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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913753/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-are-released-into-the-coronary-circulation-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#1
Gonzalo J Martinez, Jennifer Y Barraclough, Shirley Nakhla, Vivian Kienzle, Stacy Robertson, Ziad Mallat, David S Celermajer, Sanjay Patel
AIMS: To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and Stable Angina Pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Microparticles are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilisation and shed neutrophil-derived microparticles have the potential to drive significant pro-inflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904523/the-role-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-detection-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques
#2
Martin Horvath, Petr Hajek, Cyril Stechovsky, Jakub Honek, Miloslav Spacek, Josef Veselka
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by a rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque which can be characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap. Many vulnerable plaques can cause angiographically mild stenoses due to positive remodelling, which is why the extent of coronary artery disease may be seriously underestimated. In recent years, we have witnessed a paradigm shift in interventional cardiology...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896334/ultrasound-vascular-elastography-as-a-tool-for-assessing-atherosclerotic-plaques-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
B Mahmood, C Ewertsen, J Carlsen, M B Nielsen
Atherosclerosis is a widespread disease that accounts for nearly 3-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound elastography might be able to reliably identify characteristics associated with vulnerable plaques. There is a need for the evaluation of elastography and its ability to distinguish between vulnerable and stable plaques. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on vascular elastography. A systematic search of the available literature for studies using elastography for assessing atherosclerotic plaques was conducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases...
November 2016: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893195/photodynamic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-lost-in-translation
#4
Manish Jain, Matthieu Zellweger, Georges Wagnières, Hubert van den Bergh, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noelle Giraud
Acute coronary syndromeis a life-threatening condition of utmost clinical importance, which, despite recent progress in the field, is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute coronary syndrome results from a rupture or erosion of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with secondary platelet activation and thrombus formation, which leads to partial or complete luminal obstruction of a coronary artery. During the last decade, scientific evidence demonstrated that, when an acute coronary event occurs, several non-culprit plaques are in a "vulnerable" state...
November 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884085/the-roles-of-myeloperoxidase-in-coronary-artery-disease-and-its-potential-implication-in-plaque-rupture
#5
Nathaniel Teng, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jihan Talib, Imran Rashid, Antony K Lau, Roland Stocker
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque...
November 25, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876049/geographical-predisposition-influences-on-the-distribution-and-tissue-characterisation-of-eccentric-coronary-plaques-in-non-branching-coronary-arteries-cross-sectional-study-of-coronary-plaques-analysed-by-intravascular-ultrasound
#6
Hidenori Komiyama, Hitoshi Takano, Shunichi Nakamura, Masamichi Takano, Noritake Hata, Miyauchi Yasushi, Yoshihiko Seino, Kyoichi Mizuno, Wataru Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of geographical predisposition on the spatial distribution and composition of coronary plaques. METHODS: Thirty coronary arteries were evaluated. A total of 1441 cross-sections were collected from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and radio-frequency signal-based virtual histology (VH-IVUS) imaging. To exclude complex geographical effects of side branches and to localise the plaque distribution, we analysed only eccentric plaques in non-branching regions...
November 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855289/potential-contribution-of-the-hepcidin-macrophage-axis-to-plaque-vulnerability-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-human
#7
Masahiro Sasai, Yoshitaka Iso, Takuya Mizukami, Naohisa Tomosugi, Takeyuki Sambe, Akira Miyazaki, Hiroshi Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Hepcidin-25 serves as a key peptide in the regulation of iron homeostasis and inflammation. It remains unknown whether hepcidin-25 plays an adverse role in atherosclerotic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hepcidin-25 is involved in the pathophysiology of coronary plaque vulnerability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum hepcidin-25 levels were quantitatively determined by the LC-MS/MS assay system. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI, n=33) and patients with stable angina pectoris (sCAD, n=19)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853578/influence-of-shear-stress-magnitude-and-direction-on-atherosclerotic-plaque-composition
#8
Ryan M Pedrigi, Vikram V Mehta, Sandra M Bovens, Zahra Mohri, Christian Bo Poulsen, Willy Gsell, Jordi L Tremoleda, Leila Towhidi, Ranil de Silva, Enrico Petretto, Rob Krams
The precise flow characteristics that promote different atherosclerotic plaque types remain unclear. We previously developed a blood flow-modifying cuff for ApoE(-/-) mice that induces the development of advanced plaques with vulnerable and stable features upstream and downstream of the cuff, respectively. Herein, we sought to test the hypothesis that changes in flow magnitude promote formation of the upstream (vulnerable) plaque, whereas altered flow direction is important for development of the downstream (stable) plaque...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834746/menopausal-hot-flashes-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-among-midlife-women
#9
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, J Richard Jennings, Doug P Landsittel, Nanette Santoro, Roland von Känel, Karen A Matthews
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations...
