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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333905/-the-inflammatory-processes-in-atherogenesis
#1
Natalia Cichoń, Dominika Lach, Angela Dziedzic, Michał Bijak, Joanna Saluk
Atherogenesis is the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation, leading to coronary artery heart disease. This process involves immune cells, mainly T and B cells, monocytes and macrophages. The process of atherogenesis is induced by inflammatory damage of endothelial cells. The characteristic construction features of the atherosclerotic plaque is a predisposing factor for acute coronary syndromes. The accumulation of inflammatory cells in the artery inner membrane enhances the local inflammatory process due to the secretion of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases, which accelerate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329036/predictive-value-of-plaque-morphology-assessed-by-frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-for-impaired-microvascular-perfusion-after-elective-stent-implantation-the-intracoronary-electrocardiogram-study
#2
Hiroki Ikenaga, Satoshi Kurisu, Tsukasa Nakao, Shingo Kono, Yoji Sumimoto, Noriaki Watanabe, Takashi Shimonaga, Tadanao Higaki, Toshitaka Iwasaki, Naoya Mitsuba, Ken Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Dohi, Yukihiro Fukuda, Yasuki Kihara
Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the association between plaque features at culprit lesions assessed by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and impaired microvascular perfusion estimated by intracoronary electrocardiogram (IcECG) after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, we investigated whether IcECG could predict future cardiac events. Methods and results: This study consisted of 84 patients who underwent both FD-OCT and IcECG during PCI...
March 7, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323768/use-of-cardiovascular-age-for-assessing-risks-and-benefits-of-menopausal-hormone-therapy
#3
Richard J Santen
The Women's Health Initiative studies and others have suggested that menopausal hormone therapy may enhance the risk of new cardiovascular (CV) events in older women and diminish the development of coronary atherosclerosis in younger women. The underlying mechanisms to explain these findings are encapsulated in the term "Timing Hypothesis." Extensive pathophysiologic studies have provided mechanistic evidence for the dichotomous effects of estrogen on coronary artery vasculature. Early in the atherosclerotic disease process, estrogen exerts protective effects on the endothelium and retards plaque formation...
March 20, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318811/st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-after-penetrating-thoracic-trauma
#4
Kiran Faryar, Michael P Flaherty, Martin Huecker
BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may complicate penetrating thoracic trauma. CASE REPORT: This report describes a 42-year-old man who sustained a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the left chest. Electrocardiogram showed ST elevation in the inferior leads. Emergent catheterization was not recommended and conservative management was initiated. Cardiac catheterization 4 days later showed no perturbation of the coronary arteries, neither atherosclerotic nor traumatic...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318137/plaque-erosion-delays-vascular-healing-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-an-in-vivo-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#5
Sining Hu, Chao Wang, Chunyang Zhe, Yinchun Zhu, Taishi Yonetsu, Haibo Jia, Jingbo Hou, Shaosong Zhang, Ik-Kyung Jang, Bo Yu
OBJECTIVES: To compare vascular healing after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation between plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE). BACKGROUND: Vascular response after stent implantation in patients with PR has been extensively studied. Little is known about vascular healing after stent implantation in PE. METHODS: Sixty-five ACS patients who received optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the culprit lesions both before and after stent implantation at baseline as well as at 6 months were included in this study...
March 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304220/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-a-correlation-study-with-histopathology
#6
Zhangyong Xia, Hua Yang, Xiaochun Yuan, Jiyue Wang, Shigang Zhang, Liyong Zhang, Yang Qu, Jun Chen, Liqun Jiao, Le-Xin Wang, Yifeng Du
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to utilize high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the characteristics of stable and vulnerable carotid arteriosclerotic plaques, with correlations to histopathological findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: High-resolution MRI was performed in 817 patients, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography. Plaque composition was evaluated by measuring the areas occupied by calcification, a lipid-rich necrotic core, intra-plaque haemorrhage, and fibrous cap rupture...
