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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534549/-patients-with-vulnerable-coronary-plaques-have-higher-serum-metalloproteinase-1-levels
#1
G Sánchez Elvira, I Coma-Canella, M Artaiz, J A Páramo, J Barba, J Calabuig
BACKGROUND: Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by the fracture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. These plaques are thin cap fibroatheromas, which can only be detected with invasive coronary imaging techniques. It is necessary to find a non-invasive biomarker of these vulnerable plaques in order to identify patients at risk without a coronary angiography. Metalloproteinase-1 is an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix metabolism which has been correlated with the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529262/investigations-of-carotid-stenosis-to-identify-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-and-determine-individual-stroke-risk
#2
Madieke I Liem, Fiona Kennedy, Leo H Bonati, Aad van der Lugt, Bram F Coolen, Aart J Nederveen, Hans R Jager, Martin M Brown, Paul J Nederkoorn
Selection of patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis for revascularization is mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing of the carotid artery. However, identification of other features of plaque apart from the degree of stenosis could enable better selection for intervention if they are also associated with the occurrence of stroke. Before these risk factors can possibly play a role in treatment decisions, their prognostic value needs to be proven. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the risk factors for stroke in patients with carotid stenosis, how they can be determined, and to what extent they predict stroke, based on recent literature...
May 20, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528430/risk-classification-of-highly-sensitive-troponin-i-predict-presence-of-vulnerable-plaque-assessed-by-dual-source-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#3
Ting Liu, Guan Wang, Peiling Li, Xu Dai
Patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, negative conventional troponin and electrocardiogram require serial testing to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We studied the association of highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) I with vulnerable plaque features as detected by coronary dual source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) and determined whether hsTn I at the time of presentation combined with early DSCTA could improve classification of patients as high-risk or low risk for ACS...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500539/hybrid-pet-ct-and-pet-mri-imaging-of-vulnerable-coronary-plaque-and-myocardial-scar-tissue-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#4
Stephanie Marchesseau, Aruni Seneviratna, A Therese Sjöholm, Daphne Liang Qin, Jamie X M Ho, Derek J Hausenloy, David W Townsend, A Mark Richards, John J Totman, Mark Y Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Following an acute coronary syndrome, combined CT and PET with (18)F-NaF can identify coronary atherosclerotic plaques that have ruptured or eroded. However, the processes behind (18)F-NaF uptake in vulnerable plaques remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with STEMI were scanned after (18)F-NaF injection, for 75 minutes in a Siemens PET/MR scanner using delayed enhancement (LGE). They were then scanned in a Siemens PET/CT scanner for 10 minutes...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492564/-heart-rate-as-a-therapeutic-target-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-in-chronic-coronary-heart-disease
#5
Marco Ambrosetti, Giuseppe Scardina, Giuseppe Favretto, Pier Luigi Temporelli, Pompilio Massimo Faggiano, Cesare Greco, Roberto Franco Pedretti
For patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), either after hospitalization for acute cardiac events or in the chronic phase, comprehensive treatment programs should be devoted to: (i) reducing mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, (ii) reducing the ischemic burden and related symptoms, and (iii) increasing exercise capacity and quality of life.Heart rate (HR) has demonstrated to have prognostic value and patients beyond the limit of 70 bpm display increased risk of all the above adverse outcomes, even after adjustment for parameters such as the extension of myocardial infarction and the presence of heart failure...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487806/synchronous-carotid-bifurcation-endarterectomy-and-retrograde-kissing-stenting-of-the-innominate-and-left-common-carotid-artery-in-a-patient-with-a-bovine-aortic-arch
#6
Alessandro Robaldo, Guido Carignano, Alberto Balderi, Claudio Novali
Management of the symptomatic multiple stenosis of supra-aortic vessels (MSSVs) in a "bovine" aortic arch (BAA) configuration is infrequently reported. The optimal treatment choice remains debatable. A successful hybrid treatment for a proximal critical stenosis of the innominate and left common carotid artery was performed in a high-risk patient with a tandem symptomatic lesion in the right carotid bifurcation and a concentric vulnerable plaque in the bovine trunk. This case supports the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a combined carotid bifurcation endarterectomy and retrograde kissing stenting of common carotid arteries with cerebral protection after evaluation of radiological, anatomical, and clinical parameters...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487322/multitarget-vulnerable-plaque-imaging
