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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346115/mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-linked-to-air-pollution
#1
REVIEW
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344841/association-of-d-dimer-with-plaque-characteristics-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-oxidation-specific-epitopes-in-stable-subjects-with-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Hema Kothari, Anh T Nguyen, Xiaohong Yang, Yohei Hisada, Sotirios Tsimikas, Nigel Mackman, Angela Taylor, Coleen A McNamara
D-dimer has emerged as a biomarker of cardiovascular event risk, yet pathophysiological factors associated with plasma D-dimer levels in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects are poorly understood. In 106 stable CAD subjects undergoing intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (IVUS-VH), we measured D-dimer, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), plasminogen, biomarkers reflecting oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) such as oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB), OxPL on plasminogen (OxPL-PLG), and autoantibodies to phosphorylcholine-BSA [PC-BSA] and a malondialdehyde [MDA] mimotope...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339169/the-timing-of-p2y12-inhibitor-initiation-in-the-treatment-of-acs-does-the-evidence-exist-in-this-era
#3
REVIEW
Harsh Golwala, Deepak L Bhatt
The majority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are well characterized as a consequence of plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis. Antiplatelet agents targeting inhibition of P2Y12 receptors on the platelets have shown to reduce future risk of cardiovascular events in this patient population. However, the timing of initiation of these agents, in particular, in patients managed with invasive strategy with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is debatable. The data supporting pretreatment with antiplatelet agents prior to PCI in ACS patients dates to trials performed >15 years ago, wherein the time to PCI was >5 days, and henceforth, the utility of pretreatment with these agents in the contemporary era remains uncertain...
January 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334161/the-role-of-neurosonology-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-carotid-artery-disease-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Odysseas Kargiotis, Apostolos Safouris, Georgios Magoufis, Maria Georgala, Andromachi Roussopoulou, Eleftherios Stamboulis, Konstantinos G Moulakakis, Andreas Lazaris, George Geroulakos, Spyros Vasdekis, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Carotid artery disease (CAD) is a common cause of ischemic stroke with high rates of recurrence. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) are highly recommended for the secondary prevention of symptomatic CAD during the first 14 days following the index event of transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. CEA or CAS may also be offered in selected cases with severe asymptomatic stenosis. Herein, we review the utility of neurosonology in the diagnosis and pre-/peri-interventional assessment of CAD patients who undergo carotid revascularization procedures...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332908/optical-coherence-tomography-guidance-in-management-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-caused-by-plaque-erosion
#5
Haibo Jia, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Bo Yu
For several decades, most physicians have believed that acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by coronary thrombosis resulting from rupture of vulnerable plaque characterized by a thin fibrous cap overlying a large necrotic core and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. However, nearly one-third of ACS cases are caused by plaque erosion characterized by intact fibrous cap, less or absent necrotic core, less inflammation, and large lumen. Because of the limitations of current imaging modalities, including angiography and intravascular ultrasound, the importance of plaque erosion as a cause of acute coronary events is less well known...
January 13, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330042/differences-in-the-ct-findings-between-vulnerable-plaque-and-culprit-lesions-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#6
Eun Ju Chun, Jin Hee Han, Seung Min Yoo, Hwa Yeon Lee, In Sup Song, Charles S White
BACKGROUND: The CT finding of "vulnerable plaque" is widely regarded as similar to that of a culprit lesion in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, this hypothesis may not be accurate, since "vulnerable plaques" may substantially change their morphology when they rupture to cause an ACS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated coronary CT angiography data sets of 25 patients with ACS who had vulnerable (n = 10) or culprit plaques (n = 15). We analyzed CT features including positive remodeling (PR), low attenuation plaque (LAP), the napkin ring sign (NRS), degree of stenosis (normal, <50%, 50-99%, 100%), and myocardial hypoperfusion in the left ventricle...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329384/plaque-erosion-a-new-in-vivo-diagnosis-and-a-potential-major-shift-in-the-management-of-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#7
Ramon A Partida, Peter Libby, Filippo Crea, Ik-Kyung Jang
Pathology and in vivo imaging studies have identified superficial plaque erosion as a frequent and important mechanism underlying acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In contrast with plaque rupture, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to plaque erosion remain poorly understood. The advent of intravascular imaging techniques, particularly optical coherence tomography, has aided understanding of this mode of ACS in vivo by complementing previous insights from pathology studies. Appreciation of the distinct biological and clinical mechanisms of plaque erosion points to the possibility of tailored management strategies for patients presenting with ACS...
