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Campylobacter gastroenteritis

B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Muhammad Nisar, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Wasim Shehzad, Abid Hussain, Mohammad Nasar, Kakambi V Nagaraja, Sagar M Goyal
Campylobacter, one of the emerging zoonotic pathogens, is worldwide in distribution. This thermo-tolerant pathogen is one of the leading causes of diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans. The main sources of infection are contaminated meat and meat products. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter species in retail meat in the Lahore district of Pakistan from September 2014 to January 2015. A total of 600 samples (200 samples each of beef, mutton, and chicken) were collected from retail shops through convenience sampling and preceded for Campylobacter contamination using the ISO 10272-1:2006 (E) method...
April 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Maria Andersson, Jean-Claude Kabayiza, Kristina Elfving, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi I Msellem, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Tomas Bergström, Magnus Lindh
Enteric coinfections among children in low-income countries are very common, but it is not well known if specific pathogen combinations are associated or have clinical importance. In this analysis, feces samples from children in Rwanda and Zanzibar less than 5 years of age, with ( N = 994) or without ( N = 324) acute diarrhea, were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a wide range of pathogens. Associations were investigated by comparing co-detection and mono-detection frequencies for all pairwise pathogen combinations...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Alexander P Underwood, Juan Merif, Stephen M Riordan, William D Rawlinson, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
The morbidity and mortality resulting from acute gastroenteritis and associated chronic sequelae represent a substantial burden on health care systems worldwide. Few studies have investigated changes in the gut microbiome following an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Using non-directed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the faecal microbiota of 475 patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined. Patient age was correlated to the overall microbial composition, with a decrease in Faecalibacterium observed in older patients...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Miliane Rodrigues Frazão, Guojie Cao, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Sheila da Silva Duque, Maria Sanchez Leon, Marc William Allard, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, clinical cases of campylobacteriosis have been underreported and underdiagnosed in Brazil. Herein, we describe the draft genome sequences of 116 C. jejuni strains isolated from diverse sources in Brazil.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
R S Kalupahana, L Mughini-Gras, S A Kottawatta, S Somarathne, C Gamage, J A Wagenaar
Campylobacter is the primary agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In contrast to temperate zones, weather effects on Campylobacter prevalence in broilers under tropical conditions are under-researched. We examined the association between weather and Campylobacter prevalence in slaughtered broilers in Sri Lanka, a tropical country with weather variations led by monsoons. Each month (October 2009-July 2011), 20-30 broiler batches referring to two semi-automated slaughterhouses from five Sri Lankan provinces were tested for Campylobacter contamination and analysed in relation to temperature, humidity and rainfall...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
E Scallan, P M Griffin, H Q McLean, B E Mahon
Studies estimating the human health impact of the foodborne disease often include estimates of the number of gastroenteritis hospitalisations. The aims of this study were to examine the degree to which hospital discharge data underreport hospitalisations due to bacterial gastroenteritis and to estimate the frequency of stool sample submission among patients presenting with gastroenteritis. Using linked laboratory and hospital discharge data from a healthcare organisation and its affiliated hospital, we examined the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes assigned to hospitalised adults with culture-confirmed Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli O157 infections and determined the frequency of stool sample submission...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Clara Atterby, Evangelos Mourkas, Guillaume Méric, Ben Pascoe, Helen Wang, Jonas Waldenström, Samuel K Sheppard, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult, Patrik Ellström
Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohamed Elhadidy, Hector Arguello, Avelino Álvarez-Ordóñez, William G Miller, Alexandra Duarte, Delphine Martiny, Marie Hallin, Olivier Vandenberg, Katelijne Dierick, Nadine Botteldoorn
Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen commonly associated with human gastroenteritis. Retail poultry meat is a major food-related transmission source of C. jejuni to humans. The present study investigated the genetic diversity, clonal relationship, and strain risk-analysis of 403 representative C. jejuni isolates from chicken broilers (n = 204) and sporadic cases of human diarrhea (n = 199) over a decade (2006-2015) in Belgium, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PCR binary typing (P-BIT), and identification of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus classes...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Banya Banowary, Van Tuan Dang, Subir Sarker, Joanne H Connolly, Jeremy Chenu, Peter Groves, Shane Raidal, Seyed Ali Ghorashi