#7
EDITORIAL
Marc R Dweck, Zahi A Fayad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487317/head-to-head-comparison-of-inflammation-and-neovascularization-in-human-carotid-plaques-implications-for-the-imaging-of-vulnerable-plaques
#8
Fabian Demeure, Caroline Bouzin, Véronique Roelants, Anne Bol, Robert Verhelst, Parla Astarci, Bernhard L Gerber, Anne-Catherine Pouleur, Agnès Pasquet, Christophe de Meester, Jean-Louis J Vanoverschelde, David Vancraeynest
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization are acknowledged to be 2 features of plaque vulnerability, although their temporal expression and their respective value in predicting clinical events are poorly understood. To determine their respective temporal associations, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization in the carotid plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with severe carotid stenosis underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomographic imaging...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483945/early-detection-and-treatment-of-the-vulnerable-coronary-plaque-can-we-prevent-acute-coronary-syndromes
#9
Michiel J Bom, Dirk J van der Heijden, Elvin Kedhi, Jan van der Heyden, Martijn Meuwissen, Paul Knaapen, Stefan A J Timmer, Niels van Royen
Early identification and treatment of the vulnerable plaque, that is, a coronary artery lesion with a high likelihood of rupture leading to an acute coronary syndrome, have gained great interest in the cardiovascular research field. Postmortem studies have identified clear morphological characteristics associated with plaque rupture. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive coronary imaging techniques have empowered the clinician to identify suspected vulnerable plaques in vivo and paved the way for the evaluation of therapeutic agents targeted at reducing plaque vulnerability...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483812/coronary-plaque-characterization-in-psoriasis-reveals-high-risk-features-which-improve-following-treatment-in-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Joseph B Lerman, Aditya A Joshi, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Tsion M Aberra, Amit K Dey, Justin A Rodante, Taufiq Salahuddin, Jonathan H Chung, Anshuma Rana, Heather L Teague, Jashin J Wu, Martin P Playford, Benjamin N Lockshin, Marcus Y Chen, Veit Sandfort, David A Bluemke, Nehal N Mehta
Background -Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an accelerated risk of MI, provides an ideal human model to study inflammatory atherogenesis in vivo We hypothesized that the increased cardiovascular risk observed in psoriasis would be partially attributable to an elevated subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) burden composed of non-calcified plaques with high-risk features. However, inadequate efforts have been made to directly measure CAD in this vulnerable population. As such, we sought to compare total (TB) and non-calcified (NCB) coronary plaque burden, and high-risk plaque (HRP) prevalence, between psoriasis patients (n=105), hyperlipidemic patients eligible for statin therapy under NCEP-ATP III guidelines (n=100) who were ~10 years older, and non-psoriasis healthy volunteers (HV) (n=25)...
May 8, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483458/killer-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Tin Kyaw, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik
Cytotoxic lymphocytes (killer cells) play a critical role in host defence mechanisms, protecting against infections and in tumour surveillance. They can also exert detrimental effects in chronic inflammatory disorders and in autoimmune diseases. Tissue cell death and necrosis are prominent features of advanced atherosclerotic lesions including vulnerable/unstable lesions which are largely responsible for most heart attacks and strokes. Evidence for accumulation of killer cells in both human and mouse lesions together with their cytotoxic potential strongly suggest that these cells contribute to cell death and necrosis in lesions leading to vulnerable plaque development and potentially plaque rupture...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483344/the-exceptional-vulnerability-of-humans-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lary C Walker, Mathias Jucker
Like many humans, non-human primates deposit copious misfolded Aβ protein in the brain as they age. Nevertheless, the complete behavioral and pathologic phenotype of Alzheimer's disease, including Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary (tau) tangles, and dementia, has not yet been identified in a non-human species. Recent research suggests that the crucial link between Aβ aggregation and tauopathy is somehow disengaged in aged monkeys. Understanding why Alzheimer's disease fails to develop in species that are biologically proximal to humans could disclose new therapeutic targets in the chain of events leading to neurodegeneration and dementia...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482222/noninvasive-detection-of-increased-carotid-artery-temperature-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-predicts-major-cardiovascular-events-at-one-year-results-from-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#13
Konstantinos Toutouzas, Georgios Benetos, Iosif Koutagiar, Nikolaos Barampoutis, Fotini Mitropoulou, Periklis Davlouros, Petros P Sfikakis, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Elias Siores, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD...
