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Vulnerable plaque

Shuang Chen, Zi-Qing Ye, Zhi-Wen Li, Chun-Xiao Zhao, Guang-Jin Chen, Jun-Zhuo Zhou, Chuan Wang, Rui-Li Huang, Yong-Dun Hong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: For many years, our hospital has been successfully using the empirical Wenyang Huoxue Jiedu formula (WHJF) to treat coronary heart disease. Modern theories of acute coronary syndrome mainly focus on rupture of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs), which is closely related to the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor (VEGF/VEGFR). AIM OF STUDY: We investigated the effects of WHJF on the formation of TCFA plaques and the potential mechanism (VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathway)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yifei Chen, Mengmeng Li, Yu Zhang, Mingxue Di, Weijia Chen, Xiaolin Liu, Fangpu Yu, Han Wang, Xi Zhen, Mei Zhang
In advanced atherosclerosis, a large number of necrotic core increases plaque vulnerability, which leads to the occurrence of acute atherothrombotic cardiovascular events. Macrophage apoptosis plays an important role in secondary necrosis. The present study aimed to examine and describe the effect of the traditional Chinese medication Tongxinluo (TXL) on macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerotic plaques and to explore its mechanism. By observing the effect of TXL on ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage apoptosis, it was shown that TXL significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages by enhancing autophagy...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Edward D Nicol, Ronak Rajani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Marieke A Hillaert, Hester M den Ruijter, Imo E Hoefer, Eef G Lentjes, Gert J de Borst, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Leo Timmers
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is increasingly being recognized to play an important role in the development and clinical course of cardiovascular diseases. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation is associated with clinical outcome in various populations of cardiovascular patients, such as patients with coronary artery, peripheral artery, and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the associations between plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and secondary vascular events in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Stefan Roth, Vikramjeet Singh, Steffen Tiedt, Lisa Schindler, Georg Huber, Arie Geerlof, Daniel J Antoine, Antoine Anfray, Cyrille Orset, Maxime Gauberti, Antoine Fournier, Lesca M Holdt, Helena Erlandsson Harris, Britta Engelhardt, Marco E Bianchi, Denis Vivien, Christof Haffner, Jürgen Bernhagen, Martin Dichgans, Arthur Liesz
Stroke induces a multiphasic systemic immune response, but the consequences of this response on atherosclerosis-a major source of recurrent vascular events-have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that stroke exacerbates atheroprogression via alarmin-mediated propagation of vascular inflammation. The prototypic brain-released alarmin high-mobility group box 1 protein induced monocyte and endothelial activation via the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-signaling cascade and increased plaque load and vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Fang Wu, Haiqing Song, Qingfeng Ma, Jiayu Xiao, Tao Jiang, Xiaoqin Huang, Xiaoming Bi, Xiuhai Guo, Debiao Li, Qi Yang, Xunming Ji, Zhaoyang Fan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in patients with artery-to-artery (A-to-A) embolic infarction by whole-brain high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Seventy-four patients (mean age, 54.7±12.1 years; 59 men) with recent stroke in the territory of middle cerebral artery because of intracranial atherosclerotic disease were prospectively enrolled. Whole-brain high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all the patients both precontrast and postcontrast administration by using a 3-dimensional T1-weighted vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging technique known as inversion-recovery prepared sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Naser Ahmadi, Fereshteh Hajsadeghi, Vahid Nabavi, Garth Olango, Mohammed Molla, Matthew Budoff, Nutan Vaidya, Javier Quintana, Robert Pynoos, Peter Hauser, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: Coronary-distensibility-index (CDI) impairments reflect endothelial-dependent process associated with vulnerable-plaque composition. This study investigates the relation of impaired-CDI with posttraumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD) and their predictive value for major-adverse-cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: This study involved 246 patients (age: 63±10 years, 12% women) with (n=50) and without (n=196) PTSD, who underwent computed-tomography angiography (CTA) to determine coronary artery disease (CAD) and CDI...
