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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187808/toward-a-cognitive-neural-prosthesis-using-focused-ultrasound
#1
Matthew E Downs, Tobias Teichert, Amanda Buch, Maria E Karakatsani, Carlos Sierra, Shangshang Chen, Elisa E Konofagou, Vincent P Ferrera
Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has many potential applications as a research and clinical tool, including its incorporation as either an extracorporeal or implantable neural prosthetic. To this end, we investigated the effect of focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with systemically administered microbubbles on visual-motor decision-making behavior in monkeys. We applied FUS to the putamen in one hemisphere to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and then tested behavioral performance 3-4 h later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184478/visual-prosthesis-interfacing-stimulating-electrodes-with-retinal-neurons-to-restore-vision
#2
REVIEW
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Lilach Bareket, Josef Goding, Ulises A Aregueta-Robles, Gregg J Suaning
The bypassing of degenerated photoreceptors using retinal neurostimulators is helping the blind to recover functional vision. Researchers are investigating new ways to improve visual percepts elicited by these means as the vision produced by these early devices remain rudimentary. However, several factors are hampering the progression of bionic technologies: the charge injection limits of metallic electrodes, the mechanical mismatch between excitable tissue and the stimulating elements, neural and electric crosstalk, the physical size of the implanted devices, and the inability to selectively activate different types of retinal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148158/long-term-anesthetic-protocol-in-rats-feasibility-in-electrophysiology-studies-in-visual-prosthesis
#3
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Veronica Tatarinoff, Nigel H Lovell, John W Morley, Gregg J Suaning
Electrical stimulation of excitable cells provides therapeutic benefits for a variety of medical conditions, including restoration of partial vision to those blinded via some types of retinal degeneration. To improve visual percepts elicited by the current technology, researchers are conducting acute electrophysiology experiments, mainly in cats. However, the rat can provide a model of a range of retinal diseases and possesses a sufficiently large eye to be used in this field. This article presents a long-term anesthetic protocol to enable electrophysiology experiments to further the development of visual prostheses...
November 17, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084395/electrophysiological-evidence-of-the-basilar-membrane-travelling-wave-and-frequency-place-coding-of-sound-in-cochlear-implant-recipients
#4
Luke Campbell, Christofer Bester, Claire Iseli, David Sly, Adrian Dragovic, Anthony W Gummer, Stephen O'Leary
AIM: To obtain direct evidence for the cochlear travelling wave in humans by performing electrocochleography from within the cochlea in subjects implanted with an auditory prosthesis. BACKGROUND: Sound induces a travelling wave that propagates along the basilar membrane, exhibiting cochleotopic tuning with a frequency-dependent phase delay. To date, evoked potentials and psychophysical experiments have supported the presence of the travelling wave in humans, but direct measurements have not been made...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060685/information-transmission-in-the-primary-visual-cortex-of-retinal-degenerated-rats
#5
Yi Wang, Ke Chen, Leanne L H Chan
To study the information transmission in the primary visual cortex (V1) of retinal degenerated (RD) models, wild type (WT) and RD rats were used in the experiments. The neural response in V1 was recorded extracellularly while the flicker with varied intensity levels was given as the visual stimulus. The mutual information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) were determined for every isolated neuron, in order to quantify the amount and efficiency of information transmission in V1 of both control and experimental groups...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060199/neural-decoding-of-attentional-selection-in-multi-speaker-environments-without-access-to-separated-sources
#6
James O'Sullivan, Zhuo Chen, Sameer A Sheth, Guy McKhann, Ashesh D Mehta, Nima Mesgarani
People who suffer from hearing impairments can find it difficult to follow a conversation in a multi-speaker environment. Modern hearing aids can suppress background noise; however, there is little that can be done to help a user attend to a single conversation without knowing which speaker is being attended to. Cognitively controlled hearing aids that use auditory attention decoding (AAD) methods are the next step in offering help. A number of challenges exist, including the lack of access to the clean sound sources in the environment with which to compare with the neural signals...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060067/a-comparative-study-of-light-and-electrically-evoked-response-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#7
