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Perinatal transmition hiv

Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jeffrey D Klausner, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) urinary shedding in HIV-infected pregnant women was evaluated to determine whether it poses an increased risk for congenital CMV infection (cCMV). Methods: A subset of mother-infant pairs enrolled in the perinatal NICHD HPTN 040 study (distinguished by no antiretroviral use before labor) was evaluated. Maternal and infant urines were tested by qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CMV DNA with quantitative RT-PCR performed on positive specimens...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Anne M Neilan, Brad Karalius, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke, Mark J Abzug, Allison L Agwu, Paige L Williams, Murli Purswani, Deborah Kacanek, James M Oleske, Sandra K Burchett, Andrew Wiznia, Miriam Chernoff, George R Seage, Andrea L Ciaranello
Importance: As perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth (PHIVY) in the United States grow older and more treatment experienced, clinicians need updated information about the association of age, CD4 cell count, viral load (VL), and antiretroviral (ARV) drug use with risk of opportunistic infections, key clinical events, and mortality to understand patient risks and improve care. Objective: To examine the incidence or first occurrence during follow-up of key clinical events (including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B [CDC-B] and stage C [CDC-C] events) and mortality among PHIVY stratified by age, CD4 cell count, and VL and ARV status...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Gwendolyn B Scott, Susan B Brogly, Daniel Muenz, Alice M Stek, Jennifer S Read
OBJECTIVE: To identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data regarding HIV-infected children born between 2002 and 2009 to HIV-infected women enrolled in the U.S. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials prospective cohort study (protocol P1025) were reviewed. The characteristics of the HIV-infected infants and their mothers and the mothers' clinical management are described...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mary Jo Trepka, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Lorene M Maddox, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Maithri Prabhakar, Dan Thompson, Spencer Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Despite declining numbers of perinatally exposed infants, an increase in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from 2011 to 2013 prompted this study to identify missed perinatal HIV prevention opportunities. METHODS: Deidentified records of children born from 2007 through 2014, exposed to HIV perinatally, and reported to the Florida Department of Health were obtained. Crude relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with perinatal transmission, nondiagnosis of maternal HIV infection, and nonreceipt of antiretroviral medication were calculated...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
M Martínez-Bonet, A González-Serna, M I Clemente, S Morón-López, L Díaz, M Navarro, M C Puertas, M Leal, E Ruiz-Mateos, J Martinez-Picado, M A Muñoz-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Several host factors contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Among them, the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is known to be the main co-receptor used by HIV-1 to enter target cells during the early stages of an HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of CCR5((WT/Δ32)) heterozygosity with HIV-1 reservoir size, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and immunosenescence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV infection receiving cART...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Myoung Chan Kim, Hudson Manyanga, Flora Lwakatare
We report on an abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive mother, currently on antiretroviral therapy, which was discovered incidentally while training the obstetric ultrasound capacity building program. Although abdominal pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, it may be more common in women with HIV infection because they tend to have a higher rate of sexually transmitted diseases than the general population. The positive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy is difficult to establish and is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings that lack routine ultrasound examination as is the case in most developing countries...
November 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Athena P Kourtis, Ayesha Mirza
Access to high-quality reproductive health care is important for adolescents and young adults with HIV infection to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and secondary transmission of HIV to partners and children. As perinatally HIV-infected children mature into adolescence and adulthood and new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults continue to occur in the United States, medical providers taking care of such individuals often face issues related to sexual and reproductive health...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez, Miriam C Chernoff, Paige L Williams, Ann Chahroudi, James M Oleske, Shirley Traite, Rana Chakraborty, Murli U Purswani, Mark J Abzug
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 13-24 years. Sexually transmitted infections likewise are a risk factor for HIV acquisition and transmission; however, there is a lack of data on STI acquisition in HIV-infected AYAs. METHODS: We determined the incidence of STIs in HIV-infected AYAs 12.5 <25 years of age in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1074 observational cohort study...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Jennifer Slyker, Barbara Lohman Payne, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Thushan I de Silva, Bhavna Chohan, Brian Khasimwa, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Joakim Esbjörnsson
Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kristina Adachi, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jeffrey D Klausner
Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia...
