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Vulnerable plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229226/pericoronary-adipose-tissue-ratio-is-a-stronger-associated-factor-of-plaque-vulnerability-than-epicardial-adipose-tissue-on-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#1
Ryo Okubo, Rine Nakanishi, Mikihito Toda, Daiga Saito, Ippei Watanabe, Takayuki Yabe, Hideo Amano, Tatsushi Hirai, Takanori Ikeda
This study was designed to clarify the influence of pericoronary adipose tissue (PAT) on plaque vulnerability using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A total of 103 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA and subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for coronary artery disease were enrolled. The PAT ratio was calculated as the sum of the perpendicular thickness of the visceral layer between the coronary artery and the pericardium, or the coronary artery and the surface of the heart at the PCI site, divided by the PAT thickness without a plaque in the same vessel...
February 22, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227119/clinical-viability-of-carotid-plaque-strain-estimation-using-b-mode-ultrasound-image-sequences
#2
Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker, Brajesh K Lal, Siddhartha Sikdar, Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker, Brajesh K Lal, Siddhartha Sikdar, Siddhartha Sikdar, Brajesh K Lal, Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker
It is estimated that approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are caused by rupture of plaque in the carotid artery. Development of techniques focusing on identifying plaques that are vulnerable to rupture is thus indispensable for stroke prevention. Recent studies have demonstrated that motion analysis of plaques from B-mode and RF ultrasound (US) image sequences can be used to estimate plaque strain. However, viability of these methods in a clinical setting, with variable acquisition protocols, has not been demonstrated yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#3
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190386/high-density-lipoprotein-and-low-density-lipoprotein-therapeutic-approaches-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#4
Emmanuel Androulakis, Effimia Zacharia, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Eirini Lioudaki, Dimitris Bertsias, Marietta Charakida, Gerasimos Siasos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and especially its oxidized form, renders the atherosclerotic plaque vulnerable to rupture in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered an anti-atherogenic molecule. The more recent HDL-targeted drugs may prove to be superior to those used before. Indeed, delipidated HDL and HDL mimetics are efficient in increasing HDL levels, while the apoA-I upregulation with RVX-208 appears to offer a clinical benefit which is beyond the HDL related effects...
February 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188218/focal-solute-trapping-and-global-glymphatic-pathway-impairment-in-a-murine-model-of-multiple-microinfarcts
#5
Minghuan Wang, Fengfei Ding, SaiYue Deng, Xuequn Guo, Wei Wang, Jeffrey J Iliff, Maiken Nedergaard
Microinfarcts occur commonly in the aging brain as a consequence of diffuse embolic events and are associated with the development of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Yet the manner in which disperse microscopic lesions reduce global cognitive function and increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease is unclear. The glymphatic system, which is a brain-wide perivascular network that supports the recirculation of CSF through the brain parenchyma, facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes including amyloid beta and tau...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185154/the-role-of-adipocytokines-in-coronary-atherosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Casula Matteo, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Federico Carbone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to overview the pathophysiological role of adipocytokines in atherogenesis, focusing on their potential role as biomarkers of coronary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several lines of evidence indicated adipose tissue not only as depot but rather as an endocrine organ. In this context, the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines has been shown to critically regulate vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183988/molecular-imaging-of-vulnerable-coronary-plaque-a-pathophysiological-perspective
#7
Sandeep Krishnan, Yuka Otaki, Mhairi Doris, Leandro Slipczuk, Yoav Arnson, Mathieu Rubeaux, Damini Dey, Piotr Slomka, Daniel S Berman, Balaji Tamarappoo
Atherothrombotic events that occur in coronary arteries due to rupture of unstable plaque can result in myocardial infarction. Radiolabeled molecular imaging tracers directed towards cellular targets that are unique to unstable plaque can serve as a powerful tool for identification of high-risk patients and in assessing the potential of new therapeutic approaches. Two commonly available radiopharmaceuticals-(18)F-FDG (18)F-NaF have been used in clinical research for imaging coronary artery plaque, and the association of (18)F-NaF uptake with future atherothrombotic events is being tested in ongoing clinical studies...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176625/protective-effects-of-huang-lian-jie-du-tang-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-rats
#8
Wenbin Wu, Shuling Xie, Bin Li, Kun Yang, Xuehui Liu, Baiyang Li
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration and is the most common cause of dementia. Extracellular β-amyloid deposit in senile plaques is the most characteristic pathological hallmark. β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is associated with neurodegeneration and involved in memory impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. It can also induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in neurodegeneration and immune response...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173876/high-plasticity-of-axonal-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-models
#9
Lidia Blazquez-Llorca, Susana Valero-Freitag, Eva Ferreira Rodrigues, Ángel Merchán-Pérez, J Rodrigo Rodríguez, Mario M Dorostkar, Javier DeFelipe, Jochen Herms
Axonal dystrophies (AxDs) are swollen and tortuous neuronal processes that are associated with extracellular depositions of amyloid β (Aβ) and have been observed to contribute to synaptic alterations occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the temporal course of this axonal pathology is of high relevance to comprehend the progression of the disease over time. We performed a long-term in vivo study (up to 210 days of two-photon imaging) with two transgenic mouse models (dE9xGFP-M and APP-PS1xGFP-M)...
