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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777212/regulation-of-macrophage-immunometabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Graeme J Koelwyn, Emma M Corr, Ebru Erbay, Kathryn J Moore
After activation, cells of the myeloid lineage undergo robust metabolic transitions, as well as discrete epigenetic changes, that can dictate both ongoing and future inflammatory responses. In atherosclerosis, in which macrophages play central roles in the initiation, growth, and ultimately rupture of arterial plaques, altered metabolism is a key feature that dictates macrophage function and subsequent disease progression. This Review explores how factors central to the plaque microenvironment (for example, altered cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress, hypoxia, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and hyperglycemia) shape the metabolic rewiring of macrophages in atherosclerosis as well as how these metabolic shifts in turn alter macrophage immune-effector and tissue-reparative functions...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775430/gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-reveals-upregulation-of-cadherin-genes-in-myocardial-infarction-patients
#2
Anselm A Derda, Chin Cheng Woo, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mark Richards, Chuen Neng Lee, Theo Kofidis, Vladimir A Kuznetsov, Vitaly A Sorokin
Myocardial infarction (MI) induced by acute coronary arterial occlusion is usually secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Dysregulated response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may promote plaque rupture. Cadherins (CDHs) form adherens junctions and are known stabilizers of atherosclerotic plaques. To date, the expression patterns of cadherin have not been well investigated in MI aortic VSMCs. We aimed to investigate the expression of cadherin genes in the aortic wall of patients with and without MI...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763489/intralymphatic-histiocytosis-treated-with-intralesional-triamcinolone-acetonide-and-pressure-bandage
#3
Jonathan M Soh, Glynis A Scott, Theodore I Hirokawa, Lindsey B Dolohanty
Intralymphatic histiocytosis is a rare disorder associated with a variety of inflammatory conditions. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman with a history of a right knee replacement and a ruptured popliteal cyst who developed an erythematous indurated plaque over the surgical scar. Histopathology revealed fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and histiocytes within the lymphatics consistent with intralymphatic histiocytosis. The plaque flattened following intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide 10 mg/cc×1...
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759509/the-coronary-calcium-paradox-yet-another-step-towards-the-differentiation-between-stable-and-rupture-prone-coronary-plaques
#4
EDITORIAL
Grigorios Korosoglou, Sorin Giusca, Hugo A Katus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751284/association-of-skin-autofluorescence-with-plaque-vulnerability-evaluated-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Yusuke Fujino, Guilherme F Attizzani, Satoko Tahara, Wei Wang, Kensuke Takagi, Toru Naganuma, Hiroto Yabushita, Kentaro Tanaka, Tomohiko Sato, Yusuke Watanabe, Satoru Mitomo, Naoyuki Kurita, Hisaaki Ishiguro, Shotaro Nakamura, Koji Hozawa, Hiram G Bezerra, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Sunao Nakamura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be measured non-invasively by skin autofluorescence (SAF) whose values are elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular imaging modality that could allow visualization of plaque composition. We aim to examine the relationship between SAF and plaque composition evaluated by frequency-domain OCT in patients with CVD. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 108 patients with CVD, who underwent OCT images during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745476/clinical-impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-on-culprit-plaque-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-oct-formidable-study-registry
#6
Mario Iannaccone, Geraud Souteyrand, Giampaolo Niccoli, Massimo Mancone, Gennaro Sardella, Corrado Tamburino, Christian Templin, Sebastiano Gili, Giacomo G Boccuzzi, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of the culprit plaque features assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The OCT-FORMIDABLE register enrolled retrospectively all consecutive patients who perform OCT on culprit plaque in patients with ACS in nine European centres. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of culprit plaque rupture (CPR) in patients experiencing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs)...
May 10, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737266/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-development-of-treatment-modalities
#7
Rahul Mittal, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In Samantha Kay, Aubrey Greer, Kyle J Sutherland, Hannah S McMurry, Nicole Lin, Jeenu Mittal, Arul K Malhotra, Amit P Patel
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology for cardiovascular disease is largely atherosclerotic in nature and the steps include fatty streak formation, plaque progression and plaque rupture. While there is optimal drug therapy available for patients with CVD, there are also underlying drug delivery obstacles that must be addressed. Challenges in drug delivery warrants further studies for the development of novel and more efficacious medical therapies...