March 14, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
A Mattina, D Rosenbaum, R Bittar, D Bonnefont-Rousselot, D Noto, M Averna, E Bruckert, P Giral
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development. It is considered a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and plaque vulnerability. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a higher prevalence of early CVD. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in Lp-PLA2 activity in a population of hypercholesterolemic patients with and without definite FH...
February 2, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Mikiya Beppu, Yohei Mineharu, Hirotoshi Imamura, Hidemitsu Adachi, Chiaki Sakai, Shoichi Tani, Koichi Arimura, So Tokunaga, Nobuyuki Sakai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although in-stent protrusion is a potential risk factor of thromboembolism following carotid artery stenting, the correlation between in-stent protrusion and postoperative ipsilateral stroke has not been well examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 342 consecutive carotid artery lesions in 319 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting between April 2008 and April 2015. After excluding cases with carotid artery dissection and acute occlusion, 301 lesions in total of 277 patients were included in the analysis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Blerim Mujaj, Daniel Bos, Mariana Selwaness, Maarten J G Leening, Maryam Kavousi, Jolanda J Wentzel, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Bruno H Stricker, Meike W Vernooij, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a key treatment for cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of statin treatment on the composition of atherosclerotic plaques remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of statin treatment with the presence of different plaque components located in the carotid arteries within a population-based setting. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 1740 participants with carotid atherosclerosis (mean age 72...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Xue-Na Zheng, Jun Yang, Tao Xie, Bin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li-Na Xie, Xue-Fen Wu, Gang-Zhu Hu, Mai-Lan Liu, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of herbal cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipid-apoprotein levels and the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), TLR 4 and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) mRNAs in atherosclerotic (AS) vulnerable plaques of hyperglycemia rabbits, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, model, direct moxibustion, herbal-cake-separated moxibustion and medication groups( n =12 rabbits in each group)...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Hirotoshi Maruyama, Kanako Toyomaru, Yuri Nishizaka, Masahiro Fukamatsu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to detect carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Although it is important to evaluate vulnerable carotid plaques containing lipids and intra-plaque hemorrhages (IPHs) using T1 -weighted images, the image contrast changes depending on the imaging settings. Moreover, to distinguish between a thrombus and a hemorrhage, it is useful to evaluate the iron content of the plaque using both T1 -weighted and T2 *-weighted images. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques using T1 and T2 * values may be necessary for the accurate evaluation of plaque components...
March 6, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Kathy Keyvani, Yvonne Münster, Nirup K Kurapati, Sebastian Rubach, Andreas Schönborn, Emre Kocakavuk, Mohamed Karout, Pia Hammesfahr, Ya-Chao Wang, Dirk M Hermann, Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann, Arne Herring
Women seem to have a higher vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms of this sex dichotomy are not well understood. Here, we first determined the influence of sex on various aspects of Alzheimer's pathology in transgenic CRND8 mice. We demonstrate that beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden starts to be more severe around P180 (moderate disease stage) in female transgenics when compared to males and that aging aggravates this sex-specific difference. Further we show that female transgenics suffer from higher levels of neurovascular dysfunction around P180, resulting in impaired Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain-barrier at P360...
March 5, 2018: Brain Pathology
Yoshiro Ito, Wataro Tsuruta, Yasunobu Nakai, Tomoji Takigawa, Aiki Marushima, Tomohiko Masumoto, Yuji Matsumaru, Eiichi Ishikawa, Akira Matsumura
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are not appropriate treatment procedure for internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) in some patients. The importance of plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation has been reported. We analyzed whether treatment selection contributes to the outcome. We retrospectively examined 121 patients who underwent CEA or CAS. Treatment was selected based on plaque vulnerability and the treatment risk evaluation. We selected CAS for patients with stable plaques and CEA for patients with unstable plaques, and considered the other treatment for high-risk patients...
