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Vulnerable plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164798/regionally-specific-changes-in-the-hippocampal-circuitry-accompany-progression-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Christine L Tardif, Gabriel A Devenyi, Robert S C Amaral, Sandra Pelleieux, Judes Poirier, Pedro Rosa-Neto, John Breitner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Neuropathological and in vivo brain imaging studies agree that the cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum subfields of the hippocampus are most vulnerable to atrophy in the prodromal phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there has been limited investigation of the structural integrity of the components of the hippocampal circuit, including subfields and extra-hippocampal white matter structure, in relation to the progression of well-accepted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD, amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) and total-tau (tau)...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159051/interactive-versus-additive-relationships-between-regional-cortical-thinning-and-amyloid-burden-in-predicting-clinical-decline-in-mild-ad-and-mci-individuals
#2
Federico d'Oleire Uquillas, Heidi I L Jacobs, Bernard Hanseeuw, Gad A Marshall, Michael Properzi, Aaron P Schultz, Molly R LaPoint, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Patrizia Vannini
The biological mechanisms that link Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, neurodegeneration, and clinical decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, have not been completely elucidated. Here we studied whether amyloid accumulation and neurodegeneration, independently or interactively, predict clinical decline over time in a group of memory impaired older individuals [diagnosed with either amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild AD dementia]. We found that baseline Aβ-associated cortical thinning across clusters encompassing lateral and medial temporal and parietal cortices was related to higher baseline Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes (CDR-SB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154780/the-feedback-loop-of-emmprin-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-worsens-atherosclerotic-plaque-via-suppressing-autophagy-in-macrophage
#3
Xing Liang, Xianhua Hou, Yang Yang, Hong Liu, Ruiwei Guo, Zhihua Yang, Lixia Yang
This study examined the significance of macrophage autophagy in extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN)-mediated atherosclerosis (AS). Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a western diet to establish an AS model. EMMPRIN and p62/Sequestosome-1(SQSTM1) expression were evaluated in plaque macrophages from the AS mice using immunofluorescence. The EMMPRIN and p62/SQSTM1 protein expression levels in macrophages increased with the increasing vulnerability of the atherosclerotic plaques...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153990/cell-type-dependent-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes-probing-the-biology-of%C3%A2-selective-neuronal-vulnerability
#4
Christina R Muratore, Constance Zhou, Meichen Liao, Marty A Fernandez, Walter M Taylor, Valentina N Lagomarsino, Richard V Pearse, Heather C Rice, Joseph M Negri, Amy He, Priya Srikanth, Dana G Callahan, Taehwan Shin, Monica Zhou, David A Bennett, Scott Noggle, J Christopher Love, Dennis J Selkoe, Tracy L Young-Pearse
Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces memory and cognitive impairment in the absence of motor and sensory deficits during its early and middle course. A major unresolved question is the basis for this selective neuronal vulnerability. Aβ, which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is generated throughout the brain, yet some regions outside of the limbic and cerebral cortices are relatively spared from Aβ plaque deposition and synapse loss. Here, we examine neurons derived from iPSCs of patients harboring an amyloid precursor protein mutation to quantify AD-relevant phenotypes following directed differentiation to rostral fates of the brain (vulnerable) and caudal fates (relatively spared) in AD...
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153440/relationship-between-adamts4-and-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-vulnerability-in-humans
#5
Honglin Dong, Tian Du, Shyamal Premaratne, Cynthia X Zhao, Qinqin Tian, Yongjun Li, Sheng Yan, Wayne W Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and the resulting thrombosis are vital causes of clinical ischemic events. Recent studies have shown that ADAMTS4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4) is a pathogenic factor of plaque vulnerability in mice. However, the relationship between ADAMTS4 and carotid atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques in humans remains unclear. METHODS: Forty-eight carotid atherosclerotic plaque specimens were obtained from 48 carotid artery stenosis inpatients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153397/embolic-stroke-due-to-carotidynia-potentially-associated-with-moving-carotid-artery-caused-by-swallowing
#6
Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Chiaki Yokota, Toshiya Ishihara, Kazunori Toyoda
A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148241/peri-procedural-myocardial-infarction-plaques-and-patients-at-risk
#7
EDITORIAL
James A Goldstein
Patients with acute coronary syndrome are at risk for peri-procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) Lipid-laden plaques with thinned disrupted fibrous caps are most prone to PMI PMI is associated with worse outcome over time, though whether such damaging events are causal or instead reflect patients prone to future instability from non-culprit vulnerable plaques requires further delineation.
