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Vulnerable plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099589/which-coronary-lesions-are-more-prone-to-cause-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
Taner Sen, Mehmet Ali Astarcioglu, Osman Beton, Lale Dinc Asarcikli, Celal Kilit
Background: According to common belief, most myocardial infarctions (MIs) are due to the rupture of nonsevere, vulnerable plaques with < 70% obstruction. Data from recent trials challenge this belief, suggesting that the risk of coronary occlusion is, in fact, much higher after severe stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acute ST-elevation MIs result from high-grade stenoses by evaluating the presence of coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Methods: We retrospectively included 207 consecutive patients who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation MI...
January 16, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099219/a-review-of-the-clinical-utility-of-intravascular-ultrasound-ivus-and-optical-coherence-tomography-oct-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Stephen Daniel Matthews, William H Frishman
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. As a medical society, we continue to search for ways to better treat CAD and prevent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). As it stands, only statins and anti-platelets agents have been proven to significantly reduce the occurrence of ACS. A histopathological understanding of the pathogenesis of ACS has provided insight into the importance of plaque morphology. Therefore, it has been proposed that increasing the ability to detect true vulnerable, "at-risk" lesions, would foster the use of percutaneous coronary intervention as a means for the prevention of ACS...
January 11, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094067/differential-intensity-projection-for-visualisation-and-quantification-of-plaque-neovascularisation-in-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-images-of-carotid-arteries
#4
Wing Keung Cheung, Benoy N Shah, Antonio Stanziola, Dorothy M Gujral, Navtej S Chahal, David O Cosgrove, Roxy Senior, Meng-Xing Tang
Studies have reported that intraplaque neovascularisation (IPN) is closely correlated with plaque vulnerability. In this study, a new image processing approach, differential intensity projection (DIP), was developed to visualise and quantify IPN in contrast-enhanced non-linear ultrasound image sequences of carotid arteries. DIP used the difference between the local temporal maximum and the local temporal average signals to identify bubbles against tissue non-linear artefact and noise. The total absolute and relative areas occupied by bubbles within each plaque were calculated to quantify IPN...
January 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087279/alpha-2-macroglobulin-and-heparin-cofactor-ii-and-the-vulnerability-of-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-an-itraq-based-analysis
#5
Jinmao Li, Xi Liu, Ying Xiang, Xueying Ding, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Maojia Yin, Changhong Tan, Fen Deng, Lifen Chen
Rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaque may cause stroke, while few biomarker in clinic can evaluate carotid plaque vulnerability. In this study, we divided the recruited participants into no plaque, stable plaque, and vulnerable plaque group according to carotid ultrasonography, and screened the differentially expressed proteins in plasma of these participants using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 28 proteins were identified differentially expressed, among which alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) and heparin cofactor II (HCII) were found to be at hub position in the interactions of these proteins by STRING analysis and were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement to assess their relevance with carotid plaques vulnerability and diagnostic efficiency...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078352/susceptibility-to-chronic-social-stress-increases-plaque-progression-vulnerability-and-platelet-activation
#6
Chiara Giannarelli, David T Rodriguez, M Urooj Zafar, Daniel Christoffel, Vincent Vialou, Catherine Peña, Ana Badimon, Georgia F Hodes, Pauline Mury, Jacklyn Rabkin, Matilde Alique, Giulia Villa, Carmen Argmann, Eric J Nestler, Scott J Russo, Juan J Badimon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074425/high-wall-shear-stress-and-high-risk-plaque-an-emerging-concept
#7
Parham Eshtehardi, Adam J Brown, Ankit Bhargava, Charis Costopoulos, Olivia Y Hung, Michel T Corban, Hossein Hosseini, Bill D Gogas, Don P Giddens, Habib Samady
In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071288/vulnerable-carotid-plaque-imaging-and-histopathology-without-a-dedicated-mri-receiver-coil
#8
Laura A Fitzpatrick, Nadav Berkovitz, Marlise P Dos Santos, Nevin Majeed, Rafael Glikstein, Santanu Chakraborty, John P Veinot, Grant Stotts, Alain Berthiaume, Robert Chatelain
Stroke is associated with vulnerable carotid artery plaques showing specific histopathologic features, namely a lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, and thin fibrous cap. While ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) can identify carotid plaques and determine the extent of stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides further information regarding plaque composition and morphology. In this feasibility study, three patients with symptomatic, moderately stenosed plaques were imaged with CT angiography (CTA) and MRI (3T and 1...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069011/myeloperoxidase-oxidized-high-density-lipoprotein-impairs-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-inhibiting-smooth-muscle-cell-migration
#9
Boda Zhou, Lingyun Zu, Yong Chen, Xilong Zheng, Yuhui Wang, Bing Pan, Min Dong, Enchen Zhou, Mingming Zhao, Youyi Zhang, Lemin Zheng, Wei Gao
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proved to be a protective factor for coronary heart disease. Notably, HDL in atherosclerotic plaques can be nitrated (NO2-oxHDL) and chlorinated (Cl-oxHDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO), likely compromising its cardiovascular protective effects. METHOD: Here we determined the effects of NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL on SMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, proliferation using MTT and BrdU assays, and apoptosis using Annexin-V assay in vitro, as well as on atherosclerotic plaque stability in vivo using a coratid artery collar implantation mice model...