February 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168649/combined-orcein-and-martius-scarlet-blue-omsb-staining-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-analyses-of-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-brachiocephalic-arteries-in-apoe-ldlr-mice
#10
Mariusz Gajda, Agnieszka Jasztal, Tomasz Banasik, Ewa Jasek-Gajda, Stefan Chlopicki
Numerous cellular and extracellular components should be analyzed in sections of atherosclerotic plaques to assess atherosclerosis progression and vulnerability. Here, we combined orcein (O) staining for elastic fibers and martius scarlet blue (MSB) polychrome to visualize various morphological contents of plaque in brachiocephalic arteries (BCA) of apoE/LDLR(-/-) mice. Elastic fibers (including broken elastic laminae and 'buried' fibrous caps) were stained purple and they could be easily distinguished from collagen fibers (blue)...
February 6, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166680/opposing-roles-of-b-lymphocyte-subsets-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Tin Kyaw, Peter Tipping, Alex Bobik, Ban-Hock Toh
Atherosclerosis is initiated by cholesterol entry into arteries that triggers chronic immune-inflammatory lesions in the vessels. Early lesions are clinically insignificant but advanced complex lesions and vulnerable rupture prone lesions impact on quality of life and can be life threatening. Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions initiates thrombotic occlusion of vital arteries precipitating heart attacks and strokes that remain major killers globally despite therapeutic use of statins to lower blood cholesterol levels...
February 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160261/imaging-of-the-ulcerated-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Vasileios Rafailidis, Ioannis Chryssogonidis, Thomas Tegos, Konstantinos Kouskouras, Afroditi Charitanti-Kouridou
: Carotid atherosclerotic disease constitutes a major modern health problem whose diagnosis primarily relies on imaging. Grading of stenosis has been long used as the main factor for risk stratification and guiding of management. Nevertheless, increasing evidence has shown that additional plaque characteristics such as plaque composition and surface morphology play an important role in the occurrence of symptoms, justifying the term "vulnerable plaque". Carotid plaque surface characteristics either in the form of surface irregularities or ulceration represent an important factor of vulnerability and are associated with the occurrence of neurologic symptoms...
February 3, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155719/contralateral-artery-enlargement-predicts-carotid-plaque-progression-based-on-machine-learning-algorithm-models-in-apoe-mice
#13
Bing Li, Yun Jiao, Cong Fu, Bo Xie, Genshan Ma, Gaojun Teng, Yuyu Yao
BACKGROUND: This study specifically focused on anatomical MRI characterization of the low shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque in mice. We used machine learning algorithms to analyze multiple correlation factors of plaque to generate predictive models and to find the predictive factor for vulnerable plaque. METHODS: Branches of the left carotid artery in apoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice were ligated to produce the partial left carotid artery model. Before surgery, and 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery, in vivo serial MRI measurements of carotid artery diameter were obtained...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154161/development-of-coronary-pulse-wave-velocity-new-pathophysiological-insight-into-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Brahim Harbaoui, Pierre-Yves Courand, Andrei Cividjian, Pierre Lantelme
BACKGROUND: Although aortic stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease, the significance of local coronary stiffness has never been tackled. The first objective of this study was to describe a method of measuring coronary PWV (CoPWV) invasively and to describe its determinants. The second objective was to assess both CoPWV and aortic PWV in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes or stable coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 53 patients, CoPWV was measured from the delay in pressure wave and distance traveled as a pressure wire was withdrawn from the distal to the proximal coronary segment...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153351/non-invasive-identification-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques-using-texture-analysis-in-ultrasound-carotid-elastography-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-feasibility-study-validated-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Chengwu Huang, Qiong He, Manwei Huang, Lingyun Huang, Xihai Zhao, Chun Yuan, Jianwen Luo
The aims of this study were to quantify the textural information of strain rate images in ultrasound carotid elastography and evaluate the feasibility of using the textural features in discriminating stable and vulnerable plaques with magnetic resonance imaging as an in vivo reference. Ultrasound radiofrequency data were acquired in 80 carotid plaques from 52 patients, mainly in the longitudinal imaging view, and axial strain rate images were estimated with an ultrasound carotid elastography technique based on an optical flow algorithm...
