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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944992/ginsenoside-rb1-enhances-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-skewing-macrophages-to-the-m2-phenotype
#1
Xue Zhang, Ming-Hao Liu, Lei Qiao, Xin-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Mei Dong, Hong-Yan Dai, Mei Ni, Xiao-Rong Luan, Jun Guan, Hui-Xia Lu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized as progressive arterial plaque, which is easy to rupture under low stability. Macrophage polarization and inflammation response plays an important role in regulating plaque stability. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one of the main active principles of Panax Ginseng, has been found powerful potential in alleviating inflammatory response. However, whether Rb1 could exert protective effects on AS plaque stability remains unclear. This study investigated the role of Rb1 on macrophage polarization and atherosclerotic plaque stability using primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice and AS model in ApoE(-/-) mice...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939676/the-protective-effect-of-middle-cerebral-artery-calcification-on-symptomatic-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#2
Jang-Hyun Baek, Joonsang Yoo, Dongbeom Song, Young Dae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of intracranial artery calcification is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, calcified atherosclerotic plaques are also known to be less vulnerable to rupture. Given this discrepancy, we investigated whether the vulnerability of intracranial arterial atherosclerosis differed based on the presence or absence of calcification. METHODS: We considered consecutive patients with acute stroke in the unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory...
September 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936713/manual-removal-of-primary-posterior-capsular-plaques-using-retinal-end-grasping-forceps
#3
Gennady Landa, Khoa Pham
INTRODUCTION: Primary posterior capsular plaques can be highly adherent to the posterior capsule leading to possible posterior capsular rupture during attempted removal. Here we describe a novel method for posterior capsular plaque removal using a technique inspired by the experience of retina surgeon in the peeling of membranes from the posterior pole. METHODS: Retinal end-grasping forceps were used to peel the plaque from the posterior capsule. RESULTS: We have performed this technique on 12 eyes with successful removal of the posterior capsular plaque in all instances without compromise of the posterior capsule in any case...
September 21, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930526/inflammatory-biomarkers-of-coronary-heart-disease
#4
Hongyu Li, Kai Sun, Ruiping Zhao, Jiang Hu, Zhiru Hao, Fei Wang, Yaojun Lu, Fu Liu, Yong Zhang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. CHD is characterized by formation of arterial plaques which are mainly comprised of lipids, calcium and inflammatory cells. These plaques narrow the lumen of coronary arteries leading to episodic or persistent angina. Rupture of these plaques leads to the formation of thrombus, which as a result of cessation of blood flow, causes myocardial infarct and death. CHD is exacerbated by risk factors including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924434/ruptured-retinal-arterial-macroaneurysm-secondary-to-toxoplasmic-kyrieleis-arteriolitis-a-case-report
#5
Natalie Huang, W Andrew Lee, Sean Rivera, Sandra R Montezuma
PURPOSE: The aim of this report was to describe multimodal ocular imaging findings in a patient who presented with a ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) associated with toxoplasmic Kyrieleis arteriolitis. METHODS: We report the case of a 64-year-old man with a history of systemic hypertension and dense amblyopia of the left eye who presented with decreased vision and new floaters in the left eye. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were used as diagnostic imaging tools...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923905/acute-coronary-syndromes-the-way-forward-from-mechanisms-to-precision-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Filippo Crea, Peter Libby
Well into the 21st century, we still triage acute myocardial infarction on the basis of the presence or absence of ST-segment elevation, a century-old technology. Meanwhile, we have learned a great deal about the pathophysiology and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) at the clinical, pathological, cellular, and molecular levels. Contemporary imaging studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of ACS. This review discusses these advances and their implications for clinical management of the ACS for the future...
September 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921914/comparison-of-relation-between-multiple-parameters-of-glycemic-variability-and-coronary-plaque-vulnerability-assessed-by-virtual-histology-intravascular-ultrasound
#7
Natsu Otowa-Suematsu, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Hisako Komada, Tomoaki Nakamura, Anna Sou, Yushi Hirota, Masaru Kuroda, Toshiro Shinke, Ken-Ich Hirata, Wataru Ogawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Increased glycemic variability is an important contributing factor to coronary artery disease. Although various parameters of glycemic variability can be derived by continuous glucose monitoring, the clinical relevance of individual parameters has remained unclear. We have now analyzed the relation of such parameters to coronary plaque vulnerability MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard deviation of glucose levels (SD glucose), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA-1), and mean of daily differences (MODD) were calculated from continuous glucose monitoring data for 53 subjects hospitalized for percutaneous coronary intervention...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920704/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-a-potential-mechanism-for-atherosclerosis-plaque-progression-and-destabilization
#8
Afang Li, Wenxi Peng, Xiaodan Xia, Rongqing Li, Yu Wang, Dangheng Wei
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a cellular reprogramming mechanism by which endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. EndMT is associated with fibroproliferative diseases, such as cancer progression and metastasis and cardiac and kidney fibrosis, and this condition has been extensively investigated over the past decade. Recently, studies showed that EndMT contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion and plaque destabilization. Unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis are the main pathological causes of acute cardiovascular events...