January 9, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#8
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319263/simultaneous-plaque-rupture-in-two-coronary-arteries-presenting-as-acute-coronary-syndrome
#9
Satish Chirde
A 45 yrs male presented with angina. ECG showed transient CHB, T wave inversion in V3 to V6 and inferior leads. It was difficult to predict the culprit vessel based on ECG. Coronary angiography showed thrombotic lesions in LAD, LCX and OM which can potentially impact identification of culprit vessel and hence affect the management with primary PCI.
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318812/detection-and-characterization-of-early-plaque-formations-by-raman-probe-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography-an-in-vivo-study-on-a-rabbit-model
#10
Christian Matthäus, Sebastian Dochow, Kokila D Egodage, Bernd F Romeike, Bernhard R Brehm, Jürgen Popp
Intravascular imaging techniques provide detailed specification about plaque appearance and morphology, but cannot deliver information about the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques. As the biochemical composition is related to the plaque type, important aspects such as the risk of a plaque rupture and treatment are still difficult to assess. Currently, various spectroscopic techniques are tested for potential applications for the chemical analysis of plaque depositions. Here, we employ Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the characterization of plaques on rabbits in vivo...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311033/lesion-specific-and-vessel-related-determinants-of-fractional-flow-reserve-beyond-coronary-artery-stenosis
#11
Amir Ahmadi, Jonathon Leipsic, Kristian A Øvrehus, Sara Gaur, Emilia Bagiella, Brian Ko, Damini Dey, Gina LaRocca, Jesper M Jensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Stephan Achenbach, Bernard De Bruyne, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Jagat Narula
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were: 1) to investigate the contribution of the extent of luminal stenosis and other lesion composition-related factors in predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR); and 2) to explore the distribution of various combinations of morphological characteristics and the severity of stenosis among lesions demonstrating normal and abnormal FFR. BACKGROUND: In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, FFR-guided revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone, is reported to improve outcomes...
January 2, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301128/features-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-calcified-nodules-at-culprit-lesions-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#12
Nobuaki Kobayashi, Masamichi Takano, Masafumi Tsurumi, Yusaku Shibata, Suguru Nishigoori, Saori Uchiyama, Hirotake Okazaki, Akihiro Shirakabe, Yoshihiko Seino, Noritake Hata, Wataru Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify clinical features and outcomes related to calcified nodules (CN) compared with plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Based on OCT findings for culprit lesion plaque morphologies, ACS patients with analyzable OCT images (n = 362) were classified as CN, PR, PE, and other. RESULTS: The prevalence of CN, PR, and PE was 6% (n = 21), 45% (n = 163), and 41% (n = 149), respectively...
January 5, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300828/non-coding-rnas-key-regulators-of-smooth-muscle-cell-fate-in-vascular-disease
#13
Nicholas J Leeper, Lars Maegdefessel
The vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) is one of the most plastic cells in the body. Understanding how non-coding RNAs regulate SMC cell-fate decision making in the vasculature has significantly enhanced our understanding of disease development, and opened up exciting new avenues for potential therapeutic applications. Recent studies on SMC physiology have in addition challenged our traditional view on their role and contribution to vascular disease, mainly in the setting of atherosclerosis as well as aneurysm disease, and restenosis after angioplasties...
