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Campylobacter gastroenteritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731727/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-infections-among-u-s-active-component-service-members-stationed-in-the-u-s-compared-to-u-s-civilians-2012-2014
#1
Sarah E Hill, Daniela E Poss, Stic Harris
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in the U.S. Armed Forces have consistently been among the most frequent disease and non-battle injury diagnoses. A retrospective analysis of surveillance data categorized as GI infections among active component service members during 2012-2014 was performed. During the study period, 99% of inpatient and outpatient GI encounters were reported as nonspecific GI infection (13,331 cases per 100,000 people), leaving only a small percentage of cases attributed to specific causes. The five most common organisms associated with GI infections were Campylobacter (10...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717848/new-identification-of-three-or-more-campylobacter-species-on-the-basis-of-a-degenerate-pcr-rflp-method-targeting-gyrb-gene
#2
Hiroyuki Fukuda, Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto
This method was aimed targeting more Campylobacter species than conventional PCR-based identifications. They generally use species-specific primers focusing on clinically common species like C. jejuni, resulting in failure to recognize other species. We made the PCR-based identification more flexible using degenerate primers and DdeI- and MboI-separately used RFLP assay, which were designed on the basis of gyrB nucleotide sequence data of 14 Campylobacter species including C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. Ninety-four clinical isolates from patients with Campylobacter gastroenteritis and 13 biochemically identified C...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714890/cardamom-cumin-and-dill-weed-essential-oils-chemical-compositions-antimicrobial-activities-and-mechanisms-of-action-against-campylobacter-spp
#3
Aysegul Mutlu-Ingok, Funda Karbancioglu-Guler
Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693637/the-effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-heatwaves-on-daily-campylobacter-cases-in-adelaide-australia-1990-2012
#4
A Milazzo, L C Giles, Y Zhang, A P Koehler, J E Hiller, P Bi
Campylobacter spp. is a commonly reported food-borne disease with major consequences for morbidity. In conjunction with predicted increases in temperature, proliferation in the survival of microorganisms in hotter environments is expected. This is likely to lead, in turn, to an increase in contamination of food and water and a rise in numbers of cases of infectious gastroenteritis. This study assessed the relationship of Campylobacter spp. with temperature and heatwaves, in Adelaide, South Australia. We estimated the effect of (i) maximum temperature and (ii) heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases during the warm seasons (1 October to 31 March) from 1990 to 2012 using Poisson regression models...
July 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688828/epidemiology-clinical-features-and-microbiology-of-patients-with-diarrhea-in-community-clinics-in-taiwan
#5
Chih-Yu Chi, Li-Na Liao, Cheng-Mao Ho, Chia-Huei Chou, Mao-Wang Ho, Jen-Hsein Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and microbiology of patients with diarrheal diseases in Taiwan. METHODS: From March 2014 to October 2014, patients with diarrheal diseases referred from the community clinics were enrolled into our prospective study. Demographics and clinical features of the participants were acquired. Stool samples were examined by the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel assay. Data were analyzed by SAS version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 545 patients were enrolled into this study...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662272/campylobacter-fetus-impairs-barrier-function-in-ht-29-b6-cells-through-focal-tight-junction-alterations-and-leaks
#6
Roland Bücker, Susanne M Krug, Anja Fromm, Hans Linde Nielsen, Michael Fromm, Henrik Nielsen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Infections by Campylobacter species are the most common foodborne zoonotic disease worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are isolated most frequently from human stool samples, but severe infections by C. fetus (Cf), which can cause gastroenteritis, septicemia, and abortion, are also found. This study aims at the characterization of pathological changes in Cf infection using an intestinal epithelial cell model. The Cf-induced epithelial barrier defects appeared earlier than those of avian Campylobacter species like C...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651615/effects-of-dry-whey-powder-and-calcium-butyrate-supplementation-of-corn-soybean-based-diets-on-productive-performance-duodenal-histological-integrity-and-campylobacter-colonization-in-broilers
#7
Medelin Ocejo, Beatriz Oporto, Ramón A Juste, Ana Hurtado
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period...
June 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650672/campylobacter-species-isolated-from-pigs-in-grenada-exhibited-novel-clones-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-sequence-types
#8
Victor A Amadi, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Charmarthy Subbarao, Isaac Kashoma, Gireesh Rajashekara, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan, Diana Stone
Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing...
