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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911250/evaluation-of-feature-extraction-techniques-and-classifiers-for-finger-movement-recognition-using-surface-electromyography-signal
#1
Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Sirinee Thongpanja, Khairul Anam, Adel Al-Jumaily, Chusak Limsakul
Electromyography (EMG) in a bio-driven system is used as a control signal, for driving a hand prosthesis or other wearable assistive devices. Processing to get informative drive signals involves three main modules: preprocessing, dimensionality reduction, and classification. This paper proposes a system for classifying a six-channel EMG signal from 14 finger movements. A feature vector of 66 elements was determined from the six-channel EMG signal for each finger movement. Subsequently, various feature extraction techniques and classifiers were tested and evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893720/myoelectric-control-with-abstract-decoders
#2
Matthew Dyson, Jessica Barnes, Kianoush Nazarpour
The objective of this study was to compare the use of muscles appropriate for partial-hand prostheses with those typically used for complete hand devices and to determine whether differences in their underlying neural substrates translate to different levels of myoelectric control.
 
 Approach: We developed a novel abstract myoelectric decoder based on motor learning. Three muscle pairs, namely, an intrinsic and independent, an intrinsic and synergist and finally, an extrinsic and antagonist, were tested during abstract myoelectric control...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848665/proprioception-from-a-neurally-controlled-lower-extremity-prosthesis
#3
Tyler R Clites, Matthew J Carty, Jessica B Ullauri, Matthew E Carney, Luke M Mooney, Jean-François Duval, Shriya S Srinivasan, Hugh M Herr
Humans can precisely sense the position, speed, and torque of their body parts. This sense is known as proprioception and is essential to human motor control. Although there have been many attempts to create human-mechatronic interactions, there is still no robust, repeatable methodology to reflect proprioceptive information from a synthetic device onto the nervous system. To address this shortcoming, we present an agonist-antagonist myoneural interface (AMI). The AMI is composed of (i) a surgical construct made up of two muscle-tendons-an agonist and an antagonist-surgically connected in series so that contraction of one muscle stretches the other and (ii) a bidirectional efferent-afferent neural control architecture...
May 30, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755399/leg-prosthesis-with-somatosensory-feedback-reduces-phantom-limb-pain-and-increases-functionality
#4
Caroline Dietrich, Sandra Nehrdich, Sandra Seifert, Kathrin R Blume, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Gunther O Hofmann, Thomas Weiss
Phantom limb pain (PLP) develops in most patients with lower limb amputation. Changes in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) are hypothesized to contribute to PLP. Based on ideas to modify neural reorganization within the CNS, the aim of the study was to test, whether prostheses with somatosensory feedback might help to reduce PLP, and increase the functionality of movement with a prosthesis. We therefore equipped the prostheses of 14 lower leg amputees with a simple to use feedback system that provides electrocutaneous feedback to patients' thigh whenever the foot and toes of the prosthesis touch the ground...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749917/a-novel-neural-prosthesis-providing-long-term-electrocorticography-recording-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy-and-brain-computer-interface
#5
Pantaleo Romanelli, Marco Piangerelli, David Ratel, Christophe Gaude, Thomas Costecalde, Cosimo Puttilli, Mauro Picciafuoco, Alim Benabid, Napoleon Torres
OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741160/adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-motor-cortex-sensing
#6
Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Margaret C Thompson, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Andrew M Miller, Ro'ee Gilron, Jill L Ostrem, Howard J Chizeck, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE: Contemporary deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease is delivered continuously, and adjustments based on patient's changing symptoms must be made manually by a trained clinician. Patients may be subjected to energy intensive settings at times when they are not needed, possibly resulting in stimulation-induced adverse effects, such as dyskinesia. One solution is 'adaptive' DBS, in which stimulation is modified in real time based on neural signals that co-vary with the severity of motor signs or of stimulation-induced adverse effects...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714718/factors-that-affect-error-potentials-during-a-grasping-task-toward-a-hybrid-natural-movement-decoding-bci
#7
Jason Omedes, Andreas Schwarz, Gernot R Müller-Putz, Luis Montesano