March 3, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Hong Jin, Daniel Y Li, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Changyan Sun, Albert Busch, Suzanne M Eken, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Hanna Winter, Greg Winski, Uwe Raaz, Isabel N Schellinger, Nancy Simon, Renate Hegenloh, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Maja Jagodic, Ewa Ehrenborg, Jaroslav Pelisek, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Ulf Hedin, Alexandra Backlund, Lars Maegdefessel
miRNAs are potential regulators of carotid artery stenosis and concordant vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Hence, we analyzed miRNA expression in laser captured micro-dissected fibrous caps of either ruptured or stable plaques (n = 10 each), discovering that miR-21 was significantly downregulated in unstable lesions. To functionally evaluate miR-21 in plaque vulnerability, miR-21 and miR-21/apolipoprotein-E double-deficient mice (Apoe-/- miR-21-/- ) were assessed. miR-21-/- mice lacked sufficient smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to carotid ligation injury...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Wen-Jing Liang, Sheng-Nan Zhou, Mei-Rong Shan, Xue-Qin Wang, Miao Zhang, Yuan Chen, Yun Zhang, Shuang-Xi Wang, Tao Guo
Diabetes mellitus is one of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Whether and how diabetes promotes the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is not fully understood. Here, we show that streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes reduced collagen synthesis, leading to the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaque induced by collar placement around carotid in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe-/- ) mice. These detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on plaque stability were reversed by metformin in vivo without altering the levels of blood glucose and lipids...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Magda R Hamczyk, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta, Pilar Gonzalo, María J Andrés-Manzano, Paula Nogales, Jacob F Bentzon, Carlos López-Otín, Vicente Andrés
Background -Progerin, an aberrant protein that accumulates with age, causes the rare genetic disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). HGPS patients with ubiquitous progerin expression exhibit accelerated aging and atherosclerosis, and die in their early teens mainly from myocardial infarction or stroke. The mechanisms underlying progerin-induced atherosclerosis remain unexplored, in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Methods -We generated an atherosclerosis-prone model of HGPS by crossing apolipoprotein E-deficient ( Apoe-/- ) mice with LmnaG609G/G609G mice ubiquitously expressing progerin...
February 28, 2018: Circulation
Xiyang Hu, Wei Zhang, Nairui Zhao, Rongcheng Zhao, Shuofeng Li
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a noninvasive test for detection and analysis of coronary plaques morphology and classification. The low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (L/H) ratio is associated with plaques vulnerability. The study aims to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA and L/H ratio for plaques classification. We enrolled 212 patients with coronary artery single-vessel disease who performed preoperative CCTA and Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided invasive coronary angiography...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Mohamed A Zayed, Fong-Fu Hsu, Bruce W Patterson, Yan Yan, Uzma Naim, Malik Darwesh, Gayan De Silva, Chao Yang, Clay F Semenkovich
Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of developing carotid artery stenosis and resultant stroke. Arachidonoyl phospholipids affect plaque inflammation and vulnerability, but whether diabetic patients have unique carotid artery phospholipidomic profiles is unknown. We performed a comprehensive paired analysis of phospholipids in extracranial carotid endarterectomy (CEA) plaques of matched diabetic and nondiabetic patients and analyzed mass spectrometry-derived profiles of three phospholipids - plasmenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (pPE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) - in minimally diseased (MIN) and maximally diseased (MAX) CEA segments...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Susama Rani Mandal, Avinav Bharati, Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, Sudhir Arava, Ruma Ray, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Millo Tabin, Munish Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Pratik Kumar
PURPOSE: In this study non-calcified plaque composition is evaluated by Dual Energy CT (DECT). Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) has been used to study the Plaque composition. An attempt has been made to explain the DECT results with EDS analysis. METHODS: Thirty-two ex-vivo human cadaver coronary artery samples were scanned by DECT and data was evaluated to calculate their effective atomic number and electron density (Zeff & ρe ) by inversion method...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
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