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Soumen Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
Understanding of the evoked neural discharges from retinal tissues is vital for designing of any retinal prosthesis. In this study, retinal ganglion cell activity to light and electrical stimulus is recorded using multielectrode arrays. For an effective epiretinal prosthetic device, the electrical stimulus through the prosthesis should be able to evoke responses similar to those of light response in normal condition. This pilot study was intended to design the experimental protocol for in-vitro retinal stimulation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060066/flexible-microelectrode-array-for-retinal-prosthesis
#8
Bin Sun, Tengyue Li, Kai Xia, Qi Zeng, Tianzhun Wu, Mark S Humayun
fMEA (flexible microelectrode array) is one of the key implantable components for neural stimulating and recording. For its specific implanted environment, it should be designed and fabricated to meet following requirements such as biocompatibility, high-resolution, flexible and low impedance to ensure safety and long-term effective stimulation. Here we proposed a high resolution (1025-channel) fMEA for artificial retina. The adhesion between its substrate polyimide (PI) and metal was enhanced by using plasma treatment...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054880/common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons-and-neural-drive-to-targeted-reinnervated-muscles
#9
D Farina, A M Castronovo, I Vujaklija, A Sturma, S Salminger, C Hofer, O C Aszmann
We compared the behaviour of motor neurons innervating their physiological muscle targets with motor neurons from the same spinal segment whose axons were surgically redirected to remnant muscles (targeted muscle reinnervation). The objective was to assess whether motor neurons with non-physiological innervation receive similar synaptic input and could be voluntary controlled as motor neurons with natural innervation. For this purpose, we acquired high-density EMG signals from the biceps brachii in 5 male trans-humeral amputees who underwent targeted reinnervation of this muscle by the ulnar nerve and from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 5 healthy individuals to investigate the natural innervation of the ulnar nerve...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051546/energy-efficient-waveform-for-electrical-stimulation-of-the-cochlear-nerve
#10
Marcus Yip, Peter Bowers, Victor Noel, Anantha Chandrakasan, Konstantina M Stankovic
The cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis, restoring the sensation of sound in people with severe-to-profound hearing loss by electrically stimulating the cochlear nerve. Existing CIs have an external, visible unit, and an internal, surgically-placed unit. There are significant challenges associated with the external unit, as it has limited utility and CI users often report a social stigma associated with prosthesis visibility. A fully-implantable CI (FICI) would address these issues...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019467/online-adaptive-neural-control-of-a-robotic-lower-limb-prosthesis
#11
John Spanias, Ann M Simon, Suzanne Finucane, Eric Perreault, Levi Hargrove
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an adaptive intent recognition algorithm that continuously learns to incorporate a lower limb amputee's neural information (acquired via electromyography [EMG]) as they ambulate with a robotic leg prosthesis. APPROACH: We present a powered lower limb prosthesis that was configured to acquire the user's neural information and kinetic/kinematic information from embedded mechanical sensors, and identify and respond to the user's intent...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931463/severe-streptomycin-ototoxicity-in-the-mouse-utricle-leads-to-a-flat-epithelium-but-the-peripheral-neural-degeneration-is-delayed
#12
Guo-Peng Wang, Ishani Basu, Lisa A Beyer, Hiu Tung Wong, Donald L Swiderski, Shu-Sheng Gong, Yehoash Raphael
The damaged vestibular sensory epithelium of mammals has a limited capacity for spontaneous hair cell regeneration, which largely depends on the transdifferentiation of surviving supporting cells. Little is known about the response of vestibular supporting cells to a severe insult. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a severe ototoxic insult on the histology of utricular supporting cells and the changes in innervation that ensued. We infused a high dose of streptomycin into the mouse posterior semicircular canal to induce a severe lesion in the utricle...