September 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918858/coronary-ct-angiography-features-of-ruptured-and-high-risk-atherosclerotic-plaques-correlation-with-intra-vascular-ultrasound
#9
Daniel R Obaid, Patrick A Calvert, Adam Brown, Deepa Gopalan, Nick E J West, James H F Rudd, Martin R Bennett
BACKGROUND: Features of ruptured and high-risk plaque have been described on coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), but not systematically assessed against intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We examined the ability of coronary CTA to identify IVUS defined ruptured plaque and Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound (VH-IVUS) defined thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). METHODS: Sixty-three patients (32 with acute coronary syndrome and 31 with stable angina) underwent coronary CTA, IVUS and VH-IVUS...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899695/preeclampsia-and-coronary-plaque-erosion-manifestations-of-endothelial-dysfunction-resulting-in-cardiovascular-events-in-women
#10
Saskia C A de Jager, John A L Meeuwsen, Freeke M van Pijpen, Gerbrand A Zoet, Arjan D Barendrecht, Arie Franx, Gerard Pasterkamp, Bas B van Rijn, Marie-José Goumans, Hester M den Ruijter
Atherosclerosis is the major underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk for CVD is increased in women with a history of preeclampsia. Multiple studies have indicated that accelerated atherosclerosis underlies this increased CVD risk. Furthermore, it has been suggested that endothelial dysfunction and inflammation play an important role in the increased CVD risk of women with preeclampsia. Rupture or erosion of atherosclerotic plaques can induce the formation of thrombi that underlie the onset of acute clinical CVD such as myocardial infarction and stroke...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893577/metalloproteinases-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Jason L Johnson
Atherosclerosis underlies most cardiovascular diseases, and is accepted as a primary cause of mortality worldwide. Proteases have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, due to their ability to provoke focal destruction of the vascular extracellular matrix. Members of the metalloproteinase family, especially matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) have been suggested to perform complex dual roles during late-stage progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890871/type-2-versus-type-1-myocardial-infarction-a-comparison-of-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-with-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Sonu Gupta, Satyanarayana R Vaidya, Sameer Arora, Amol Bahekar, Santhosh R Devarapally
BACKGROUND: Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply, leading to myocardial ischemia. It is not due to plaque rupture, and is usually caused by a condition other than coronary artery disease (CAD). However, limited data are available comparing the prevalence of traditional coronary risk factors and mortality between type 1 and type 2 MI. We hypothesize that type 2 MI carries a higher mortality than type 1. METHODS: We searched the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and MEDLINE for studies comparing type 1 MI with type 2 MI...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886156/loss-of-sprr3-in-apoe-mice-leads-to-atheroma-vulnerability-through-akt-dependent-and-independent-effects-in-vsmcs
#13
Caressa D Lietman, Amanda K Segedy, Bin Li, Sergio Fazio, James B Atkinson, MacRae F Linton, Pampee P Young
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) represent important modulators of plaque stability in advanced lesions. We previously reported that loss of small proline-rich repeat protein 3 (Sprr3), leads to VSMC apoptosis in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner and accelerates lesion progression. Here, we investigated the role of Sprr3 in modulating plaque stability in hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice. We show that loss of Sprr3 increased necrotic core size and reduced cap collagen content of atheromas in brachiocephalic arteries with evidence of plaque rupture and development of intraluminal thrombi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877655/developing-a-strategy-for-interventional-molecular-imaging-of-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-in-atherosclerosis
#14
Samata S Pandey, Dorian O Haskard, Ramzi Y Khamis
The identification of vulnerable coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques offers the prospect of either localized or systematic therapeutic targeting in order to prevent myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis adds to morphological imaging by focusing on the immunobiology hidden in and behind the endothelium and therefore may be able to improve the identification of prospective culprit lesions. Our focus has been on identifying arterial accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by exploiting advances in knowledge of vascular pathobiology...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870630/glp-1-receptor-agonists-an-example-of-the-challenge-for-animal-models-to-predict-plaque-instability-rupture-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#15
