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Chikungunya in childrens

Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Sadie J Ryan, Aileen Kenneson, Christine A King, Mark Abbott, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Efraín Beltrán-Ayala, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Washington B Cárdenas, Cinthya Cueva, Julia L Finkelstein, Christina D Lupone, Richard G Jarman, Irina Maljkovic Berry, Saurabh Mehta, Mark Polhemus, Mercy Silva, Timothy P Endy
Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region (2014-2015). Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index cases ( N = 44) were selected, and individuals from the index household and four neighboring homes within 200 m were recruited ( N = 400). Individuals who entered the study, other than the index cases, are referred to as associates...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Melanie Tavares, Márcio Robert Mattos da Silva, Luciana Betzler de Oliveira de Siqueira, Raphaela Aparecida Schuenck Rodrigues, Lolita Bodjolle-d'Almeira, Elisabete Pereira Dos Santos, Eduardo Ricci-Junior
The use of natural and synthetic repellents, marketed in different pharmaceutical forms, is growing in the world due to the emerging vector-borne viral diseases as Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever and Malaria. The choice of the ideal formulation will depend on a series of factors to be analyzed: type of repellent active (natural or synthetic), pharmaceutical forms (spray, lotion, cream, gel), action time duration (short or long), environment of exposure and the user (adult, pregnant women, children, newborn)...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Flavia Morán, Theresa J Ochoa
The objective of this review was to provide guidelines regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common infectious diseases in children during natural disasters, including floods such as those that occurred in the summer of 2017 in Peru. This instrument should be used by physicians and health personnel working in primary health care. The management of diarrheal, respiratory, skin, and eye diseases, vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, and zoonoses such as leptospirosis is discussed...
October 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Donald F Dariano, Chris R Taitt, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Umaru Bangura, Alfred S Bockarie, Moses J Bockarie, Joseph Lahai, Joseph M Lamin, Tomasz A Leski, Chadwick Yasuda, David A Stenger, Rashid Ansumana
Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Stephanie M Lim, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Minoushka Oduber, Eurydice Martina, Fatiha Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Jeroen M Roose, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Arno C Andeweg, Penelope Koraka, Byron E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that are constantly (re-)emerging and expanding their territory. Both viruses often cause a mild form of disease, but severe forms of the disease can consist of neurological symptoms, most often observed in the elderly and young children, respectively, for which the mechanisms are poorly understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for end-stage WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease, we used transcriptomics to compare the induction of effector pathways in the brain during the early and late stage of disease in young mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Regina Ramos, Rafaela Viana, Alessandra Brainer-Lima, Telma FloreÂncio, Maria Durce Carvalho, Vanessa van der Linden, Antonio Amorim, Maria AÂngela Rocha, Fabíola Medeiros
Chikungunya virus is capable of affecting the nervous system of children and adults. We describe a case of sepsis and encephalitis triggered by this agent in a newborn whose mother developed symptoms of acute infection 2 days before delivery. Consequently, the infant had severe encephalitis that evolved with postnatal-onset microcephaly, bilateral optic atrophy, epilepsy and cerebral palsy.
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jesse Waggoner, Claire Jane Heath, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, Malaya K Sahoo, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud, Benjamin A Pinsky
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), an alphavirus closely related to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been the documented cause of two large outbreaks in east Africa; however, little is known about the contribution of ONNV to cases of acute febrile illness during interepidemic periods. An ONNV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was developed and evaluated using clinical and mosquito pool samples. The ONNV rRT-PCR linear range extended from 8.0 to 2.0 log10 copies/μL, and the lower limit of 95% detection was 22...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nguyen Than Ha Quyen, Duong Thi Hue Kien, Maia Rabaa, Nguyen Minh Tuan, Tran Thuy Vi, Le Van Tan, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Ha Manh Tuan, Ta Van Tram, Nguyen Le Da Ha, Han Khoi Quang, Nguyen Quoc Doanh, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Bridget Wills, Cameron P Simmons
Between 2010 and 2014, four chikungunya and two Zika virus infections were identified among 8,105 febrile children in southern Vietnam. Zika viruses were linked to French Polynesian strains, chikungunya to Cambodian strains. Against a backdrop of endemic dengue transmission, chikungunya and Zika present an additional arboviral disease burden in Vietnam.