January 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052860/increased-prevalence-of-coronary-plaque-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis-without-prior-diagnosis-of-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Jiayun Shen, Ka-Tak Wong, Isaac T Cheng, Qing Shang, Edmund K Li, Priscilla Wong, Emily W Kun, Mei Yan Law, Ronald Yip, Isaac Yim, Shirley Ying, Martin Li, Tena K Li, Chun-Kwok Wong, Tracy Y Zhu, Jack Jock-Wai Lee, Mimi Chang, Alex Pui-Wai Lee, Lai-Shan Tam
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and control subjects using coronary CT angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients with PsA (male: 56(62.2%); 50.3±11.1 years) were recruited. 240 controls (male: 137(57.1%); 49.6±10.7 years) without known cardiovascular (CV) diseases who underwent CCTA due to chest pain and/or multiple CV risk factors were recruited for comparison. RESULTS: Patients with PsA and controls were matched in age, gender and traditional CV risk factors (all p>0...
January 4, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051291/biobanking-in-carotid-artery-disease-translation-to-clinical-practice
#11
Ian D VAN Koeverden, Joyce E Vrijenhoek, Gert J DE Borst, Hester M DEN Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp
Biobanking of atherosclerotic tissue samples has contributed to our understanding of vascular occlusive disease. The careful examination of atherosclerotic plaques derived during vascular surgery or autopsies helped shape our minds in understanding the underlying substrate of arterial thrombosis. This review will outline concepts of progression of atherosclerotic disease that have been based on descriptions of human plaque pathology. In addition, we will discuss the current shift in clinical presentation and underlying pathology of acute cerebral and coronary events that asks for a careful consideration of the currently widely applied description of the "vulnerable plaque"...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048223/we-fg-207b-06-plaque-composition-measurement-with-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#12
C Wang, H Ding, S Malkasian, S Molloi
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing arterial plaque composition in terms of water, lipid and protein or calcium using dual energy computed tomography. Characterization of plaque composition can potentially help distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. METHODS: Simulations studies were performed by the CT simulator based on ASTRA tomography toolbox. The beam energy for dual energy images was selected to be 80 kVp and 135 kVp. The radiation dose and energy spectrum for the CT simulator were carefully calibrated with respect to a 320-slice CT scanner...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034277/the-two-faces-of-interleukin-17a-in-atherosclerosis-interleukin-17a-and-atherosclerosis
#13
Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor, Hamidreza Akhavanpoor, Christian A Gleissner, Susanne Wangler, Andreas O Doesch, Hugo A Katus, Christian Erbel
A complex network of different cytokines and chemokines modulate atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is expressed by different leukocyte subsets such as CD4+IL-17+ T cells (Th17), γδ T cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, and neutrophils. IL-17A plays an important role in host defense and is involved in the pathology of different autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrate an association of IL-17A with atherosclerosis. IL-17A seems to have primarily pro-inflammatory effects in atherogenesis, although there are partially controversial results in the literature...
December 29, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027926/early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-amyloid-pathology-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#14
Lianne Hoeijmakers, Silvie R Ruigrok, Anna Amelianchik, Daniela Ivan, Anne-Marie van Dam, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Exposure to stress during the sensitive period of early-life increases the risk to develop cognitive impairments and psychopathology later in life. In addition, early-life stress (ES) exposure, next to genetic causes, has been proposed to modulate the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however evidence for this hypothesis is currently lacking. We here tested whether ES modulates progression of AD-related neuropathology and assessed the possible contribution of neuroinflammatory factors in this...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017911/apelin-concentrations-are-associated-with-altered-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-mediator-levels-and-atherosclerosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Sule Gunter, Ahmed Solomon, Linda Tsang, Angela J Woodiwiss, Chanel Robinson, Aletta M E Millen, Gavin R Norton, Patrick H Dessein
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apelin-APJ signaling reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the atherosclerosis burden and plaque vulnerability to rupture are increased. We explored relationships between apelin concentrations and subclinical CVD in RA. METHODS: Apelin levels were measured in 235 (114 black, 121 white) RA patients. Associations between apelin concentrations and ultrasound determined carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 that mediate plaque stability and vulnerability respectively, were identified in confounder adjusted multivariate regression analysis...