May 7, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736635/effect-of-distal-thickening-and-stiffening-of-plaque-cap-on-arterial-wall-mechanics
#8
Pengsrorn Chhai, Kyehan Rhee
To investigate the effect of longitudinal variations of cap thickness and tissue properties on wall stresses and strains along the atherosclerotic stenosis, stenotic plaque models (uniformly thick, distally thickened, homogenous, and distally stiffened) were constructed and subjected to computational stress analyses with due consideration of fluid-structure interactions (FSI). The analysis considered three different cap thicknesses-45, 65, and 200 μm-and tissue properties-soft, fibrous, and hard. The maximum peak cap stress (PCS) and strain were observed in the upstream throat section and demonstrated increases of the order of 345 and 190%, respectively, as the cap thickness was reduced from 200 to 45 μm in uniformly thick models...
May 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735336/dose-dependent-inhibitory-effect-of-rosuvastatin-in-japanese-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-on-serum-concentration-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-invitation-trial
#9
Koichiro Fujisue, Takuhiro Shirakawa, Shinichi Nakamura, Nobuyasu Yamamoto, Shuichi Oshima, Toshiyuki Matsumura, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Nobutaka Hirai, Shinji Tayama, Natsuki Nakamura, Toyoki Hirose, Hideki Maruyama, Kazuteru Fujimoto, Ichiro Kajiwara, Tomohiro Sakamoto, Koichi Nakao, Naritsugu Sakaino, Seiji Hokimoto, Yasuhiro Nagayoshi, Jun Hokamaki, Hideki Shimomura, Kenji Sakamoto, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Hisao Ogawa, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is mainly characterized by the rupture of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in inflammatory processes underlying plaque rupture. Some reports suggested statins inhibit the increased MMP levels after AMI. However, there are a few comparison studies between the different dosages of the same statin and circulating levels of MMPs. PURPOSE: This study will preliminarily investigate the potential effects of appropriate or low dose of rosuvastatin on circulating MMPs levels in AMI patients...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730525/inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-cardiovascular-evaluation-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Ricardo O Escárcega, Michael J Lipinski, Mario García-Carrasco, Claudia Mendoza-Pinto, Jose Luis Galvez-Romero, Ricard Cervera
Evidence now indicates that inflammation contributes considerably to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and active inflammatory processes may trigger plaque rupture and enhance the risk of coronary thrombosis leading to a clinical ischemic event. Interest in characterizing inflammatory markers that predict clinical events have dominated clinical investigation. Such markers include C-reactive protein, Fibrinogen and a number of interleukins. Human macrophages avidly phagocytize cholesterol crystals...
May 3, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729468/the-angiography-of-cervical-carotid-plaque-rupture-due-to-percutaneus-transluminal-balloon-arterioplasty
#11
Tomoya Omae, Naomoto Senbokuya, Toshiharu Yanagisawa
The authors describe the rare imaging of plaque rupture at cervical internal carotid artery stenosis after balloon-arterioplasty. The patient was 82 year-old male who was complained of lt. hemiparesis. Magnetic Resonance imaging-diffusion weight imaging revealed multiple high signal intensity at rt. cerebral hemisphere. Magnetic Resonance angiography showed severe stenosis at cervical internal carotid artery. We considered high risk of hyperperfusion syndrome after revascularization. We planned staged angioplasty...
May 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723894/anxiety-related-bleeding-and-thrombosis
#12
Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch
Anxiety, a normal response to stressful situations, is characterized by increased levels of factor VIII, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and by enhanced platelet aggregability. One would expect acute anxiety to be a prothrombotic state, but since acute mental stress induces tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) release from endothelial and chromaffin cells, fibrinolysis counteracts procoagulant stimuli. It could be said that procoagulant changes accompanying the fight-or-flight response reduce the risk of bleeding in case of potential injuries, while activation of fibrinolysis counteracts activation of hemostasis to prevent intravascular thrombus formation before injuries occur...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719532/vasa-vasorum-angiogenesis-key-player-in-the-initiation-and-progression-of-atherosclerosis-and-potential-target-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Daniel G Sedding, Erin C Boyle, Jasper A F Demandt, Judith C Sluimer, Jochen Dutzmann, Axel Haverich, Johann Bauersachs
Plaque microvascularization and increased endothelial permeability are key players in the development of atherosclerosis, from the initial stages of plaque formation to the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events. First, endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability facilitate the entry of diverse inflammation-triggering molecules and particles such as low-density lipoproteins into the artery wall from the arterial lumen and vasa vasorum (VV). Recognition of entering particles by resident phagocytes in the vessel wall triggers a maladaptive inflammatory response that initiates the process of local plaque formation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717990/-minoca-in-iceland-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-patients-with-normal-or-nonobstructive-coronary-arteries
#14
Saevar Thor Vignisson, Ingibjorg Jona Gudmundsdottir, Thorarinn Gudnason, Ragnar Danielsen, Marianna Gardarsdottir, Karl Andersen
INTRODUCTION: The classical pathophysiological process underlying acute coronary syndromes has been considered to be plaque rup-ture followed by platelet activation and aggregation and subsequent thrombus formation leading to myocardial ischemia and infarction. A substantial number of patients with acute coronary syndromes appear to have normal or near normal (<50% stenosis) coronary arteries on angiography. Recently, this clinical entity has been coined MINOCA (Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries)...