July 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650156/discovery-of-a-glutamine-kinase-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-the-o-methyl-phosphoramidate-modifications-found-in-the-capsular-polysaccharides-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#9
Zane W Taylor, Haley A Brown, Tamari Narindoshvili, Cory Q Wenzel, Christine M Szymanski, Hazel M Holden, Frank M Raushel
Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are complex carbohydrate structures that play a role in the overall fitness of the organism. Campylobacter jejuni, known for being a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, produces a CPS with a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification on specific sugar residues. The formation of P-N bonds in nature is relatively rare, and the pathway for the assembly of the phosphoramidate moiety in the CPS of C. jejuni is unknown. In this investigation we discovered that the initial transformation in the biosynthetic pathway for the MeOPN modification of the CPS involves the direct phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of l-glutamine with ATP by the catalytic activity of Cj1418...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649284/development-and-evaluation-of-a-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-azithromycin-resistant-campylobacter-isolated-from-diarrhoeal-patients-in-kolkata-india
#10
Piyali Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a well-known bacterial pathogen for triggering acute gastroenteritis in humans both in developed and developing countries. This organism is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides are very much useful for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is necessary. However, increasing resistance to azithromycin, a potent macrolide has been reported in Campylobacter in recent years. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter is found mainly due to point mutation in V region of 23S rRNA...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634541/campylobacter-jejuni-myocarditis-a-journey-from-the-gut-to-the-heart
#11
M Toba Obafemi, Homeyra Douglas
OBJECTIVES: Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of myocarditis and could easily be missed. METHODS: We describe a case of a 25 year old man, who presented with 3 day history of vomiting and diarrhoea, followed by chest pain and significant high sensitive troponin rise. RESULTS: The patient's profuse diarrhoea was accompanied by raised inflammatory markers, electrocardiogram changes and evidence of cardiomyopathy on transthoracic echocardiogram...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602163/investigation-of-a-food-borne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-school-canteen-revealed-a-variant-of-sapovirus-genogroup-v-not-detected-by-standard-pcr-sollentuna-sweden-2016
#12
Maria-Pia Hergens, Joanna Nederby Öhd, Erik Alm, Helena H Askling, Sofia Helgesson, Mona Insulander, Nina Lagerqvist, Bo Svenungsson, Malin Tihane, Thomas Tolfvenstam, Per Follin
A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified...
June 1, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597535/epidemiology-of-campylobacteriosis-in-denmark-2000-2015
#13
K G Kuhn, E M Nielsen, K Mølbak, S Ethelberg
Campylobacter is the most frequently occurring cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Europe. Unlike other zoonotic diseases, European-wide incidences of Campylobacter infections have increased during the past decade, resulting in a significant disease burden. In Denmark, campylobacteriosis is notifiable by laboratory and a unique registration system of electronic transfer and storage of notified Campylobacter cases linked to the national person register of age, gender and geographical location allows collection of comprehensive case data...
June 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574617/confirmed-identification-and-toxin-profiling-of-campylobacter-jejuni-using-a-thermostabilized-multiplex-pcr-formulation
#14
Nitya Ramachandran, Shylaja Ramlal, Harsh Vardhan Batra
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) producing Campylobacter jejuni species are one of the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The main intent of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the confirmed identification and toxin profiling of C. jejuni. The genes targeted were rpo B as genus specific, hip O for species; cdt A, cdt B, cdt C encoding respective subunit proteins of CDT with Internal Amplification Control (IAC). To enhance its application as a pre-mixed ready-to-use format, the master mix of developed mPCR was dried by lyophilization and stability was assessed...
July 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536568/comparing-the-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-campylobacter-jejuni-recovered-from-cattle-and-humans
#15
Wonhee Cha, Rebekah E Mosci, Samantha L Wengert, Cristina Venegas Vargas, Steven R Rust, Paul C Bartlett, Daniel L Grooms, Shannon D Manning
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST)-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494766/filmarray%C3%A2-gi-panel-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-gastroenteritis-or-hemorragic-diarrhea
#16
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Gianluigi Ardissino, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Erika Bava, Milena Arghittu, Maria Rosaria Colombo, Alessandra Cognetto, Patrizia Bono, Giulia Campanini, Piero Marone, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487683/trans-cinnamaldehyde-carvacrol-and-eugenol-reduce-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-factors-and-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-vitro
#17
Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Basanta R Wagle, Indu Upadhyaya, Sandip Shrestha, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446571/core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-stable-comparative-analyses-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-c-coli-human-disease-isolates
#18
Alison J Cody, James E Bray, Keith A Jolley, Noel D McCarthy, Martin C J Maiden
Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440688/simultaneous-identification-of-campylobacter-jejuni-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-lari-with-smartcycler-based-multiplex-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
Kun C Liu, Karen C Jinneman, Jason Neal-McKinney, Wen-Hsin Wu, Daniel H Rice
BACKGROUND: Consumption of Campylobacter contaminated food or water is a leading cause of human acute gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari account for over 95% of total Campylobacter infections. A multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous identification of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was developed for use with the SmartCycler II system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated and combined previously described primers and probes for Campylobacter detection, designed a new internal amplification control, and optimized the multiplex qPCR for the detection of C...
April 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428779/application-of-%C3%AE-resorcylic-acid-as-potential-antimicrobial-feed-additive-to-reduce-campylobacter-colonization-in-broiler-chickens
#20
Basanta R Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Sandip Shrestha, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Annie M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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