March 17, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303857/research-progress-on-the-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques
#7
REVIEW
Xiang-Dong Xiong, Wei-Dong Xiong, Shang-Shen Xiong, Gui-Hai Chen
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303685/impact-of-coronary-plaque-morphology-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-on-cardiac-troponin-elevation-in-patients-with-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
Tetsumin Lee, Tadashi Murai, Mitsuaki Isobe, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study the relationship between plaque morphology prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and post-PCI cardiac troponin (cTn) elevations in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Furthermore, the relationship between these findings and the adverse cardiac events during follow-up was assessed. BACKGROUND: Association between post-PCI cTn elevations and OCT findings in NSTE-ACS patients is unclear...
March 17, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294864/-thromboxane-a2-mechanisms-of-synthesis-and-intracellular-signaling-system-of-realization
#9
E F Barinov
One of major complications of ischemic heart disease is myocardial infarction, which develops as a result of thrombosis at the site of ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Platelets activation and aggregation are the key events of this process. The efficiency of aspirin and/or clopidogrel use is limited by residual platelet reactivity what indicates the need to explore its mechanisms. This review covers intracellular signaling systems involved in realization of effects of the main platelet agonists in order to specify new molecules for the target therapy in case of aspirin resistance...
April 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291707/epigenetics-of-atherosclerosis-emerging-mechanisms-and-methods
#10
REVIEW
Nadiya Khyzha, Azad Alizada, Michael D Wilson, Jason E Fish
Atherosclerosis is a vascular pathology characterized by inflammation and plaque build-up within arterial vessel walls. Vessel occlusion, often occurring after plaque rupture, can result in myocardial and cerebral infarction. Epigenetic changes are increasingly being associated with atherosclerosis and are of interest from both therapeutic and biomarker perspectives. Emerging genomic approaches that profile DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, post-translational histone modifications, transcription factor binding, and RNA expression in low or single cell populations are poised to enhance our spatiotemporal understanding of atherogenesis...
March 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288748/role-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-managing-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#11
Ashish Shah, Douglas J Ing
Stenting the culprit lesion in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the standard of care. Although plaque rupture on an atheromatous lesion is the most common underlying pathology, other mechanisms can also result in ACS presentation; some of which can be managed without stenting. Here we describe a case that was managed conservatively, after evaluating plaque erosion as the underlying mechanism and lack of obstructive lesion. This case highlights the importance of intracoronary imaging to assess the underlying mechanism in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283548/smooth-muscle-cell-specific-deletion-of-col15a1-unexpectedly-leads-to-impaired-development-of-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions
#12
Brittany G Durgin, Olga A Cherepanova, Delphine Gomez, Themistoclis Karaoli, Gabriel F Alencar, Joshua T Butcher, Yu-Qing Zhou, Michelle P Bendeck, Brant E Isakson, Gary K Owens, Jessica J Connelly
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture with subsequent embolic events is a major cause of sudden death from myocardial infarction or stroke. Although smooth muscle cells (SMC) produce and respond to collagens in vitro, there is no direct evidence in vivo that SMC are a crucial source of collagens and that this impacts lesion development or fibrous cap formation. We sought to determine how conditional SMC specific knockout of collagen type XV (COL15A1) in SMC lineage tracing mice affects advanced lesion formation given: 1) we previously identified a Col15a1 sequence variant associated with age related atherosclerosis; 2) COL15A1 is a matrix organizer enhancing tissue structural integrity; and 3) siRNA mediated Col15a1 knockdown increased migration and decreased proliferation of cultured human SMC...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281026/neoatherosclerosis-assessed-with-optical-coherence-tomography-in-restenotic-bare-metal-and-first-and-second-generation-drug-eluting-stents
#13
Lei Song, Gary S Mintz, Dong Yin, Myong Hwa Yamamoto, Chee Yang Chin, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Khady Fall, Ajay J Kirtane, Manish A Parikh, Jeffrey W Moses, Ziad A Ali, Richard A Shlofmitz, Akiko Maehara
Although reported in bare metal stents (BMS) and first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), little is known about neoatherosclerosis in second-generation DES. We used optical coherence tomography to evaluate neoatherosclerosis among different stent generations. Overall, 274 in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions (duration from implantation 56.9 ± 47.2 months) in 274 patients were assessed for the presence of neoatherosclerosis. Neoatherosclerosis was identified in 38.7% of lesions (106/274): 23.0% second-generation DES (38/165), 65...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279371/carotid-plaque-lipid-content-and-fibrous-cap-status-predict-systemic-cv-outcomes-the-mri-substudy-in-aim-high
#14
Jie Sun, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Niranjan Balu, Moni B Neradilek, Daniel A Isquith, Kiyofumi Yamada, Gádor Cantón, John R Crouse, Todd J Anderson, John Huston, Kevin O'Brien, Daniel S Hippe, Nayak L Polissar, Chun Yuan, Thomas S Hatsukami
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what carotid plaque characteristics predict systemic cardiovascular outcomes in patients with clinically established atherosclerotic disease. BACKGROUND: Advancements in atherosclerosis imaging have allowed assessment of various plaque characteristics, some of which are more directly linked to the pathogenesis of acute cardiovascular events compared to plaque burden. METHODS: As part of the event-driven clinical trial AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes), subjects with clinically established atherosclerotic disease underwent multicontrast carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect plaque tissue composition and high-risk features...