November 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135482/long-term-darapladib-use-does-not-affect-coronary-plaque-composition-assessed-using-multimodality-intravascular-imaging-modalities-a-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Woong Gil Choi, Megha Prasad, Ryan Lennon, Rajiv Gulati, Abhiram Prasad, Lilach O Lerman, Amir Lerman
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) may play a role in plaque progression and vulnerability. We aimed to define plaque characteristics on multimodality intravascular imaging in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction in response to long-term inhibition of Lp-PLA2 by darapladib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a double-blinded, randomized study screening 70 patients, and enrolling 54 patients with suspected ischemia, without obstructive disease on angiography and with coronary endothelial dysfunction by invasive assessment...
November 10, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111018/embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source-the-role-of-the-nonstenotic-carotid-plaque
#9
Zachary Bulwa, Ajay Gupta
Cryptogenic stroke, or stroke of undetermined cause, presents a remarkably challenging dilemma for the treating physician as there are limited therapeutic options to prevent recurrence. Roughly one third of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and ischemic strokes are classified as cryptogenic, with an even greater proportion in young patients. While classification systems have been successfully used in trials to refine therapeutic approaches specific to subtype, there has been little progress made in secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110765/high-intensity-plaques-as-a-novel-surrogate-marker-of-vulnerable-coronary-lesions
#10
EDITORIAL
Teruo Noguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110146/atherosclerosis-periodontal-disease-and-treatment-with-resolvins
#11
REVIEW
James A Hamilton, Hatice Hasturk, Alpdogan Kantarci, Charles N Serhan, Thomas Van Dyke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the existing evidence on the link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis by particularly presenting new findings that link the pathology and therapy of these diseases. Acute vascular ischemic events that can lead to stroke or myocardial infarction are initiated by inflammatory processes leading to rupture or erosion of plaques susceptible to thrombosis ("high risk" or "vulnerable"). These are highly inflamed plaques residing in the media and adventitia that may not be detected by angiography measurments of luminal narrowing...
November 6, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110103/ct-imaging-of-the-vulnerable-plaque
#12
REVIEW
Gary R Small, Benjamin J W Chow
Acute coronary syndromes are most often the result of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque events. Plaques events occur when intimal fibroatheroma in the coronary artery wall becomes vulnerable to erosion or rupture. Such vulnerable plaques can be distinguished from quiescent atheroma by features that have been defined through histopathology and invasive imaging. A challenge for coronary CT angiography has been to identify vulnerable plaques non-invasively. Were this possible, CT angiography could offer comprehensive vessel assessment including stenosis severity and plaque characteristics with the hope of reducing acute coronary events through timely intervention...
November 6, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102056/role-of-new-imaging-modalities-in-pursuit-of-the-vulnerable-plaque-and-the-vulnerable-patient
#13
REVIEW
Paolo Raggi, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini
Numerous biomarkers and imaging modalities were investigated during the past few decades to identify patients harboring plaques at high risk of rupturing and causing catastrophic events. The classical description of a vulnerable plaque included a large lipid core, covered by a thin fibrous cap and evidence of inflammation especially around the hinge points of the plaque. Unfortunately, the search has resulted to a large extent in a failure to accurately identify the site of a future event. In time the search focus switched to the vulnerable patient rather than the individual vulnerable plaques, but the debate continues as to the more appropriate approach to risk assessment...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097799/dual-targeting-improves-capture-of-ultrasound-microbubbles-towards-activated-platelets-but-yields-no-additional-benefit-for-imaging-of-arterial-thrombosis
#14
F Günther, T Heidt, M Kramer, E Khanicheh, A L Klibanov, A Geibel-Zehender, E A Ferrante, I Hilgendorf, D Wolf, A Zirlik, J Reinöhl, C Bode, K Peter, B A Kaufmann, C von Zur Mühlen
Platelets can be found on the surface of inflamed and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, targeting of activated platelets may allow for molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. We here investigated microbubbles (MB) functionalized with the selectin ligand sialyl Lewis(a) individually (MBsLea) or dually with sLe(a) and an antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites of the activated GPIIb/IIIa receptor (MBDual). Assessed by in vitro flow chamber, targeted MB exhibited increased adhesion to platelets as compared to MBControl...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097437/associations-of-endogenous-estradiol-and-testosterone-levels-with-plaque-composition-and-risk-of-stroke-in-subjects-with-carotid-atherosclerosis
#15
Marija Glisic, Blerim Mujaj, Oscar L Rueda-Ochoa, Eralda Asllanaj, Joop S Laven, Maryam Kavousi, M Kamran Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Daniel Bos, Taulant Muka
Rationale: Sex steroids may play a role in plaque composition and in stroke incidence. Objective: To study the associations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone with carotid plaque composition in elderly men and postmenopausal women with carotid atherosclerosis, as well as with risk of stroke in this population. Methods and Results: Data of 1023 postmenopausal women and 1124 men (≥45 years) with carotid atherosclerosis, from prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, were available. At baseline, total estradiol (TE) and total testosterone (TT) were measured...
