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Mycoplasma encephalitis

Ryusuke Takaki, Takamura Nagasaka, Yumi Suwa, Mai Tsuchiya, Kishin Kho, Yoshihisa Takiyama
A 33-year-old woman was admitted due to disturbance of consciousness, dysarthria, dysphagia, sensory disturbances and weakness of the left upper limb after mycoplasma infection. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). On the 15th hospital day, reflex myoclonus appeared on her face, neck, body and limbs induced by techniques of jaw jerk reflex and patellar tendon reflex. The myoclonus was disappeared after two weeks in accordance with improvement of BBE...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Norishi Ueda, Satoshi Minami, Manabu Akimoto
BACKGROUND: No literature review exists on Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mild encephalitis/encepharopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS). METHODS: M.pneumoniae-associated MERS cases were searched till August 2016 using PubMed/Google for English/other-language publications and Ichushi ( ) for Japanese-language publications. Inclusion criteria were children fulfilling definition for encephalitis, M.pneumoniae infection, and neuroimaging showing hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) alone (type I) or SCC/other brain areas (type II)...
November 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wen-Xiong Chen, Hong-Sheng Liu, Si-Da Yang, Si-Hui Zeng, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Zhi-Hong Du, Xiao-Jing Li, Hai-Sheng Lin, Hui-Ci Liang, Jian-Ning Mai
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features of reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) in children. METHODS: Retrospectively analyzed clinical features of RESLES in children and compared differences between severe and non-severe group, classified by clinical global impression-scale; summarized clinical features of children with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) from case series. RESULTS: 16 episodes of RESLES occurring in 15 Chinese children were analyzed, with 13 episodes having MERS and 3 episodes with epilepsy...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Shekeeb S Mohammad, Samantha M Soe, Sekhar C Pillai, Margherita Nosadini, Elizabeth H Barnes, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale
OBJECTIVES: To examine EEG features in a retrospective 13-year cohort of children with encephalitis. METHODS: 354 EEGs from 119 patients during their admission were rated blind using a proforma with demonstrated inter-rater reliability (mean k=0.78). Patients belonged to 12 etiological groups that could be grouped into infectious and infection-associated (n=47), immune-mediated (n=36) and unknown (n=33). EEG features were analyzed between groups and for risk of abnormal Liverpool Outcome Score and drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) at last follow up...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Brian Appavu, Lisa Vanatta, John Condie, John F Kerrigan, Randa Jarrar
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
Zhe-Feng Yuan, Jue Shen, Shan-Shan Mao, Yong-Lin Yu, Lu Xu, Pei-Fang Jiang, Feng Gao, Zhe-Zhi Xia
BACKGROUND: Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by transient mild symptoms of encephalopathy and a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is often triggered by infection. The common pathogens of MERS are viruses, especially influenza virus. However, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M.pneumoniae) are relatively rare pathogens for MERS. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report two paediatric cases of M...
May 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yasemin Özkale, İlknur Erol, Müge Çoban-Karataş, Özlem Alkan
A broad range of neurologic disorders has been described in children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, of which encephalitis is among the most common. In contrast, the association between optic neuritis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has been rarely described in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who was seropositive for antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae and presented with optic neuritis without respiratory symptoms or other neurologic findings.
July 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Rebecca J Brown, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Hongxin Zhao, Elaine Stanford, O Brad Spiller, Victoria J Chalker
Investigations of patients with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been undertaken in England since the early 1970s. M. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen that is a common cause of pneumonia and may cause serious sequelae such as encephalitis and has been documented in children with persistent cough. The pathogen is found in all age groups, with higher prevalence in children aged 5-14 years. In England, recurrent epidemic periods have occurred at ~4-yearly intervals. In addition, low-level sporadic infection occurs with seasonal peaks from December to February...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mitsuo Narita
The list of extrapulmonary manifestations due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can be classified according to the following three possible mechanisms derived from the established biological activity of M. pneumoniae; (1) a direct type in which the bacterium is present at the site of inflammation and local inflammatory cytokines induced by the bacterium play an important role (2) an indirect type in which the bacterium is not present at the site of inflammation and immune modulations, such as autoimmunity or formation of immune complexes, play an important role, and (3) a vascular occlusion type in which obstruction of blood flow induced either directly or indirectly by the bacterium plays an important role...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
D O'Toole, K S Sondgeroth
Histophilus somni is responsible for sporadic disease worldwide in cattle and, to a lesser extent, in small ruminants, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and North American bison (Bison bison). The importance of H. somni diseases can be attributed to improved clinical and laboratory recognition, combined with the growth in intensive management practices for cattle. Although outbreaks of bovine histophilosis can occur year-round, in northern and southern hemispheres, it is most frequent in late fall and early winter...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Paulo Afonso Medeiros Kanda, Rafael Guimarães Kanda, Paulo Afonso Mei, Ivan José Cury
We report a case of a child whose EEG demonstrated extreme spindles (ES) after acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. This finding has not been reported previously. In 1962, Gibbs and Gibbs described the ES EEG pattern due to its high amplitude (200 to 400 μV). ES are a rare spindle variant that is found in EEGs of 0.05% of normal children (average age, 3 years, with a range of 1 to 12 years), and are even rarer after 11 years. Moreover due to changes in the white matter of the frontal lobe, ES have been associated with such conditions as cerebral palsy and mental retardation, residual brain damage, undefined infections, infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, Menkes' kinky-hair syndrome, congenital muscular dystrophy, hydrocephalus, porencephaly, epilepsy, progressive cerebellar degeneration, and mycoplasma encephalitis...