March 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274754/noninvasive-characterization-of-carotid-plaque-strain
#15
Amir A Khan, Siddhartha Sikdar, Thomas Hatsukami, Juan Cebral, Michael Jones, John Huston, George Howard, Brajesh K Lal
OBJECTIVE: Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268915/clinical-viability-of-carotid-plaque-strain-estimation-using-b-mode-ultrasound-image-sequences
#16
Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker, Brajesh K Lal, Siddhartha Sikdar
It is estimated that approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are caused by rupture of plaque in the carotid artery. Development of techniques focusing on identifying plaques that are vulnerable to rupture is thus indispensable for stroke prevention. Recent studies have demonstrated that motion analysis of plaques from B-mode and RF ultrasound (US) image sequences can be used to estimate plaque strain. However, viability of these methods in a clinical setting, with variable acquisition protocols, has not been demonstrated yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266687/syndrome-coronarien-aigu-sca
#17
Ali Yildirim, Heinz-Theo Lübbers, Ayhan Yildirim
Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the usual initiating event in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Persistent thrombotic occlusion at the site of plaque rupture results in acute myocardial infarction. The early management of the patient is essential and crucially affects the prognosis of an ACS. Management includes the relief of ischemic pain and the initiation of an antithrombotic therapy, including an antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy with aspirin and heparin to prevent further thrombosis of or embolism from an ulcerated plaque...
2017: Swiss Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262624/a-novel-four-dimensional-angiographic-approach-to-assess-dynamic-superficial-wall-stress-of-coronary-arteries-in-vivo-initial-experience-in-evaluating-vessel-sites-with-subsequent-plaque-rupture
#18
Xinlei Wu, Clemens von Birgelen, Takashi Muramatsu, Yingguang Li, Niels Ramsing Holm, Johan H C Reiber, Shengxian Tu
AIMS: Repetitive and fluctuating stress is one important biomechanical mechanism that underlies the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. We developed a novel coronary angiography-based method for in vivo 4-dimensional analysis of dynamic superficial wall stress (SWS) in coronary plaques and applied it for the first time in two clinical cases to investigate the potential relationship between dynamic stress concentration at baseline and plaque rupture during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) several months later...
March 7, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262193/short-term-changes-in-gal-3-circulating-levels-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Giulia Bivona, Chiara Bellia, Bruna Lo Sasso, Luisa Agnello, Concetta Scazzone, Giuseppina Novo, Marcello Ciaccio
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Galectin 3 (Gal 3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin known to play a part in inflammation, adverse remodeling and fibrosis. Gal 3 seems to be linked to atherogenesis and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), but less is known about the relationship between Gal 3 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study is to assess circulating levels of Gal 3 after AMI and to evaluate short-term changes of the biomarker within 5 days from the acute event. METHODS: Two hundred fifteen confirmed AMI patients (125 STEMI, M/F = 2...
October 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261097/curcumin-alleviates-oxldl-induced-mmp-9-and-emmprin-expression-through-the-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-macrophages
#20
Jiatian Cao, Bozhi Ye, Lu Lin, Lei Tian, Hongbo Yang, Changqian Wang, Weijian Huang, Zhouqing Huang
Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the leading cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UA). However, it still lacks an effective therapy to stabilize the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Numerous reports have shown that upregulation of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) in macrophages is involved in the progression and development of vulnerable plaques. Here we evaluated the impact of curcumin on the expression of MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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