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jesse Waggoner, Julie Brichard, Francis Mutuku, Bryson Ndenga, Claire Jane Heath, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, Malaya K Sahoo, John Vulule, Martina Lefterova, Niaz Banaei, Dunstan Mukoko, Benjamin A Pinsky, A Desiree LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is frequently overdiagnosed as the cause of an undifferentiated febrile illness, whereas arboviral illnesses are presumed to be underdiagnosed. METHODS: Sera from 385 febrile Kenyan children, who presented to 1 of 4 clinical sites, were tested using microscopy and real-time molecular assays for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), malaria, and Leptospira. RESULTS: Malaria was the primary clinical diagnosis for 254 patients, and an arboviral infection (DENV or CHIKV) was the primary diagnosis for 93 patients...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sompong Vongpunsawad, Duangnapa Intharasongkroh, Thanunrat Thongmee, Yong Poovorawan
The abundance of Aedes mosquito species enabled widespread transmission of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) in Southeast Asia. Periodic seroprevalence surveys are therefore necessary to assess the viral burden in the population and the effectiveness of public health interventions. Since the current seroprevalence for CHIKV and DENV in Thailand are unknown, we evaluated evidence of past infection among Thais. Eight-hundred and thirty-five serum samples obtained from individuals living in central and southern Thailand were assessed for anti-CHIKV and anti-DENV IgG antibodies using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
2017: PloS One
Geraldo Duarte, Antonio Fernandes Moron, Artur Timerman, César Eduardo Fernandes, Corintio Mariani Neto, Gutemberg Leão de Almeida Filho, Heron Werner Junior, Hilka Flavia Barra do Espírito Santo, João Alfredo Piffero Steibel, João Bortoletti Filho, Juvenal Barreto Borriello de Andrade, Marcelo Burlá, Marcos Felipe Silva de Sá, Newton Eduardo Busso, Paulo César Giraldo, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá, Renato Passini Junior, Rosiane Mattar, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
From the discovery of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in 1947 in Uganda (Africa), until its arrival in South America, it was not known that it would affect human reproductive life so severely. Today, damage to the central nervous system is known to be multiple, and microcephaly is considered the tip of the iceberg. Microcephaly actually represents the epilogue of this infection's devastating process on the central nervous system of embryos and fetuses. As a result of central nervous system aggression by the ZIKV, this infection brings the possibility of arthrogryposis, dysphagia, deafness and visual impairment...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Anju Aggarwal, Neha Garg
Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Paul F Horwood, Veasna Duong, Denis Laurent, Channa Mey, Heng Sothy, Ky Santy, Beat Richner, Seiha Heng, Sopheak Hem, Justine Cheval, Christopher Gorman, Philippe Dussart, Menno D de Jong, Alexandra Kerleguer, Bertrand Guillard, Bernadette Murgue, Marc Lecuit, Xavier de Lamballerie, Jeremy J Farrar, Arnaud Tarantola, Marc Eloit, Philippe Buchy
Acute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two Cambodian paediatric hospitals to determine the major aetiologies associated with AME in the country. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were screened by molecular and cell culture methods for a range of pathogens previously associated with AME in the region. CSF and serum (acute and convalescent) were screened for antibodies to arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV)...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
José A Samra, Nancy L Hagood, Andrea Summer, Marco T Medina, Kenton R Holden
The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications...
July 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
Angel Paternina-Caicedo, Fernando De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fredi Díaz-Quijano, William Caicedo-Torres, María Auxiliadora Badillo-Viloria, Doris Bula-Anichiarico, Nelson Alvis-Guzmán, Salim Mattar, Dagna Constenla, Hernando Pinzón-Redondo
We aimed to assess clinical and laboratory differences between dengue and chikungunya in children <24 months of age in a comparative study. We collected retrospective clinical and laboratory data confirmed by NS1/IgM for dengue for 19 months (1 January 2013 to 17 August 2014). Prospective data for chikungunya confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction were collected for 4 months (22 September 2014-14 December 2014). Sensitivity and specificity [with 95% confidence interval (CI)] were reported for each disease diagnosis...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Amitabh Singh, Rahul Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Phanthip Olanratmanee, Pongsri Maskhao, Peter Byass, James Logan, Yesim Tozan, Valérie Louis, Duane J Gubler, Annelies Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. METHODS: We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ranjan Premaratna, Nathasha Luke, Harsha Perera, Mahesh Gunathilake, Pubudu Amarasena, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena
BACKGROUND: Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020...
January 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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