November 2, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095701/impact-of-motion-compensation-and-partial-volume-correction-for-sup-18-sup-f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-of-coronary-plaque
#16
Jacobo Cal-Gonzalez, Charalampos Harry Tsoumpas, Martin Lyngby Lassen, Sazan Rasul, Lorenz Koller, Marcus Hacker, Klaus P Schäfers, Thomas Beyer
Recent studies have suggested that <sup>18</sup>F-NaF-PET enables visualization and quantification of plaque micro-calcification in the coronary tree. However, PET imaging of plaque calcification in the coronary arteries is challenging because of the respiratory and cardiac motion as well as partial volume effects. The objective of this work is to implement an image reconstruction framework, which incorporates compensation for respiratory as well as cardiac motion (MoCo) and partial volume correction (PVC), for cardiac <sup>18</sup>F-NaF PET imaging in PET/CT...
November 2, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089763/a-review-of-molecular-imaging-of-atherosclerosis-and-the-potential-application-of-dendrimer-in-imaging-of-plaque
#17
REVIEW
Gulinigaer Anwaier, Cong Chen, Yini Cao, Rong Qi
Despite the fact that technological advancements have been made in diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Early detection of atherosclerosis (AS), especially vulnerable plaques, plays a crucial role in the prevention of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Targeting the critical cytokines and molecules that are upregulated during the biological process of AS by in vivo molecular imaging has been widely used in plaque imaging. With their three-dimensional architecture, composition, and abundant terminal functional groups, dendrimers provide a platform for multitargeting and multimodal imaging...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079564/attenuated-superoxide-dismutase-2-activity-induces-atherosclerotic-plaque-instability-during-aging-in-hyperlipidemic-mice
#18
Aleksandr E Vendrov, Mark D Stevenson, Samthosh Alahari, Hua Pan, Samuel A Wickline, Nageswara R Madamanchi, Marschall S Runge
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis progression during aging culminates in the development of vulnerable plaques, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Increased generation and/or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the vascular wall are major contributors to atherogenesis. We previously showed that superoxide dismutase 2 deficiency increased vascular oxidative stress and reduced aortic compliance in aged wild-type mice and that young Apoe(-/-)/Sod2(+/-) had increased mitochondrial DNA damage and atherosclerosis versus young Apoe(-/-) mice...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076745/cost-effectiveness-of-magnetic-resonance-carotid-plaque-imaging-for-primary-stroke-prevention-in-canada
#19
Lechtman E, Balki I, Thomas K, Chen K, Moody Ar, Tyrrell Pn
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance of the carotid arteries provides important insight into plaque composition and vulnerability in addition to the traditional measure of stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of MR imaging as a first-line modality to assess carotid disease and guide management for high-risk patients with <50% stenosis. METHODS: Using TreeAge Pro, a cost-effectiveness simulation was conducted comparing two strategies: (a) standard of care first-line carotid duplex ultrasound (DUS) with regular follow-up, vs (b) first-line MR assessment of stenosis and intraplaque haemorrhage (MRIPH) in which patients with IPH received annual DUS surveillance and immediate carotid endarterectomy in case of plaque progression...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074341/the-clinical-significance-of-endocardial-endothelial-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Sonja Smiljic
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is essential in the embryonic development of the heart, the optimal contractility and rhythm as well as the remodeling of the heart. Endocardial endothelium affect the contractility of cardiomyocytes through paracrine signaling substances such as nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), prostaglandins (PGI2, PGF2, PGE2) and angiotensin II (ANG II). Typical lesions of endocardial endothelium have been described in atrial fibrillation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, sepsis, myocardial infarction, inflammation and thrombosis...
September 21, 2017: Medicina
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