December 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297906/-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-2017
#14
Giovanni Cimmino, Davide D'Andrea, Ciro Mauro, Carmine Morisco, Plinio Cirillo
Acute myocardial infarction is a clinical cardiac emergency associated with potential and substantial morbidity and mortality. This disorder is triggered by an acute coronary syndrome caused by episodes of plaque ulceration, fissuration, or rupture with subsequent production of thrombogenic material and intravascular thrombus formation. The presence or absence of ST-segment elevation on the ECG defines the two main clinical spectrum of ST-segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In the last three decades, pharmacological and interventional management as well as in-hospital care have dramatically improved...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290792/therapeutic-effects-of-targeted-ppar%C3%A9-activation-on-inflamed-high-risk-plaques-assessed-by-serial-optical-imaging-in-vivo
#15
Jah Yeon Choi, Jiheun Ryu, Hyun Jung Kim, Joon Woo Song, Joo Hee Jeon, Dae-Hee Lee, Dong Joo Oh, Dae-Gab Gweon, Wang-Yuhl Oh, Hongki Yoo, Kyeongsoon Park, Jin Won Kim
Rationale: Atherosclerotic plaque is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving lipid accumulation within arterial walls. In particular, macrophages mediate plaque progression and rupture. While PPARγ agonist is known to have favorable pleiotropic effects on atherogenesis, its clinical application has been very limited due to undesirable systemic effects. We hypothesized that the specific delivery of a PPARγ agonist to inflamed plaques could reduce plaque burden and inflammation without systemic adverse effects...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290570/fractalkine-and-placental-growth-factor-a-duet-of-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#16
Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Inflammation and angiogenesis are two interdependent processes underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. The initiation and progression of atherosclerosis strongly depends on specific patterns of cytokine expression. In this review, we analyze correlation between expression of two members of the cytokine family and the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis related to atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor and chemokine CX3XL1 (fractalkine) promote inflammatory cell infiltration, angiogenesis and plaque rupture...
December 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286384/synthesis-of-monocyte-targeting-peptide-amphiphile-micelles-for-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#17
Christopher Poon, Manjima Sarkar, Eun Ji Chung
Atherosclerosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide, which claims 17.3 million lives annually. Atherosclerosis is also the leading cause of sudden death and myocardial infarction, instigated by unstable plaques that rupture and occlude the blood vessel without warning. Current imaging modalities cannot differentiate between stable and unstable plaques that rupture. Peptide amphiphiles micelles (PAMs) can overcome this drawback as they can be modified with a variety of targeting moieties that bind specifically to diseased tissue...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286156/metformin-induced-activation-of-ampk-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-through-upregulation-of-p53-and-ifi16
#18
Biao Hao, Yan Xiao, Fang Song, Xiangshu Long, Jing Huang, Maobo Tian, Shiyan Deng, Qiang Wu
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells are significant in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, which has been reported to inhibit cell growth and migration. The antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of metformin have been attributed to 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of metformin on primary human aortic muscle cells (HASMCs) in vitro and to clarify the underlying mechanism...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285345/intima-heterogeneity-in-stress-assessment-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#19
Ali C Akyildiz, Lambert Speelman, Bas van Velzen, Raoul R F Stevens, Antonius F W van der Steen, Wouter Huberts, Frank J H Gijsen
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is recognized as the primary cause of cardiac and cerebral ischaemic events. High structural plaque stresses have been shown to strongly correlate with plaque rupture. Plaque stresses can be computed with finite-element (FE) models. Current FE models employ homogeneous material properties for the heterogeneous atherosclerotic intima. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of intima heterogeneity on plaque stress computations. Two-dimensional FE models with homogeneous and heterogeneous intima were constructed from histological images of atherosclerotic human coronaries (n = 12)...
February 6, 2018: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285098/aspirin-suppresses-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-mmp-9-expression-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-raw264-7-cells
#20
Ping Zhang, Chao Wu, Xiao-Hui Huang, Chen-Lin Shen, Lin Li, Wei Zhang, Cheng-Zeng Yao
Numerous studies have indicated that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the atherosclerotic plaque hemorrhage and rupture. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammation drug, has been known for its anti-platelet effect in the prevention of the vascular complications of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacological effects of aspirin on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced MMP-9 expression and the underlying molecular mechanisms in murine macrophage RAW264...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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