OBJECTIVE: In this manuscript, we consider factors that may affect the design of a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI). We combine neural correlates of natural movements and interaction error-related potentials (ErrP) to perform a 3D reaching task, focusing on the impact that such factors have on the evoked ErrP signatures and in their classification. APPROACH: Users attempted to control a 3D virtual interface that simulated their own hand, to reach and grasp two different objects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670188/assessing-the-quality-of-supplementary-sensory-feedback-using-the-crossmodal-congruency-task
#8
Daniel Blustein, Adam Wilson, Jon Sensinger
Advanced neural interfaces show promise in making prosthetic limbs more biomimetic and ultimately more intuitive and useful for patients. However, approaches to assess these emerging technologies are limited in scope and the insight they provide. When outfitting a prosthesis with a feedback system, such as a peripheral nerve interface, it would be helpful to quantify its physiological correspondence, i.e. how well the prosthesis feedback mimics the perceived feedback in an intact limb. Here we present an approach to quantify this aspect of feedback quality using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) task...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565293/towards-control-of-a-transhumeral-prosthesis-with-eeg-signals
#9
D S V Bandara, Jumpei Arata, Kazuo Kiguchi
Robotic prostheses are expected to allow amputees greater freedom and mobility. However, available options to control transhumeral prostheses are reduced with increasing amputation level. In addition, for electromyography-based control of prostheses, the residual muscles alone cannot generate sufficiently different signals for accurate distal arm function. Thus, controlling a multi-degree of freedom (DoF) transhumeral prosthesis is challenging with currently available techniques. In this paper, an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based hierarchical two-stage approach is proposed to achieve multi-DoF control of a transhumeral prosthesis...
March 22, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534154/artificial-limb-representation-in-amputees
#10
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515355/freedom-of-thought-and-mental-integrity-the-moral-requirements-for-any-neural-prosthesis
#11
Andrea Lavazza
There are many kinds of neural prostheses available or being researched today. In most cases they are intended to cure or improve the condition of patients affected by some cerebral deficiency. In other cases, their goal is to provide new means to maintain or improve an individual's normal performance. In all these circumstances, one of the possible risks is that of violating the privacy of brain contents (which partly coincide with mental contents) or of depriving individuals of full control over their thoughts (mental states), as the latter are at least partly detectable by new prosthetic technologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498358/motor-commands-decoding-using-peripheral-nerve-signals-a-review
#12
Keum-Shik Hong, Nida Aziz, Usman Ghafoor
During the last few decades, substantial scientific and technological efforts have been focused on the development of neuroprostheses. The major emphasis has been on techniques for connecting the human nervous system with a robotic prosthesis via natural-feeling interfaces. The peripheral nerves provide access to highly processed and segregated neural command signals from the brain that can in principle be used to determine user intent and control muscles. If these signals could be used, they might allow near-natural and intuitive control of prosthetic limbs with multiple degrees of freedom...
June 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494655/minimizing-activation-of-overlying-axons-with-epiretinal-stimulation-the-role-of-fiber-orientation-and-electrode-configuration
#13
Timothy B Esler, Robert R Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, David B Grayden, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N Burkitt
Currently, a challenge in electrical stimulation of the retina with a visual prosthesis (bionic eye) is to excite only the cells lying directly under the electrode in the ganglion cell layer, while avoiding excitation of axon bundles that pass over the surface of the retina in the nerve fiber layer. Stimulation of overlying axons results in irregular visual percepts, limiting perceptual efficacy. This research explores how differences in fiber orientation between the nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer leads to differences in the electrical activation of the axon initial segment and axons of passage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451205/optical-read-out-and-modulation-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#14
REVIEW
Arjun K Fontaine, Hans E Anderson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Numerous clinical and research applications necessitate the ability to interface with peripheral nerve fibers to read and control relevant neural pathways. Visceral organ modulation and rehabilitative prosthesis are two areas which could benefit greatly from improved neural interfacing approaches. Therapeutic neural interfacing, or 'bioelectronic medicine', has potential to affect a broad range of disorders given that all the major organs of the viscera are neurally innervated. However, a better understanding of the neural pathways that underlie function and a means to precisely interface with these fibers are required...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447794/plasticity-after-pediatric-cochlear-implantation-implication-from-changes-in-peripheral-plasma-level-of-bdnf-and-auditory-nerve-responses