April 23, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479433/relationship-between-calcification-and-vulnerability-of-the-carotid-plaques
#14
Rodolfo Pini, Gianluca Faggioli, Silvia Fittipaldi, Francesco Vasuri, Matteo Longhi, Enrico Gallitto, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Mauro Gargiulo, Andrea Stella
INTRODUCTION: Carotid plaques with a high degree of calcification are usually considered at low embolic risk. However, since a precise evaluation of the extent of calcification is not possible preoperatively through duplex ultrasound and postoperatively by conventional histological examination due to the de-calcification process, the relationship between the amount of calcium involvement and plaque vulnerability has not been evaluated yet. This study aims to correlate the extent of carotid plaque calcification with clinical, radiological and histological complications...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473100/coronary-artery-calcification-from-mechanism-to-molecular-imaging
#15
REVIEW
Takehiro Nakahara, Marc R Dweck, Navneet Narula, David Pisapia, Jagat Narula, H William Strauss
Vascular calcification is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The location, density, and confluence of calcification may change portions of the arterial conduit to a noncompliant structure. Calcifications may also seed the cap of a thin cap fibroatheroma, altering tensile forces on the cap and rendering the lesion prone to rupture. Many local and systemic factors participate in this process, including hyperlipidemia, ongoing inflammation, large necrotic cores, and diabetes. Vascular cells can undergo chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation, causing mineralization of membranous bone and formation of endochondral bone...
May 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471481/cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-atherosclerosis-significance-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-challenges
#16
Tin Kyaw, Karlheinz Peter, Li Yi, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik
Cytotoxic lymphocytes encompass natural killer (NK) lymphocytes (cells) and cytotoxic T cells that include CD8+ T cells, NKT cells, gamma, delta (γδ)-T cells and human CD4 + CD28- T cells. These cells play critical roles in inflammatory diseases and in controlling cancers and infections. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be activated via a number of mechanisms that may involve dendritic cells, macrophages, cytokines or surface proteins on stressed cells. Upon activation, they secrete proinflammatory cytokines as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cytotoxins to promote inflammation and development of atherosclerotic lesions including vulnerable lesions, which are strongly implicated in myocardial infarctions and strokes...
May 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470406/targeting-mannose-receptor-expression-on-macrophages-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-using-111-in-tilmanocept
#17
Zohreh Varasteh, Fabien Hyafil, Nadège Anizan, Devy Diallo, Rachida Aid-Launais, Sarajo Mohanta, Yuanfang Li, Miriam Braeuer, Katja Steiger, Jonathan Vigne, Zhengtao Qin, Stephan G Nekolla, Jean-Etienne Fabre, Yvonne Döring, Dominique Le Guludec, Andreas Habenicht, David R Vera, Markus Schwaiger
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic plaque phenotypes are classified based on the extent of macrophage infiltration into the lesions, and the presence of certain macrophage subsets might be a sign for plaque vulnerability. The mannose receptor (MR) is over-expressed in activated macrophages. Tilmanocept is a tracer that targets MR and is approved in Europe and the USA for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the potential of (111)In-labelled tilmanocept for the detection of MR-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse model...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458377/role-of-the-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ratio-in-predicting-serial-changes-in-the-lipid-component-of-coronary-plaque
#18
Ryo Kawakami, Ichiro Matsumoto, Motoi Shiomi, Mizuki Kurozumi, Yuichi Miyake, Makoto Ishizawa, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazushi Murakami, Takahisa Noma, Yuichiro Takagi, Naoki Nishimoto, Tetsuo Minamino
BACKGROUND: The lipid component of coronary plaques is associated with their vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate which coronary risk factors were relevant in predicting serial changes in the lipid component of coronary plaques as evaluated by integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS).Methods and Results:We enrolled 104 patients who underwent IB-IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and were followed up with repeat IB-IVUS 6 months later...
April 29, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450907/atorvastatin-attenuates-plaque-vulnerability-by-downregulation-of-emmprin-expression-via-cox-2-pge2-pathway
#19
Xing Liang, Li-Xia Yang, Ruiwei Guo, Yankun Shi, Xianhua Hou, Zhihua Yang, Xiaobin Zhou, Hong Liu
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) reportedly has a key regulatory role in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and the progression of atherosclerosis. Statins, which are anti-atherosclerotic pharmacological agents, are widely applied in clinical settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmaceutical effect of atorvastatin on EMMPRIN expression in atherosclerotic plaques. An atherosclerotic mouse model was established using apoliprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice raised on a high-fat diet...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436693/expression-of-circulating-mir-17-92-cluster-and-hdac9-gene-in-atherosclerotic-patients-with-unstable-and-stable-carotid-plaques
#20
Silvia Ferronato, Aldo Mombello, Ilaria Posenato, Paola Candiani, Alberto Scuro, Carlo Setacci, Macarena Gomez-Lira
AIMS: The miR-17-92 cluster and HDAC9 gene are involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and angiogenic processes that are activated in the vulnerable carotid plaque. The aim of this research was to determine whether expression of one or more of the miRs of the cluster and/or HDAC9 expression could represent biomarkers for patients with unstable atherosclerotic carotid plaques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma levels of miRs and HDAC9 expression in peripheral blood were analyzed by real-time PCR in patients with histologically classified stable or unstable plaques...
April 24, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
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