January 30, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148771/oscillatory-wall-shear-stress-is-a-dominant-flow-characteristic-affecting-lesion-progression-patterns-and-plaque-vulnerability-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Lucas H Timmins, David S Molony, Parham Eshtehardi, Michael C McDaniel, John N Oshinski, Don P Giddens, Habib Samady
Although experimental studies suggest that low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) promotes plaque transformation to a more vulnerable phenotype, this relationship has not been examined in human atherosclerosis progression. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to examine the association between oscillatory WSS, in combination with WSS magnitude, and coronary atherosclerosis progression. We hypothesized that regions of low and oscillatory WSS will demonstrate progression towards more vulnerable lesions, while regions exposed to low and non-oscillatory WSS will exhibit progression towards more stable lesions...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137963/the-role-of-efferocytosis-in-atherosclerosis
#17
Yoko Kojima, Irving L Weissman, Nicholas J Leeper
The necrotic core has long been a hallmark of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Although apoptotic cells are cleared quickly in almost all other tissue beds, their removal appears to be significantly impaired in the diseased blood vessel. Emerging evidence indicates that this phenomenon is caused by a defect in efferocytosis, the process by which apoptotic tissue is recognized for engulfment by phagocytic cells such as macrophages. Genetic and experimental data suggest that efferocytosis is impaired during atherogenesis caused by dysregulation of so-called eat me ligands, which govern the edibility of cells undergoing programmed cell death...
January 31, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134664/the-walking-dead-macrophage-inflammation-and-death-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Mary M Kavurma, Katey J Rayner, Denuja Karunakaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent studies that describe novel inflammatory and signaling mechanisms that regulate macrophage death in atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophages contribute to all stages of atherosclerosis. The traditional dogma states that in homeostatic conditions, macrophages undergo apoptosis and are efficiently phagocytosed to be cleared by a process called efferocytosis. In advanced atherosclerosis, however, defective efferocytosis results in secondary necrosis of these uncleared apoptotic cells, which ultimately contributes to the formation of the characteristic necrotic core and the vulnerable plaque...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133466/prediction-of-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-coronary-artery-lesions-using-na%C3%A3-ve-bayesian-networks
#19
Wei Wang, Xian-Tao Song, Yun-Dai Chen, Xing-Sheng Yang, Feng Xu, Min Zhang, Kai Tan, Fei Yuan, Dong Li, Shu-Zheng Lyu
BACKGROUND: This prospective study integrated multiple clinical indexes and inflammatory markers associated with coronary atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque to establish a risk prediction model that can evaluate a patient with certain risk factors for the likelihood of the occurrence of a coronary heart disease event within one year. METHODS: This study enrolled in 2686 patients with mild to moderate coronary artery lesions. Eighty-five indexes were recorded, included baseline clinical data, laboratory studies, and procedural characteristics...
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121134/molecular-imaging-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-vivo-with-osteopontin-specific-upconversion-nanoprobes
#20
Ruirui Qiao, Hongyu Qiao, Yan Zhang, Yabin Wang, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian, Lifang Zhang, Feng Cao, Mingyuan Gao
Owing to the high mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases, developing novel noninvasive diagnostic methods becomes urgent and mandatory. It is well-known that the rupture of vulnerable plaques directly leads to deadly consequences. However, differentiating vulnerable plaques from stable plaques remains challenging in the clinic. In the current study, osteopontin (OPN), a secreted biomarker associated with macrophages and foamy macrophages, was selected as a target for identifying the vulnerable plaques. A dual modality imaging probe was constructed by covalently attaching an OPN antibody to NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion nanoparticles...
January 31, 2017: ACS Nano
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