#15
Razieh Alemi, Masoud Motassadi Zarandy, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Ali Eftekharian, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast, Nasim Vousooghi
INTRODUCTION: Sensory neural hearing loss could lead to some structural and physiological changes in the auditory pathways, such as alteration in the expression of neurotrophins. These factors, especially Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), play an important role in synaptic functions and experience-related plasticity. Restoring cochlear function after hearing loss is possible through cochlear implantation (CI). Evaluation of the blood concentration changes of neurotrophins as prerequisites of plasticity could help scientists to determine the prognosis of CI as in the candidacy procedure or enhancing prosthesis function by adding the exact needed amount of BDNF to the electrode array...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393065/modeling-task-specific-neuronal-ensembles-improves-decoding-of-grasp
#16
Ryan J Smith, Alcimar B Soares, Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor
OBJECTIVE: Dexterous movement involves the activation and coordination of networks of neuronal populations across multiple cortical regions. Attempts to model firing of individual neurons commonly treat the firing rate as directly modulating with motor behavior. However, motor behavior may additionally be associated with modulations in the activity and functional connectivity of neurons in a broader ensemble. Accounting for variations in neural ensemble connectivity may provide additional information about the behavior being performed...
June 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369059/use-of-an-ultrasonic-bone-curet-for-the-extraction-of-a-cervical-artificial-disc-a-novel-application-a-case-report
#17
J Timothy, V Petralia, J R Wilson
CASE: Eighteen months after implantation of a C6-C7 cervical artificial disc (ProDisc-C; DePuy Synthes), a 44-year-old woman presented with right-sided C7 radiculopathy. Imaging revealed posterior subsidence of the prosthesis, with C7 foraminal stenosis. An ultrasonic curet was used to safely and effectively extract the prosthesis without neurologic complication; safe access for the insertion of an intervertebral cage was facilitated. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonic curet was a safe and effective adjunct for revision artificial cervical disc replacement surgery; this technique may help to reduce potential injury to neural structures in a procedure with a traditionally high complication rate...
January 24, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364119/consistency-of-long-term-subdural-electrocorticography-in-humans
#18
Ewan S Nurse, Sam E John, Dean R Freestone, Thomas J Oxley, Hoameng Ung, Samuel F Berkovic, Terence J O'Brien, Mark J Cook, David B Grayden
OBJECTIVE: Subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) can provide a robust control signal for a brain-computer interface (BCI). However, the long-term recording properties of ECoG are poorly understood as most ECoG studies in the BCI field have only used signals recorded for less than 28 days. We assessed human ECoG recordings over durations of many months to investigate changes to recording quality that occur with long-term implantation. METHODS: We examined changes in signal properties over time from 15 ambulatory humans who had continuous subdural ECoG monitoring for 184-766 days...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339793/skin-inspired-highly-stretchable-and-conformable-matrix-networks-for-multifunctional-sensing
#19
Qilin Hua, Junlu Sun, Haitao Liu, Rongrong Bao, Ruomeng Yu, Junyi Zhai, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechanosensation electronics (or Electronic skin, e-skin) consists of mechanically flexible and stretchable sensor networks that can detect and quantify various stimuli to mimic the human somatosensory system, with the sensations of touch, heat/cold, and pain in skin through various sensory receptors and neural pathways. Here we present a skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324410/decoding-motor-unit-activity-from-forearm-muscles-perspectives-for-myoelectric-control
#20
Tamas Kapelner, Francesco Negro, Oskar C Aszmann, Dario Farina
We prove the feasibility of decomposing high density surface EMG signals from forearm muscles in non-isometric wrist motor tasks of normally limbed and limb-deficient individuals with the perspective of using the decoded neural information for prosthesis control. For this purpose, we recorded surface EMG signals during motions of three degrees of freedom of the wrist in seven normally limbed subjects and two patients with limb deficiency. The signals were decomposed into individual motor unit activity with a convolutive blind source separation algorithm...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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