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Perinatal transmition hiv

Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Athena P Kourtis, Ayesha Mirza
Access to high-quality reproductive health care is important for adolescents and young adults with HIV infection to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and secondary transmission of HIV to partners and children. As perinatally HIV-infected children mature into adolescence and adulthood and new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults continue to occur in the United States, medical providers taking care of such individuals often face issues related to sexual and reproductive health...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez, Miriam C Chernoff, Paige L Williams, Ann Chahroudi, James M Oleske, Shirley Traite, Rana Chakraborty, Murli U Purswani, Mark J Abzug
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 13-24 years. Sexually transmitted infections likewise are a risk factor for HIV acquisition and transmission; however, there is a lack of data on STI acquisition in HIV-infected AYAs. METHODS: We determined the incidence of STIs in HIV-infected AYAs 12.5 <25 years of age in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1074 observational cohort study...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Jennifer Slyker, Barbara Lohman Payne, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Thushan I de Silva, Bhavna Chohan, Brian Khasimwa, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Joakim Esbjörnsson
Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kristina Adachi, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jeffrey D Klausner
Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia...
2016: BioMed Research International
K Naidoo, A Munsami, M Archary
This case-based discussion highlights challenges in adolescent antiretroviral management, focusing on non-disclosure of status and the subsequent impact of suboptimal treatment adherence. Despite the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) for ART for all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected paediatric patients, ART coverage in adolescents lags behind that in adults. Challenges of sustaining lifelong ART in children and adolescents require consideration of specific behavioural, physiological and psychosocial complexities associated with this special group...
November 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Amitha Sampath, Gil Maduro, Julia A Schillinger
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) is not a nationally reportable disease; there have been few population-based measures of HSV-related infant mortality. We describe infant death rates due to neonatal HSV as compared with congenital syphilis (CS) and HIV, 2 reportable, perinatally transmitted diseases, in New York City from 1981 to 2013. METHODS: We identified neonatal HSV-, CS-, and HIV-related deaths using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes listed on certificates of death or stillbirth issued in New York City...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Ayper Somer, Selda Hançerli Törün, Zeynep İnce, Asuman Çoban, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman
Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be prevented by prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions. Although the incidence of HIV infection in Turkey is low, the number of cases are increasing in years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of infants with HIV-positive mothers followed in a pediatric HIV center in Istanbul, Turkey and to describe the vertical transmission of HIV infection among the cases. Clinical and laboratory features of HIV-infected mothers and their exposed infants, followed in our department between June 2007 and February 2015 were retrieved from medical records retrospectively...
October 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Rachel C Vreeman, Michael L Scanlon, Megan S McHenry, Winstone M Nyandiko
INTRODUCTION: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. METHODS: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Yurong Mao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the detection of HIV/AIDS cases in medical institutions in China from 2008 to 2013. METHODS: 'Provider-initiated Opt-out HIV testing and counseling' method was offered to patients who met the needs for preoperation, perinatal examination, at the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic or other types of testing services. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2013, the number of HIV screening tests offered in medical institutions increased by 206...
April 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Grazia Tosone, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Silvia Mascolo, Giulia Palmiero, Orsola Tambaro, Raffaele Orlando
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population and peaks in subjects aged over 40 years. Its prevalence in pregnant women is low (1%-2%) in most western countries but drastically increases in women in developing countries or with high risk behaviors for blood-transmitted infections. Here we review clinical, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of HCV infection in pregnant women and their offspring infected through vertical transmission. Pregnancy-related immune weakness does not seem to affect the course of acute hepatitis C but can affect the progression of chronic hepatitis C...
