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Campylobacter gastroenteritis

Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Christopher J Day, Rebecca M King, Lucy K Shewell, Greg Tram, Tahria Najnin, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Jennifer C Wilson, Aaron D Fleetwood, Igor B Zhulin, Victoria Korolik
A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Joon Heng Tan, Liam Healy, Kristel Yap, Aditya Mandal
We present the first documented case of erythema multiforme following campylobacter gastroenteritis.
October 2016: JRSM Open
Allison M Weis, Dylan B Storey, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bihua C Huang, Nguyet T Kong, Kristin A Clothier, Abigail Spinner, Barbara A Byrne, Bart C Weimer
: Campylobacter is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds, including American crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and are likely zoonotic vectors of Campylobacter. Their proximity to humans and livestock increases the potential spreading of Campylobacter via crows between the environment, livestock, and humans. However, no studies have definitively demonstrated that crows are a vector for pathogenic Campylobacter We used genomics to evaluate zoonotic and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter from crows to other animals with 184 isolates obtained from crow, chicken, cow, sheep, goat, human, and non-human primates...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg, Craig Swift, Alison J Cody, Claire Jenkins, Martin C J Maiden
The application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. Clinical laboratories are now using WGS for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. WGS data also represents a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. To demonstrate this application of WGS, the current study used publicly available genomic data to evaluate a duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay that targets mapA and ceuE for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, leading global causes of bacterial gastroenteritis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
César García Vera, María García Ventura, Guadalupe Del Castillo Aguas, Begoña Domínguez Aurrecoechea, María Jesús Esparza Olcina, Ana Martínez Rubio, José María Mengual Gil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological features of bacterial gastroenteritis in our environment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study of a Spanish population in 17 Autonomous Communities. Questionnaires of children with a stool positive culture to bacteria were collected over a one year period. A bivariate analysis was performed on the variables involved, as well as two multivariate models (for antibiotic treatment variables, and comparison Campylobacter/Salmonella)...
September 26, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Anand Kumar, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Jordi B Torrelles, Gireesh Rajashekara
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, is a predominant cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Despite its importance as a major foodborne pathogen, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying C. jejuni stress survival and pathogenesis is limited. Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) has been shown to play significant roles in bacterial resistance to stress and virulence in many pathogenic bacteria. C. jejuni contains the complete repertoire of enzymes required for poly P metabolism...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jinsong Feng, Guillaume Lamour, Rui Xue, Mehr Negar Mirvakliki, Savvas G Hatzikiriakos, Jie Xu, Hongbin Li, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic pathogen and leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The presence of C. jejuni encased in biofilms found in meat and poultry processing facilities may be the major strategy for its survival and dissemination in aerobic environment. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with C. jejuni F38011 as a culture to form dual-species biofilms. After 4days' exposure to aerobic stress, no viable C. jejuni cells could be detected from mono-species C...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Martin Stahl, Emilisa Frirdich, Jenny Vermeulen, Yuliya Badayeva, Xiaoxia Li, Bruce A Vallance, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped enteric bacterial pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis. We recently developed a mouse model for this human pathogen utilizing the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain, which exhibits significant intestinal inflammation in response to intestinal C. jejuni infection. In the current study, this mouse model was used to define whether C. jejuni's characteristic helical shape plays a role in its ability to colonize and elicit inflammation in the mouse intestine. Mice were infected with the previously characterized straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutant strains, along with a newly characterized curved-rod mutant Δ1228 We also compared the resultant infections and pathology to that elicited by the helical shaped wild type C...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
E Jurado-Tarifa, A Torralbo, C Borge, M Cerdà-Cuéllar, T Ayats, A Carbonero, I García-Bocanegra
Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Claire Shortt, Eoin Scanlan, Amber Hilliard, Chiara E Cotroneo, Billy Bourke, Tadhg Ó Cróinín
UNLABELLED: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but relatively little is known about the global regulation of virulence factors during infection of chickens or humans. This study identified DNA supercoiling as playing a key role in regulating motility and flagellar protein production and found that this supercoiling-controlled regulon is induced by growth in chicken mucus. A direct correlation was observed between motility and resting DNA supercoiling levels in different strains of C...
2016: MBio
Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Maneli Amin Shahidi, Gholam Reza Pouladfar, Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari, Jalal Mardaneh
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Philipp J Bless, Joan Muela Ribera, Claudia Schmutz, Andreas Zeller, Daniel Mäusezahl
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is frequently caused by infectious intestinal diseases (IID) including food- and waterborne pathogens of public health importance. Among these pathogens, Campylobacter spp. plays a major role. Many European countries monitor selected IIDs within disease surveillance systems. In Switzerland, the information on IIDs is restricted to limited surveillance data, while no data is available for AG. We conducted a qualitative study among Swiss general practitioners (GPs) to investigate the case management of AG and campylobacteriosis patients, the associated disease burden and the determinants leading to registration in the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases (NNSID)...
2016: PloS One
Mahdi M Vaezirad, A Marijke Keestra-Gounder, Marcel R de Zoete, Miriam G Koene, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of gastroenteritis in humans but rather harmless in chickens. The basis of this difference is unknown. We investigated the effect of the chicken immune defense on the behavior of C. jejuni using glucocorticoid (GC)-treated and mock-treated 17-day old Ross 308 chicken bearing in mind that GCs have immunosuppressive effects and dampen the innate immune response. The effect of GC administration on the behavior of C. jejuni was compared with that on infection with Salmonella Enteritidis to address possible microbe-associated differences...
August 9, 2016: Virulence
J Kaarme, R A Hickman, T Nevéus, J Blomberg, C Öhrmalm
OBJECTIVES: Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and has a considerable impact on health and socio-economy. Day care centres are high-risk environments for infections. The aim of this study was to investigate if asymptomatic preschool children constitute a reservoir for potential enteropathogens. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 438 individual diapers were collected from day care centres in Uppsala, Sweden, during spring and autumn, and molecular techniques were used to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of multiple enteropathogens...
August 12, 2016: Public Health
Heimo Lagler, Barbara Kiesewetter, Markus Raderer
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. The typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. The clinical course of Campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. However, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, a neoplasm of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin, can develop severe diarrhea during progression of tumor growth caused by hormonal excess due to the tumor...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
C Schmutz, D Mäusezahl, P J Bless, C Hatz, M Schwenkglenks, D Urbinello
Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating individual treatment costs for patients with different illness severity and for extrapolating overall costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis...
August 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Annika Flint, Alain Stintzi, Lígia M Saraiva
Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are Gram-negative microaerophilic host-associated heterotrophic bacteria that invade the digestive tract of humans and animals. Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans, while Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous in over half of the world's population causing gastric and duodenal ulcers. The colonisation of the gastrointestinal system by Helicobacter and Campylobacter relies on numerous cellular defences to sense the host environment and respond to adverse conditions, including those imposed by the host immunity...
August 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Reuben Ha, Emilisa Frirdich, David Sychantha, Jacob Biboy, Michael E Taveirne, Jeremiah G Johnson, Victor J DiRita, Waldemar Vollmer, Anthony J Clarke, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-Acetylation of Peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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