2016: BioMed Research International
K Naidoo, A Munsami, M Archary
This case-based discussion highlights challenges in adolescent antiretroviral management, focusing on non-disclosure of status and the subsequent impact of suboptimal treatment adherence. Despite the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) for ART for all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected paediatric patients, ART coverage in adolescents lags behind that in adults. Challenges of sustaining lifelong ART in children and adolescents require consideration of specific behavioural, physiological and psychosocial complexities associated with this special group...
November 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Amitha Sampath, Gil Maduro, Julia A Schillinger
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) is not a nationally reportable disease; there have been few population-based measures of HSV-related infant mortality. We describe infant death rates due to neonatal HSV as compared with congenital syphilis (CS) and HIV, 2 reportable, perinatally transmitted diseases, in New York City from 1981 to 2013. METHODS: We identified neonatal HSV-, CS-, and HIV-related deaths using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes listed on certificates of death or stillbirth issued in New York City...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Ayper Somer, Selda Hançerli Törün, Zeynep İnce, Asuman Çoban, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman
Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be prevented by prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions. Although the incidence of HIV infection in Turkey is low, the number of cases are increasing in years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of infants with HIV-positive mothers followed in a pediatric HIV center in Istanbul, Turkey and to describe the vertical transmission of HIV infection among the cases. Clinical and laboratory features of HIV-infected mothers and their exposed infants, followed in our department between June 2007 and February 2015 were retrieved from medical records retrospectively...
October 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Rachel C Vreeman, Michael L Scanlon, Megan S McHenry, Winstone M Nyandiko
INTRODUCTION: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. METHODS: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Yurong Mao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the detection of HIV/AIDS cases in medical institutions in China from 2008 to 2013. METHODS: 'Provider-initiated Opt-out HIV testing and counseling' method was offered to patients who met the needs for preoperation, perinatal examination, at the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic or other types of testing services. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2013, the number of HIV screening tests offered in medical institutions increased by 206...
April 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Grazia Tosone, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Silvia Mascolo, Giulia Palmiero, Orsola Tambaro, Raffaele Orlando
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population and peaks in subjects aged over 40 years. Its prevalence in pregnant women is low (1%-2%) in most western countries but drastically increases in women in developing countries or with high risk behaviors for blood-transmitted infections. Here we review clinical, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of HCV infection in pregnant women and their offspring infected through vertical transmission. Pregnancy-related immune weakness does not seem to affect the course of acute hepatitis C but can affect the progression of chronic hepatitis C...
August 27, 2014: World Journal of Hepatology
Hongyan Guo, Chang Liu, Bin Liu, Charles Wood, Xiaohong Kong
BACKGROUND: Small molecular CCR5 inhibitors represent a new class of drugs for treating HIV-1 infection. The evaluation of the primary resistance mutations associated with entry inhibitors during HIV-1 perinatal transmission is required because they may have a profound impact on the clinical management in MTCT. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc during perinatal transmission and analyze the sensitivity of Env derived from mother-infant pairs to maraviroc...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Marc Tardieu, Mathurin Tejiokem, Seraphin Nguefack
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are among the most frequently transmitted viruses from an infected mother to her offspring. The clinical consequences of transmission depend heavily on the time of transmission, the virus concerned, and maternal status. This chapter describes first the natural course of neurological aspects of HIV-1 infection and the way in which it has been modified by HAART in developed countries. It then describes the situation in the African context (taking Cameroon as an example) where HAART is not readily available and the natural course of the disease may be different...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Steven E Lipshultz, Paige L Williams, James D Wilkinson, Erin C Leister, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Kenneth C Rich, Rohan Hazra, Jonathan R Kaltman, Denise L Jacobson, Laurie B Dooley, Gwendolyn B Scott, Nicole Rabideau, Steven D Colan
IMPORTANCE: Prior to contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were more likely to have heart failure. This study suggests that highly active ART (HAART) does not appear to impair heart function. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiac effects of prolonged exposure to HAART on HIV-infected children. DESIGN: In the National Institutes of Health-funded Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP), we used linear regression models to compare echocardiographic measures...
June 2013: JAMA Pediatrics
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