November 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883640/a-somatotopic-bidirectional-hand-prosthesis-with-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-based-sensory-feedback
#13
Edoardo D'Anna, Francesco M Petrini, Fiorenzo Artoni, Igor Popovic, Igor Simanić, Stanisa Raspopovic, Silvestro Micera
According to amputees, sensory feedback is amongst the most important features lacking from commercial prostheses. Although restoration of touch by means of implantable neural interfaces has been achieved, these approaches require surgical interventions, and their long-term usability still needs to be fully investigated. Here, we developed a non-invasive alternative which maintains some of the advantages of invasive approaches, such as a somatotopic sensory restitution scheme. We used transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to induce referred sensations to the phantom hand of amputees...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869537/an-adaptive-classification-strategy-for-reliable-locomotion-mode-recognition
#14
Ming Liu, Fan Zhang, He Helen Huang
Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR) based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e...
September 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851612/-all-in-one-mesh-hernioplasty-a-new-procedure-for-primary-inguinal-hernia-open-repair
#15
Angelo Guttadauro, Matteo Maternini, Silvia Frassani, Matilde De Simone, Marco Chiarelli, Daniele Macchini, Nicoletta Pecora, Aimone Bertolini, Ugo Cioffi, Francesco Gabrielli
BACKGROUND: We propose a new open mesh hernia repair procedure for the treatment of inguinal hernias in adults aiming to improve patients' comfort and to reduce the incidence of chronic neuralgia. METHODS: From September 2012 to August 2015, 250 consecutive patients were treated with "all in-one" mesh hernioplasty procedure in our Institution. According to the devised technique, a new smaller prosthesis was placed on the floor of the inguinal canal in order to strengthen all areas of weakness from which hernias may originate...
August 26, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819123/active-prosthesis-dependent-functional-cortical-reorganization-following-stroke
#16
Christian Merkel, Janet Hausmann, Jens-Max Hopf, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Lars Buentjen, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with gait improvements triggered by an active prosthesis in patients with drop-foot following stroke during the chronic stage. Eleven patients took part in the study. MEG recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation of the left and right hand as well as gait analyses were performed shortly before or after prosthesis implantation surgery and 3-4 months later. Plastic changes of the sensorimotor cortex of the ipsi- and contralesional hemisphere were revealed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#17
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813981/a-magnetic-compatible-supernumerary-robotic-finger-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-acquisitions-device-description-and-preliminary-results
#18
Irfan Hussain, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Simone Rossi, Domenico Prattichizzo
The Supernumerary robotic limbs are a recently introduced class of wearable robots that, differently from traditional prostheses and exoskeletons, aim at adding extra effectors (i.e., arms, legs, or fingers) to the human user, rather than substituting or enhancing the natural ones. However, it is still undefined whether the use of supernumerary robotic limbs could specifically lead to neural modifications in brain dynamics. The illusion of owning the part of body has been already proven in many experimental observations, such as those relying on multisensory integration (e...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813963/novel-neural-interface-electrode-array-for-the-peripheral-nerve
#19
Ockchul Kim, Wonsuk Choi, Woohyun Jung, Sunyoung Jung, HyungDal Park, Jong Woong Park, Jinseok Kim
Peripheral neural interface (PNI) is becoming an essential technology in the field of robotic prosthesis due to its potential for providing bidirectional neural signal communication between the prosthetic arm and the brain. However, current PNIs inefficiently trade off neural signal selectivity and the invasiveness of the device. We designed and fabricated a new PNI electrode array that has high signal selectivity yet maintains low invasiveness by incorporating a design that allows for three-dimensional spiral insertion around the peripheral nerve...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776506/neural-decoding-of-attentional-selection-in-multi-speaker-environments-without-access-to-clean-sources
#20
James O'Sullivan, Zhuo Chen, Jose Herrero, Guy M McKhann, Sameer A Sheth, Ashesh D Mehta, Nima Mesgarani
OBJECTIVE: People who suffer from hearing impairments can find it difficult to follow a conversation in a multi-speaker environment. Current hearing aids can suppress background noise; however, there is little that can be done to help a user attend to a single conversation amongst many without knowing which speaker the user is attending to. Cognitively controlled hearing aids that use auditory attention decoding (AAD) methods are the next step in offering help. Translating the successes in AAD research to real-world applications poses a number of challenges, including the lack of access to the clean sound sources in the environment with which to compare with the neural signals...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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