November 10, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829657/reprising-ramadan-related-angina-pectoris-a-potential-strategy-for-risk-reduction
#10
Arthur J Siegel, Nasir A Bhatti, Jason H Wasfy
BACKGROUND A preponderance of evidence supports short-term aspirin usage to reduce transiently increased cardiovascular risk in clinical conditions that promote acute myocardial ischemia. CASE REPORT We report on the case of a 69-year-old male of Muslim Indian heritage with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who experienced the onset of angina pectoris while fasting for Ramadan for more than 16 hours daily for 30 days in July 2015. While symptom free for 2 months on medical management after ending his fast, he underwent quadruple coronary artery bypass surgery for severe 4-vessel disease following an acute anterior myocardial infarction...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826369/targeted-delivery-of-shear-stress-inducible-micrornas-by-nanoparticles-to-prevent-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-lesions
#11
Wing Tak Wong, Shuangtao Ma, Xiao Yu Tian, Andrea Banuet Gonzalez, Eno E Ebong, Haifa Shen
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vascular wall disease, and endothelial cell dysfunction plays an important role in its development and progression. Under the influence of laminar shear stress, however, the endothelium releases homeostatic factors such as nitric oxide and expresses of vasoprotective microRNAs that are resistant to atherosclerosis. Adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, exhibited on the endothelial surface, recruit monocytes that enter the vessel wall to form foam cells. Accumulation of these foam cells form fatty streaks that may progress to atherosclerotic plaques in the blood vessel wall...
September 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825629/orthopedic-surgery-increases-atherosclerotic-lesions-and-necrotic-core-area-in-apoe-mice
#12
Wessel W Fuijkschot, Martine C Morrison, Rianne van der Linden, Paul A J Krijnen, Ilse P A Zethof, Lars F H Theyse, Robert Kleemann, Hans W M Niessen, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational studies show a peak incidence of cardiovascular events after major surgery. For example, the risk of myocardial infarction increases 25-fold early after hip replacement. The acuteness of this increased risk suggests abrupt enhancement in plaque vulnerability, which may be related to intra-plaque inflammation, thinner fibrous cap and/or necrotic core expansion. We hypothesized that acute systemic inflammation following major orthopedic surgery induces such changes...
October 28, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821353/time-dependent-differences-in-femoral-artery-plaque-characteristics-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#13
Saskia Haitjema, Steven T W van Haelst, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Frans L Moll, Hester M den Ruijter, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis with an increasing incidence worldwide. The disease is still associated with high morbidity and mortality risks. Previous research in carotid arteries indicates that atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have stabilized over time in patients considered for surgery. It is currently unknown whether this time-dependent stabilization occurs in ilio-femoral arteries as well. Our objective was to analyze whether local ilio-femoral atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have changed over time...