EDITORIAL
Ya-Lan Ying, Yung-Chih Chen, Karin Jandeleit-Dahm, Karlheinz Peter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867129/frequency-of-cholesterol-crystals-in-culprit-coronary-artery-aspirate-during-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-their-relation-to-inflammation-and-myocardial-injury
#16
George S Abela, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Abed Janoudi, Dale Leffler, Gaurav Dhar, Negar Salehi, Joel Cohn, Ibrahim Shah, Milind Karve, Veera Pavan K Kotaru, Vishal Gupta, Shukri David, Keerthy K Narisetty, Michael Rich, Abigail Vanderberg, Dorothy R Pathak, Fadi E Shamoun
Cholesterol crystals (CCs) have been associated with plaque rupture through mechanical injury and inflammation. This study evaluated the presence of CCs during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated myocardial injury, inflammation, and arterial blood flow before and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients presenting with AMI (n = 286) had aspiration of culprit coronary artery obstruction. Aspirates were evaluated for crystal content, size, composition, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862936/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-carotid-artery-high-risk-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-chinese-patients-with-cerebrovascular-symptoms-a-chinese-atherosclerosis-risk-evaluation-ii-study
#17
Xihai Zhao, Daniel S Hippe, Rui Li, Gador M Canton, Binbin Sui, Yan Song, Feiyu Li, Yunjing Xue, Jie Sun, Kiyofumi Yamada, Thomas S Hatsukami, Dongxiang Xu, Maoxue Wang, Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture is an important source of ischemic stroke. However, the prevalence of high-risk plaque (HRP) defined as plaques with luminal surface disruption, a lipid-rich necrotic core occupying >40% of the wall, or intraplaque hemorrhage in Chinese population remains unclear. This study uses carotid magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) to investigate HRP prevalence in carotid arteries of Chinese patients with cerebrovascular symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with cerebral ischemic symptoms in the anterior circulation within 2 weeks and carotid plaque determined by ultrasound were recruited and underwent CMRI...
August 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856989/from-vulnerable-plaque-to-blood-healthy-therapy
#18
Sun Yuhua, Wang Baoping
Cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease is the leading cause of death in China and in Western nations. People with plaque or stenosis in the coronary artery or the carotid artery are the most susceptible population to suffer from acute events. Current investigations showed that plaque with the characteristics of intra-plaque hemorrhage or a thin cap with a large lipid core was causally associated with vulnerable plaque and plaque rupture. Of the many plaque ruptures occurring in patients with atherosclerotic disease, very few will trigger symptomatic events, rendering it exceedingly difficult to predict adverse outcomes...
August 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838817/3d-fiber-orientation-in-atherosclerotic-carotid-plaques
#19
Ali C Akyildiz, Chen-Ket Chai, Cees W J Oomens, Aad van der Lugt, Frank P T Baaijens, Gustav J Strijkers, Frank J H Gijsen
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary trigger of fatal cardiovascular events. Fibrillar collagen in atherosclerotic plaques and their directionality are anticipated to play a crucial role in plaque rupture. This study aimed assessing 3D fiber orientations and architecture in atherosclerotic plaques for the first time. Seven carotid plaques were imaged ex-vivo with a state-of-the-art Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) technique, using a high magnetic field (9.4 Tesla) MRI scanner. A 3D spin-echo sequence with uni-polar diffusion sensitizing pulsed field gradients was utilized for DTI and fiber directions were assessed from diffusion tensor measurements...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838637/calcification-volume-reduces-stretch-capability-and-predisposes-plaque-to-rupture-in-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-carotid-artery-stenting
#20
H E Barrett, E M Cunnane, H Hidayat, J M O Brien, E G Kavanagh, M T Walsh
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) in calcified arteries carries a higher peri-operative risk. This study investigates the relationship between the stretching limits of carotid plaque samples and calcification in order to determine a stretch tolerance criterion for endovascular intervention. METHODS: Seventeen carotid plaque samples were acquired from standard endarterectomy procedures. The maximum stretch capability of the global plaque was determined by circumferentially extending the tissue to complete failure...
October 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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