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Campylobacter gastroenteritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916560/cmeabc-multidrug-efflux-pump-contributes-to-antibiotic-resistance-and-promotes-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-and-multiplication-in-acanthamoeba-polyphaga
#1
Ana Vieira, Amritha Ramesh, Alan M Seddon, Andrey V Karlyshev
Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#2
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906158/prevalence-of-putative-virulence-genes-in-campylobacter-and-arcobacter-species-isolated-from-poultry-and-poultry-by-products-in-tunisia
#3
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892295/transcriptome-and-proteome-dynamics-in-chemostat-culture-reveal-how-campylobacter-jejuni-modulates-metabolism-stress-responses-and-virulence-factors-upon-changes-in-oxygen-availability
#4
Edward J Guccione, John J Kendall, Andrew Hitchcock, Nitanshu Garg, Michael A White, Francis Mulholland, Robert K Poole, David J Kelly
Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, is a microaerophile that has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Here, oxygen-dependent changes in C. jejuni physiology were studied at constant growth rate using carbon (serine)-limited continuous chemostat cultures. We show that a perceived aerobiosis scale can be calibrated by the acetate excretion flux, which becomes zero when metabolism is fully aerobic (100% aerobiosis)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855338/methylation-dependent-dna-discrimination-in-natural-transformation-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#5
Jessica M Beauchamp, Rhiannon M Leveque, Suzanne Dawid, Victor J DiRita
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, is naturally competent. Like many competent organisms, C. jejuni restricts the DNA that can be used for transformation to minimize undesirable changes in the chromosome. Although C. jejuni can be transformed by C. jejuni-derived DNA, it is poorly transformed by the same DNA propagated in Escherichia coli or produced with PCR. Our work indicates that methylation plays an important role in marking DNA for transformation. We have identified a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase, which we term Campylobacter transformation system methyltransferase (ctsM), which methylates an overrepresented 6-bp sequence in the chromosome...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834267/pet-associated-campylobacteriosis-a-persisting-public-health-concern
#6
E R Campagnolo, L M Philipp, J M Long, N L Hanshaw
Campylobacter is regarded as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We report on a case of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory-confirmed but non-speciated Campylobacter-infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog-associated campylobacteriosis, the risk factors, potential routes of exposure and the clinical features in the exposed family members, which began shortly after exposure to the recently purchased dog...
August 21, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#7
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782648/whole-genome-sequencing-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-danish-routine-human-stool-samples-reveals-surprising-degree-of-clustering
#8
K G Joensen, K G Kuhn, L Müller, J T Björkman, M Torpdahl, J Engberg, H M Holt, H L Nielsen, A M Petersen, S Ethelberg, E M Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of Campylobacter are traditionally considered to be rare, however rather than being the true nature of the disease, this may reflect our present inability to detect them. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic and epidemiological degree of clustering among Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish patients. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was applied to 245 C. jejuni isolates from patients with domestically acquired infection over a 9-month period in 2015 and 2016...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755449/population-structure-and-attribution-of-human-clinical-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-central-europe-to-livestock-and-environmental-sources
#9
J Kovac, B Stessl, N Čadež, I Gruntar, M Cimerman, K Stingl, M Lušicky, M Ocepek, M Wagner, S Smole Možina
Campylobacter jejuni is among the most prevalent causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Domesticated animals and, especially, chicken meat are considered to be the main sources of infections. However, the contribution of surface waters and wildlife in C. jejuni transmission to humans is not well understood. We have evaluated the source attribution potential of a six-gene multiplex PCR (mPCR) method coupled with STRUCTURE analysis on a set of 410 C. jejuni strains isolated from environment, livestock, food and humans in central Europe...