November 24, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013562/deciphering-acute-coronary-syndrome-biomarkers-high-resolution-proteomics-in-platelets-thrombi-and-microparticles
#16
Diana Navas-Carrillo, Francisco Marín, Mariano Valdés, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) encompass unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. They are commonly associated with the presence of vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries and occur when a thrombus formed from a ruptured atheromatous plaque causes a prolonged occlusion of a coronary artery. The erosion of the vulnerable plaques results in the formation of luminal thrombi secondary to platelet activation and the release of thrombogenic elements within the atherosclerotic lesions...
December 26, 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011810/cohort-profile-of-biomarcs-the-biomarker-study-to-identify-the-acute-risk-of-a-coronary-syndrome-a-prospective-multicentre-biomarker-study-conducted-in-the-netherlands
#17
Rohit M Oemrawsingh, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Victor A Umans, Bas Kietselaer, Carl Schotborgh, Eelko Ronner, Timo Lenderink, Anho Liem, David Haitsma, Pim van der Harst, Folkert W Asselbergs, Arthur Maas, Anton J Oude Ophuis, Ben Ilmer, Rene Dijkgraaf, Robbert-Jan de Winter, S Hong Kie The, Alexander J Wardeh, Walter Hermans, Etienne Cramer, Ron H van Schaik, Imo E Hoefer, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten L Simoons, Eric Boersma
PURPOSE: Progression of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) towards acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a dynamic and heterogeneous process with many intertwined constituents, in which a plaque destabilising sequence could lead to ACS within short time frames. Current CAD risk assessment models, however, are not designed to identify increased vulnerability for the occurrence of coronary events within a precise, short time frame at the individual patient level. The BIOMarker study to identify the Acute risk of a Coronary Syndrome (BIOMArCS) was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements of multiple biomarkers can predict such 'vulnerable periods'...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009484/hsp90-inhibition-suppresses-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-apoe-mice
#18
Hongmei Mu, Liyong Wang, Lei Zhao
AIM: Emerging evidences indicate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is associated with atherogenesis. However, the effect of HSP90 on plaque stability is largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the role of HSP90 in plaque development and its regulatory mechanisms on vasculature. METHODS: HSP90-overexpression lentivirus (Lenti-HSP90) was used to transfect apoE(-/-) mice after constrictive collars were planted at the right common carotid arteries. RESULTS: As a result, HSP90 gene overexpression led to reduction in en face plaque area, and increase in unstable plaque with heavier accumulation of lipids...
December 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007772/imaging-carotid-atherosclerosis-plaque-ulceration-comparison-of-advanced-imaging-modalities-and-recent-developments
#19
REVIEW
J Yuan, A Usman, T Das, A J Patterson, J H Gillard, M J Graves
Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of long-term mortality and morbidity worldwide, despite remarkable advancement in its management. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are principally responsible for thromboembolic events in various arterial territories such as carotid, coronary, and lower limb vessels. Carotid plaque ulceration is one of the key features associated with plaque vulnerability and is considered a notable indicator of previous plaque rupture and possible future cerebrovascular events. Multiple imaging modalities have been used to assess the degree of carotid plaque ulceration for diagnostic and research purposes...
December 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007746/optical-coherence-tomography-to-evaluate-plaque-burden-and-morphology-in-patients-with-takotsubo-syndrome
#20
Ingo Eitel, Thomas Stiermaier, Tobias Graf, Christian Möller, Karl-Philipp Rommel, Charlotte Eitel, Gerhard Schuler, Holger Thiele, Steffen Desch
BACKGROUND: Disrupted atherosclerotic plaques in the left anterior descending coronary artery are discussed controversially as a potential pathophysiological mechanism in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess plaque burden and morphology by using optical coherence tomography in patients with TTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 23 consecutive TTS patients were included in this single-center study and underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of the left main coronary artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery at acute presentation...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
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