potential benefits of such delays are unclear. Further, emergence time may respond to neighbors experienced by parents, which may predict future competition in offspring...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Kaoru Tsuji, Takayuki Ohgushi
Species often interact indirectly with each other via their traits. There is increasing appreciation of trait-mediated indirect effects linking multiple interactions. Flowers interact with both pollinators and floral herbivores, and the flower-pollinator interaction may be modified by indirect effects of floral herbivores (i.e., florivores) on flower traits such as flower size attracting pollinators. To explore whether flower size affects the flower-pollinator interaction, we used Eurya japonica flowers. We examined whether artificial florivory decreased fruit and seed production, and also whether flower size affected florivory and the number of floral visitors...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Huanhuan Chen, Yuan Zhang, Yanqiong Peng, Richard T Corlett
The interaction between pollinating wasps and figs is an obligate plant-insect mutualism, and the ca. 750 Ficus species are mainly tropical. Climatic constraints may limit species distributions through their phenology and this seems particularly likely for figs, where phenological mismatches can cause local extinction of the short-lived pollinators. We therefore compared the phenologies of Ficus altissima, F. racemosa and F. semicordata in tropical Xishuangbanna (21°55'N) and subtropical Liuku (25°50'N), SW China, to understand what factors limit fig distributions near their northern limits...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tokuko Ujino-Ihara, Saneyoshi Ueno, Kentaro Uchiyama, Norihiro Futamura
Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) in developing male strobili of second-generation offspring originating from a nuclear genic male sterile tree of Cryptomeria japonica were performed to characterize sRNA populations in the male strobili at early pollen developmental stages. Comparing to sequences of microRNA (miRNA) families of plant species and sRNAs expressed in the reproductive organs of representative vascular plants, 37 conserved miRNA families were detected, of which eight were ubiquitously expressed in the reproductive organs of land plant species...
2018: PloS One
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