July 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752962/seabirds-laridae-as-a-source-of-campylobacter-spp-salmonella-spp-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-south-africa
#10
Elisabet Moré, Teresa Ayats, Peter G Ryan, Preneshni R Naicker, Karen H Keddy, Davide Gaglio, Minke Witteveen, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar
Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n=129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n=100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731727/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-infections-among-u-s-active-component-service-members-stationed-in-the-u-s-compared-to-u-s-civilians-2012-2014
#11
Sarah E Hill, Daniela E Poss, Stic Harris
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in the U.S. Armed Forces have consistently been among the most frequent disease and non-battle injury diagnoses. A retrospective analysis of surveillance data categorized as GI infections among active component service members during 2012-2014 was performed. During the study period, 99% of inpatient and outpatient GI encounters were reported as nonspecific GI infection (13,331 cases per 100,000 people), leaving only a small percentage of cases attributed to specific causes. The five most common organisms associated with GI infections were Campylobacter (10...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717848/new-identification-of-three-or-more-campylobacter-species-on-the-basis-of-a-degenerate-pcr-rflp-method-targeting-gyrb-gene
#12
Hiroyuki Fukuda, Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto
This method was aimed targeting more Campylobacter species than conventional PCR-based identifications. They generally use species-specific primers focusing on clinically common species like C. jejuni, resulting in failure to recognize other species. We made the PCR-based identification more flexible using degenerate primers and DdeI- and MboI-separately used RFLP assay, which were designed on the basis of gyrB nucleotide sequence data of 14 Campylobacter species including C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. Ninety-four clinical isolates from patients with Campylobacter gastroenteritis and 13 biochemically identified C...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714890/cardamom-cumin-and-dill-weed-essential-oils-chemical-compositions-antimicrobial-activities-and-mechanisms-of-action-against-campylobacter-spp
#13
Aysegul Mutlu-Ingok, Funda Karbancioglu-Guler
Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693637/the-effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-heatwaves-on-daily-campylobacter-cases-in-adelaide-australia-1990-2012
#14
A Milazzo, L C Giles, Y Zhang, A P Koehler, J E Hiller, P Bi
Campylobacter spp. is a commonly reported food-borne disease with major consequences for morbidity. In conjunction with predicted increases in temperature, proliferation in the survival of microorganisms in hotter environments is expected. This is likely to lead, in turn, to an increase in contamination of food and water and a rise in numbers of cases of infectious gastroenteritis. This study assessed the relationship of Campylobacter spp. with temperature and heatwaves, in Adelaide, South Australia. We estimated the effect of (i) maximum temperature and (ii) heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases during the warm seasons (1 October to 31 March) from 1990 to 2012 using Poisson regression models...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688828/epidemiology-clinical-features-and-microbiology-of-patients-with-diarrhea-in-community-clinics-in-taiwan
#15
Chih-Yu Chi, Li-Na Liao, Cheng-Mao Ho, Chia-Huei Chou, Mao-Wang Ho, Jen-Hsein Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and microbiology of patients with diarrheal diseases in Taiwan. METHODS: From March 2014 to October 2014, patients with diarrheal diseases referred from the community clinics were enrolled into our prospective study. Demographics and clinical features of the participants were acquired. Stool samples were examined by the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel assay. Data were analyzed by SAS version 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 545 patients were enrolled into this study...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662272/campylobacter-fetus-impairs-barrier-function-in-ht-29-b6-cells-through-focal-tight-junction-alterations-and-leaks
#16
Roland Bücker, Susanne M Krug, Anja Fromm, Hans Linde Nielsen, Michael Fromm, Henrik Nielsen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Infections by Campylobacter species are the most common foodborne zoonotic disease worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are isolated most frequently from human stool samples, but severe infections by C. fetus (Cf), which can cause gastroenteritis, septicemia, and abortion, are also found. This study aims at the characterization of pathological changes in Cf infection using an intestinal epithelial cell model. The Cf-induced epithelial barrier defects appeared earlier than those of avian Campylobacter species like C...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651615/effects-of-dry-whey-powder-and-calcium-butyrate-supplementation-of-corn-soybean-based-diets-on-productive-performance-duodenal-histological-integrity-and-campylobacter-colonization-in-broilers
#17
Medelin Ocejo, Beatriz Oporto, Ramón A Juste, Ana Hurtado
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period...
June 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650672/campylobacter-species-isolated-from-pigs-in-grenada-exhibited-novel-clones-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-sequence-types
#18
Victor A Amadi, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Charmarthy Subbarao, Isaac Kashoma, Gireesh Rajashekara, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan, Diana Stone
Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing...
July 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650156/discovery-of-a-glutamine-kinase-required-for-the-biosynthesis-of-the-o-methyl-phosphoramidate-modifications-found-in-the-capsular-polysaccharides-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#19
Zane W Taylor, Haley A Brown, Tamari Narindoshvili, Cory Q Wenzel, Christine M Szymanski, Hazel M Holden, Frank M Raushel
Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are complex carbohydrate structures that play a role in the overall fitness of the organism. Campylobacter jejuni, known for being a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, produces a CPS with a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification on specific sugar residues. The formation of P-N bonds in nature is relatively rare, and the pathway for the assembly of the phosphoramidate moiety in the CPS of C. jejuni is unknown. In this investigation we discovered that the initial transformation in the biosynthetic pathway for the MeOPN modification of the CPS involves the direct phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of l-glutamine with ATP by the catalytic activity of Cj1418...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649284/development-and-evaluation-of-a-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-azithromycin-resistant-campylobacter-isolated-from-diarrhoeal-patients-in-kolkata-india
#20
Piyali Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a well-known bacterial pathogen for triggering acute gastroenteritis in humans both in developed and developing countries. This organism is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides are very much useful for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is necessary. However, increasing resistance to azithromycin, a potent macrolide has been reported in Campylobacter in recent years. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter is found mainly due to point mutation in V region of 23S rRNA...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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