December 2015: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Ahood Almuslamani, Fatima Mahmood
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a new autoimmune, often paraneoplastic disorder that presents with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. It was first described in 2007 by Dalmau et al. Our patient presented with headache, behavioral changes and then seizures with hallucinations. She was initially misdiagnosed to have schizophrenia and was prescribed antipsychotics. She deteriorated and developed further seizures with hypoventilation and choreoathetosis. Her blood investigations were positive for mycoplasma IGM...
2015: Qatar Medical Journal
Nili Yanai Milshtein, Gideon Paret, Shimon Reif, Ora Halutz, Galia Grisaru-Soen
OBJECTIVES: The clinical characteristics, pathogens, and outcome were analyzed to investigate the etiology of acute pediatric encephalitis in 2 tertiary pediatric medical centers in Israel. METHODS: A retrospective study among children aged 1 month to 18 years hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute encephalitis between January 1999 and December 2009. Data on presenting symptoms, clinical findings, microbiological, virologic, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies, laboratory results, and hospital course were retrieved from the medical records and the computerized microbiology database...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Joyce Roodbol, Annette Hackenberg, Marie-Claire Y de Wit, Cornelis Vink, Christoph Berger, Enno Jacobs, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Bart C Jacobs
We report seven children with recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and severe Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) that presented to two European medical centres from 1992 to 2012. Severe GBS was defined as the occurrence of respiratory failure, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, or death. Five children had GBS, one Bickerstaff brain stem encephalitis (BBE), and one acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP). The five patients with severe GBS were derived from an original cohort of 66 children with GBS...
June 2015: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Samiah A Al-Zaidy, Daune MacGregor, Sanjay Mahant, Susan E Richardson, Ari Bitnun
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of neurologic disease attributable to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children is incompletely understood in part because of limitations of microbiologic diagnostic methods. Our objective was to characterize the neurologic complications of M. pneumoniae in children using stringent diagnostic criteria. METHODS: All children admitted to the Hospital for Sick Children over a 16-year period with acute neurologic manifestations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed M...
October 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
M Veciana, J L Becerra, P Fossas, D Muriana, G Sansa, E Santamarina, C Gaig, M Carreño, A Molins, C Escofet, M Ley, R Vivanco, J Pedro, J Miró, M Falip
INTRODUCTION: The anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis-associated syndrome includes neuropsychiatric symptoms, impaired consciousness, seizures, autonomic instability, and hypoventilation. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity throughout the course of the disease has still not been well documented. We reviewed electroclinical data of patients with NMDAr encephalitis to characterize their EEG and its clinical correlation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 16 patients with NMDAr encephalitis from 8 Spanish medical centers, 15 of whom underwent video-EEG in the acute phase...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
P Roussel, A-L Poulat, J-P Romaszko, A Labbé, C Sarret
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is common in children. Extrapulmonary symptoms usually reveal as neurological symptoms, mainly as encephalitis with significant morbidity and mortality. Various other neurological presentations have also been reported. We describe a cohort of nine children with neurological manifestations due to M. pneumoniae infection, including five cases of encephalitis, one of polyradiculoneuritis, one of ophthalmoplegia, one of optic neuritis, and one of myositis. Progression was variable from ad integrum recovery to severe brain damage...
July 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Iris B Hovens, Barbara L van Leeuwen, Csaba Nyakas, Erik Heineman, Eddy A van der Zee, Regien G Schoemaker
Older patients may experience persisting postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), which is considered to largely depend on surgery-induced (neuro)inflammation. We hypothesize that inflammatory events before surgery could predispose patients to POCD. When part of our aged rats developed Mycoplasma pulmonis, this presented the unique opportunity to investigate whether a pulmonary infection before surgery influences surgery-induced neuroinflammation and POCD. Male 18-mo-old Wistar rats that had recovered from an active mycoplasma infection (infection) and control rats (healthy) were subjected to abdominal surgery and jugular vein catheterization under general anesthesia (surgery) or remained naïve (control)...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mana Rao, Abhinav Agrawal, Manan Parikh, Rikka Banayat, Maria Joana Thomas, Tianhua Guo, Andrew Lee
Mycoplasma is a virulent organism that is known to primarily infect the respiratory tract; however, affection of the skin, nervous system, kidneys, heart and bloodstream has been observed in various forms, which include Stevens Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, encephalitis, renal failure, conduction system abnormalities and hemolytic anemia. Small vessel vasculitis is a lesser-known complication of mycoplasma pneumonia infection. We report a case of mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract infection with striking cutaneous lesions as the presenting symptom...
February 24, 2015: Infectious Disease Reports
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