October 25, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818566/overexpression-of-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-%C3%AE-1-stabilizes-but-increases-shear-stress-induced-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#14
Xiao-Qing Cao, Xin-Xin Liu, Meng-Meng Li, Yu Zhang, Liang Chen, Lin Wang, Ming-Xue Di, Mei Zhang
The rupture and erosion of atherosclerotic plaque can induce coronary thrombosis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in the synthesis of all known types of collagens, which are the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerotic plaque. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is thought to be in part caused by shear stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate a relationship between P4Hα1 and shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid arteries of ApoE-/- mice were exposed to low and oscillatory shear stress conditions by the placement of a shear stress cast for 2 weeks; we divided 60 male ApoE-/- mice into three groups for treatments with saline (mock) (n = 20), empty lentivirus (lenti-EGFP) (n = 20), and lentivirus-P4Hα1 (lenti-P4Hα1) (n = 20)...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814651/mitochondria-in-the-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#15
Isaac G Onyango, Shaharyar M Khan, James P Bennett
Mitochondria are responsible for the majority of energy production in energy-intensive tissues like brain, modulate Ca(+2) signaling and control initiation of cell death. Because of their extensive use of oxygen and lack of protective histone proteins, mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress (ROS)-induced damage to their genome (mtDNA), respiratory chain proteins and ROS repair enzymes. Animal and cell models of PD use toxins that impair mitochondrial complex I activity. Maintenance of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), particularly in high-energy brain, occurs through complex signaling pathways involving the upstream "master regulator" PGC-1alpha that is transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814429/effects-of-residual-stress-axial-stretch-and-circumferential-shrinkage-on-coronary-plaque-stress-and-strain-calculations-a-modeling-study-using-ivus-based-near-idealized-geometries
#16
Liang Wang, Jian Zhu, Habib Samady, David Monoly, Jie Zheng, Xiaoya Guo, Akiko Maehara, Chun Yang, Genshan Ma, Gary S Mintz, Dalin Tang
Accurate stress and strain calculations are important for plaque progression and vulnerability assessment. Models based on in vivo data often need to form geometries with zero-stress/strain conditions. The goal of this paper is to use IVUS-based near-idealized geometries and introduce a three-step model construction process to include residual stress, axial shrinkage, and circumferential shrinkage and investigate their impacts on stress and strain calculations. In Vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data of human coronary were acquired for model construction...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814285/swirling-of-microbubbles-demonstration-of-a-new-finding-of-carotid-plaque-ulceration-on-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-explaining-the-arterio-arterial-embolism-mechanism
#17
Vasileios Rafailidis, Afroditi Charitanti, Thomas Tegos, Dimitrios Rafailidis, Ioannis Chryssogonidis
Carotid plaque ulceration is a well-established feature of vulnerability, associated with high risk for neurological symptoms. From a pathogenetic point of view, the mechanism responsible for occurrence of symptomatology relies on the aggregation of platelets within the ulcer cavity, activation of coagulation mechanism, formation of thrombus and arterio-arterial embolization of thrombotic material in the central nervous system. Many imaging modalities including unenhanced ultrasound, computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography have been used to image and diagnose carotid plaque ulceration with varying success...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806099/plaque-vulnerability-as-assessed-by-radiofrequency-intravascular-ultrasound-in-patients-with-valvular-calcification
#18
Nagendra Boopathy Senguttuvan, Sharath Kumar, Wang-Soo Lee, Sundeep Mishra, Jun Hwan Cho, Jee Eun Kwon, Seong Hyeop Hyeon, Yun Sang Jeong, Hoyoun Won, Seung Yong Shin, Kwang Je Lee, Tae Ho Kim, Chee Jeong Kim, Sang-Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac valvular calcification is associated with the overall coronary plaque burden and considered an independent cardiovascular risk and prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of valvular calcification and plaque morphology and/or vulnerability. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was used to assess valvular calcification in 280 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (Virtual Histology IVUS, VH-IVUS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799057/integrative-network-analysis-of-nineteen-brain-regions-identifies-molecular-signatures-and-networks-underlying-selective-regional-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Minghui Wang, Panos Roussos, Andrew McKenzie, Xianxiao Zhou, Yuji Kajiwara, Kristen J Brennand, Gabriele C De Luca, John F Crary, Patrizia Casaccia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michelle Ehrlich, Sam Gandy, Alison Goate, Pavel Katsel, Eric Schadt, Vahram Haroutunian, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. However, despite extensive clinical and genomic studies, the molecular basis of AD development and progression remains elusive. METHODS: To elucidate molecular systems associated with AD, we developed a large scale gene expression dataset from 1053 postmortem brain samples across 19 cortical regions of 125 individuals with a severity spectrum of dementia and neuropathology of AD...
November 1, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793409/in-vivo-assessment-of-vasa-vasorum-neovascularization-using-intravascular-ultrasound-a-comparison-between-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-stable-angina-pectoris
#20
Teruyoshi Kume, Hiroyuki Okura, Ryotaro Yamada, Terumasa Koyama, Kenzo Fukuhara, Yutaka Goryo, Yasuhiko Kamata, Hiroshi Okamoto, Tomoko Tamada, Koichiro Imai, Yoji Neishi, Shiro Uemura
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that vasa vasorum (VV) neovascularization plays an important role in the progression and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with coronary artery disease including 75 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases and 55 stable angina pectoris (SAP) cases were studied. By using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), VV was defined as a small (<1mm) tubular or vesicular, low-echoic structure observed exterior to the media...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
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