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and remains a significant global public health issue. The capability of two multiplex PCR (mPCR)-high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis methods (i.e., mPCR1-HRM and mPCR2-HRM) to detect and differentiate 24 poultry isolates and three reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were successfully differentiated in both assays, but the differentiation power of mPCR2-HRM targeting the cadF gene was found superior to that of mPCR1-HRM targeting the gpsA gene or a hypothetical protein gene...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Amandine Thépault, Typhaine Poezevara, Ségolène Quesne, Valérie Rose, Marianne Chemaly, Katell Rivoal
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in industrialized countries, with poultry reservoir as the main source of infection. Nevertheless, a recent study on source attribution showed that cattle could be a source of human contamination in France (Thépault et al., 2017). However, few data are available on thermophilic Campylobacter epidemiology in cattle in France. The aim of this study is to collect new data of thermophilic Campylobacter prevalence in these animals and to subtype C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jason M Neal-McKinney, Kun C Liu, Karen C Jinneman, Wen-Hsin Wu, Daniel H Rice
Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS). GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Janette M Shank, Brittni R Kelley, Joseph W Jackson, Jessica L Tweedie, Dana Franklin, Steven M Damo, Jennifer A Gaddy, Caitlin N Murphy, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is most commonly acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or through drinking contaminated water. Following ingestion, Campylobacter adheres to the intestinal epithelium and mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibition of fluid reabsorption. Currently, the human response to infection is relatively unknown and animal hosts that model those responses are rare. As such, we examined patient fecal samples for the accumulation of the neutrophil protein, calgranulin C, during infection with Campylobacter jejuni...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Anne Tilmanne, Delphine Martiny, Marie Hallin, Angela Cornelius, Magali Wautier, Caroline Quach, Philippe Lepage, Olivier Vandenberg
The role of Campylobacter concisus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains to be demonstrated. This prospective study includes 184 cases and 176 controls. It shows no evidence that C. concisus plays a role in AGE. Considering the very low prevalence in cases and controls, if there is an etiological link, it would be moderate and difficult to demonstrate.
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Philip D Allan, Chloe Palmer, Fiona Chan, Rebecca Lyons, Olivia Nicholson, Mitchell Rose, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and contaminated chicken is a significant vehicle for spread of the disease. This study aimed to assess consumers' knowledge of safe chicken handling practices and whether their expectations for food safety labelling of chicken are met, as a strategy to prevent campylobacteriosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 401 shoppers at supermarkets and butcheries in Wellington, New Zealand, and a systematic assessment of content and display features of chicken labels...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Amandine Thépault, Muriel Guyard-Nicodème, Valérie Rose, Ségolène Quesne, Marilyne Queguiner, Emmanuelle Houard, Francis Mégraud, Katell Rivoal, Marianne Chemaly
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and is associated with post-infectious neuropathies. Moreover, the chicken reservoir is described as the main source of human infection and C. jejuni sialylated lipooligosaccharides seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathies. In this study, MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting using 40 assay genes (CGF40) were used to describe C. jejuni populations within clinical isolates and a representative collection of isolates from French poultry production...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zane W Taylor, Frank M Raushel
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis, produces a capsular polysaccharide that is derivatized with a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification. This modification contributes to serum resistance and invasion of epithelial cells. Previously, the first three biosynthetic steps for the formation of MeOPN have been elucidated. The first step is catalyzed by a novel glutamine kinase (Cj1418), which catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine phosphate is used by CTP:phosphoglutamine cytidylyltransferase (Cj1416) to displace pyrophosphate from CTP to generate CDP-L-glutamine, which is then hydrolyzed by γ-glutamyl-CDP-amidate hydrolase (Cj1417) to form cytidine diphosphoramidate (CDP-NH2)...
March 26, 2018: Biochemistry
F Khattak, V Paschalis, M Green, J G M Houdijk, P Soultanas, J Mahdavi
Reducing Campylobacter spp. carriage in poultry is challenging, but essential to control this major cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although much is known about the mechanisms and route of Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry, the literature is scarce on antibiotic-free solutions to combat Campylobacter spp. colonization in poultry. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the role of TYPLEX® Chelate (ferric tyrosine), a novel feed additive, in inhibiting Campylobacter jejuni (C...
April 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Alejandra Culebro, Miguel P Machado, João André Carriço, Mirko Rossi
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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