May 2018: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715123/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-developed-after-two-stage-surgery-for-double-primary-lung-cancer
#15
Fumihiko Kinoshita, Gouji Toyokawa, Tetsuzo Tagawa, Taichi Matsubara, Yuka Kozuma, Naoki Haratake, Shinkichi Takamori, Takaki Akamine, Fumihiko Hirai, Yoshihiko Maehara
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a syndrome characterized by transient local systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle with no evidence of coronary artery disease or acute plaque rupture. We present the case of 71-year-old woman who developed TC after two-stage surgery for double primary lung cancer. On computed tomography, lung nodules were identified in the left upper and right middle lobes. Based on the diagnosis of double primary lung cancer, we performed two-stage surgery (left upper lobectomy followed by right middle lobectomy)...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690973/percutaneous-non-stenting-approach-for-distal-simultaneous-multivessel-acute-coronary-occlusions
#16
Muhammad Nasir Rahman, Bilal Hussain
The occurrence of distal coronary lesions causing simultaneous occlusion of two coronary arteries in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction is a rare occurrence. This can occur due to simultaneous plaque rupture at more than one site or embolisation in coronary arteries. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with acute inferoposterior lateral wall ST elevation myocardial infarction with simultaneous occlusion of distal left anterior descending artery and distal left circumflex artery on angiogram...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685689/insulin-resistance-adipocyte-derived-exosomes-aggravate-atherosclerosis-by-increasing-vasa-vasorum-angiogenesis-in-diabetic-apoe-mice
#17
Feng Wang, Fang-Fang Chen, Yuan-Yuan Shang, Ya Li, Zhi-Hao Wang, Lu Han, Yi-Hui Li, Lei Zhang, Yun Ti, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Vasa vasorum (VV) angiogenesis is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may promote atherosclerotic plaque rupture. We sought to determine whether insulin resistance adipocyte-derived exosomes (IRADEs) played a major role in modulating VV angiogenesis and the mechanisms involved. METHODS: The characterization of IRADEs was performed by electron microscopy, NTA (Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis) and western blot. The cellular effects of IRADEs on angiogenesis were explored in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and murine aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) in vitro...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684365/leucocyte-dynamics-during-the-evolution-of-human-coronary-atherosclerosis-conclusions-from-a-7-fold-chromogen-based-immunohistochemical-evaluation
#18
Melissa Zuiderwijk, Marlieke Geerts, Connie Janssen van Rhijn, Antoon van den Bogaerdt, Jaap F Hamming, Rogier A van Dijk, Jan H Lindeman
Atherosclerosis is a complex process with strong inflammatory component. We developed a straightforward 7-fold staining protocol for simultaneous assessment of dominant leucocyte classes, vascularization, and expression of the putative foam cell maker CD36. The method was applied on human coronaries covering the full spectrum of atherosclerotic disease. Results confirm the progressive association of macrophages and T-cells with the process, and a global presence of mast cells. B-cells exclusively present in adventitial follicles that accompany the process plaque destabilization (thin cap and ruptured lesions) and are otherwise absent...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#19
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678337/relation-of-coronary-culprit-lesion-morphology-determined-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-cardiac-outcomes-to-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
Nobuaki Kobayashi, Noritake Hata, Masafumi Tsurumi, Yusaku Shibata, Hirotake Okazaki, Akihiro Shirakabe, Masamichi Takano, Yoshihiko Seino, Wataru Shimizu
The aims of the present study were to elucidate features of culprit lesion plaque morphology using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in relation to elevated serum uric acid (sUA) levels and to clarify the impact of sUA levels on adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Clinical data and outcomes were compared between ACS patients with sUA ≥6 mg/dl (high-sUA; n = 506) and sUA <6.0 mg/dl (low-sUA; n = 608). Angiography and OCT findings were analyzed in patients with preintervention OCT and compared between groups of high-sUA (n = 206) and low-sUA (n = 273)...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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