August 27, 2014: World Journal of Hepatology
Hongyan Guo, Chang Liu, Bin Liu, Charles Wood, Xiaohong Kong
BACKGROUND: Small molecular CCR5 inhibitors represent a new class of drugs for treating HIV-1 infection. The evaluation of the primary resistance mutations associated with entry inhibitors during HIV-1 perinatal transmission is required because they may have a profound impact on the clinical management in MTCT. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc during perinatal transmission and analyze the sensitivity of Env derived from mother-infant pairs to maraviroc...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Marc Tardieu, Mathurin Tejiokem, Seraphin Nguefack
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are among the most frequently transmitted viruses from an infected mother to her offspring. The clinical consequences of transmission depend heavily on the time of transmission, the virus concerned, and maternal status. This chapter describes first the natural course of neurological aspects of HIV-1 infection and the way in which it has been modified by HAART in developed countries. It then describes the situation in the African context (taking Cameroon as an example) where HAART is not readily available and the natural course of the disease may be different...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Steven E Lipshultz, Paige L Williams, James D Wilkinson, Erin C Leister, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Kenneth C Rich, Rohan Hazra, Jonathan R Kaltman, Denise L Jacobson, Laurie B Dooley, Gwendolyn B Scott, Nicole Rabideau, Steven D Colan
IMPORTANCE: Prior to contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were more likely to have heart failure. This study suggests that highly active ART (HAART) does not appear to impair heart function. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiac effects of prolonged exposure to HAART on HIV-infected children. DESIGN: In the National Institutes of Health-funded Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP), we used linear regression models to compare echocardiographic measures...
June 2013: JAMA Pediatrics
C D C Christie, R B Pierre
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: To celebrate Jamaica's 50th birthday after receiving independence from Great Britain, we summarize our collaborative published research in the prevention, treatment and care of paediatric, perinatal and adolescent HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. RESULTS: Public access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jamaica has shown that a "test and treat" strategy associated with "treatment for prevention" works for HIV-infected pregnant women by reducing their HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality and reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates to < 2%, islandwide...
July 2012: West Indian Medical Journal
Lynette A Denny, Silvia Franceschi, Silvia de Sanjosé, Isabelle Heard, Anna Barbara Moscicki, Joel Palefsky
The vast majority of women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will be co-infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). The interaction between the two sexually transmitted infections appears to be related to the alteration in cell-mediated immunity in HIV infected persons, increased susceptibility, and possibly reactivation of latent HPV infection. Linkage studies of HIV/AIDs and Cancer registries have indicated a 2- to 22-fold increase in cervical cancer in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women...
November 20, 2012: Vaccine
Martina L Badell, Michael Lindsay
The first cases of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were described more than two decades ago and since then several thousands more have been reported in western countries. In the early 1980s the majority of perinatally acquired HIV children did not survive beyond childhood. However combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) for perinatally HIV-acquired children has prolonged their survival and in the past 2 decades, many have reached adulthood. As the perinatally HIV-infected females become sexually active, they are in turn at risk for pregnancy and of transmitting HIV infection to their children...
2012: AIDS Research and Treatment
Hongyan Guo, Levon G Abrahamyan, Chang Liu, Mackenzie Waltke, Yunqi Geng, Qimin Chen, Charles Wood, Xiaohong Kong
Understanding the properties of viruses preferentially establishing infection during perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for the development of effective measures to prevent transmission. A previous study demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infants) of chronically infected mother-infant pairs (MIPs) were fitter in terms of growth, which was imparted by their envelope (Env) glycoprotein V1-V5 regions, than those in the corresponding chronically infected mothers...
December 2012: Journal of General Virology
Rosanna W Setse, George K Siberry, Patti E Gravitt, William J Moss, Allison L Agwu, John T Wheeling, Beverly A Bohannon, Kenneth L Dominguez
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and correlates of sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youth. METHODS: The Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) is an observational medical record study of perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected (PHIV and BHIV) youth followed at 22 US HIV clinics. PHIV youth were HIV infected at birth or by breast-feeding...
November 2011: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Philip L Bulterys, Ann Chao, Sudeb C Dalai, M Christine Zink, Abel Dushimimana, David Katzenstein, Alfred J Saah, Marc Bulterys
We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their infant perinatally...
August 2011: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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