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Streptococcus pneumoniae in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#1
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928736/selective-igm-deficiency-an-underestimated-primary-immunodeficiency
#2
REVIEW
Sudhir Gupta, Ankmalika Gupta
Although selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD) was described almost five decades ago, it was largely ignored as a primary immunodeficiency. SIGMD is defined as serum IgM levels below two SD of mean with normal serum IgG and IgA. It appears to be more common than originally realized. SIGMD is observed in both children and adults. Patients with SIGMD may be asymptomatic; however, approximately 80% of patients with SIGMD present with infections with bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. There is an increased frequency of allergic and autoimmune diseases in SIGMD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#3
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#4
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918242/predictive-value-of-thomsen-friedenreich-antigen-activation-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-and-severity-in-pediatric-lobar-pneumonia
#5
Chia-Jung Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Most cases of complicated pneumonia in children are caused by pneumococcal infections. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated during pneumococcal infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of TA activation for pneumococcal infection and association with the severity of complicated pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with lobar pneumonia were routinely tested for TA at the Department of Pediatrics, Mackay Memorial Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#6
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910402/nasopharyngeal-bacterial-load-as-a-marker-for-rapid-and-easy-diagnosis-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-mozambique
#7
Pedro Brotons, Quique Bassat, Miguel Lanaspa, Desiree Henares, Amaresh Perez-Arguello, Lola Madrid, Reyes Balcells, Sozinho Acacio, Maria Andres-Franch, Maria Angeles Marcos, Ana Valero-Rello, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease have limitations of accuracy, timeliness, and patient convenience. This study aimed to determine the performance of pneumococcal load quantified with a real-time polymerase-chain reaction in nasopharyngeal samples to diagnose invasive pneumococcal disease in children. METHODS: Matched case-control study of patients <5 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital (Mozambique) and asymptomatic controls recruited in different periods between 2006 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910279/longitudinal-multiparameter-single-cell-analysis-of-macaques-immunized-with-pneumococcal-protein-conjugated-or-unconjugated-polysaccharide-vaccines-reveals-distinct-antigen-specific-memory-b-cell-repertoires
#8
Bin Jia, Lisa K McNeil, Christopher D Dupont, Konstantinos Tsioris, Rachel M Barry, Ingrid L Scully, Adebola O Ogunniyi, Christopher Gonzalez, Michael W Pride, Todd M Gierahn, Paul A Liberator, Kathrin U Jansen, J Christopher Love
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We compared the magnitude, diversity and genetic biases of antigen-specific memory B cells in two groups of adult cynomolgus macaques that were immunized with a 7-valent conjugated vaccine and boosted after five years with either a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13vPnC) or a 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) using microengraving (a single-cell analysis method) and single-cell RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898612/-paediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-universal-vaccination-1995-2015
#10
Muriel Ferreira, Henrique Oliveira, Nuno Costa Silva, Luís Januário, Fernanda Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the private market in Portugal in 2001, reaching over the years a moderately high coverage. In July 2015, it was included in the National Immunisation Program. The aim of this study was to characterize invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric hospital before universal use of the vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of all children with Streptococcus pneumoniae identified by culture and/or molecular biology (available since 2008), in products obtained from sterile sites, from January 1995 to June 2015...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892455/modeling-specific-antibody-responses-to-natural-immunization-to-predict-a-correlate-of-protection-against-infection-before-commencing-a-clinical-vaccine-trial
#11
Anthony Almudevar, Michael E Pichichero
i) Background: Clinical trials of vaccines for children to prevent acute otitis media (AOM) infections caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia (Spn) are in Phase I. The objective of this study was to use serum antibody measurements to pneumococcal purified protein candidate antigens that occurred after natural "immunization" to predict a correlate of protection response needed following an injectable vaccine against AOM in children. METHODS: 590 nasal and serum samples were collected from 129 healthy children at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30-36 months of age and when the child developed AOM...
September 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890996/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-at-birth-and-in-vitro-cytokine-responses-to-non-specific-stimulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
T N Nissen, N M Birk, B A Blok, R J W Arts, A Andersen, J Kjærgaard, L M Thøstesen, T Hoffmann, D L Jeppesen, S D Nielsen, P-E Kofoed, L G Stensballe, P Aaby, M Ruhwald, M G Netea, C S Benn, O Pryds
Several studies have shown increased in vitro cytokine responses to non-related pathogens after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A total of 158 infants (80 BCG administered within 7 days of birth; 78 controls) were bled 4 days post-randomization, and at age 3 and 13 months. Geometric mean concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 (24 h stimulation) and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 (96 h stimulation) in response to in vitro stimulation with RPMI, LPS, PHA, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Candida albicans and BCG were compared among BCG vaccinated children and controls...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887787/pneumococcal-vaccines-how-many-serotypes-are-enough
#13
REVIEW
Aaradhana Singh, A K Dutta
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes meningitis, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, sinusitis and otitis media specially in children and over 65 y age groups. It contributes significantly to under-five mortality and morbidity worldwide as well as in India. Use of pneumococcal vaccine seems to be the most effective measure to decrease the disease burden and reduction of under-five mortality. Many countries have already included Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV) in their National Immunization Programmes (NIP). Government of India has announced recently to include PCV13 in NIP in a phased manner...
September 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881517/-thoracoscopy-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pleural-diseases-in-children
#14
M Chen, L L Zhong, H Huang, L Lin, H Y Deng, X F Ding, X Hu
Objective: To investigate the value of thoracoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases in children. Method: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of 19 patients who had refractory pleural diseases treated with thoracosocy during May 2011 to August 2016 in Hunan Provincial People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. In 19 cases, 15 were male and 4 were female, with an average age of (4.8±2.0) years. Thirteen patients had left pleural lesion, while 5 patients had right lesion, and 1 had bilateral lesions...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835382/utility-of-blood-culture-among-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mark I Neuman, Matthew Hall, Susan C Lipsett, Adam L Hersh, Derek J Williams, Jeffrey S Gerber, Thomas V Brogan, Anne J Blaschke, Carlos G Grijalva, Kavita Parikh, Lilliam Ambroggio, Samir S Shah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: National guidelines recommend blood cultures for children hospitalized with presumed bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that is moderate or severe. We sought to determine the prevalence of bacteremia and characterize the microbiology and penicillin-susceptibility patterns of positive blood culture results among children hospitalized with CAP. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children hospitalized with CAP in 6 children's hospitals from 2007 to 2011...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830943/capsule-type-and-amount-affect-shedding-and-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#16
M Ammar Zafar, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Tonia Zangari, Michael Cammer, Jeffrey N Weiser
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by its diversity, as it has over 95 known serotypes, and the variation in its thickness as it surrounds an organism. While within-host effects of CPS have been studied in detail, there is no information about its contribution to host-to-host transmission. In this study, we used an infant mouse model of intralitter transmission, together with isogenic capsule switch and cps promoter switch constructs, to explore the effects of CPS type and amount...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828970/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-the-gram-positive-bacteria-isolated-from-children-with-bloodstream-infection-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital-a-6-year-study
#17
Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Mina Moradzadeh, Masoumeh Mahzari, Mohammad TaghiHaghi Ashtiani, Parin Tanzifi
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are considered as a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatricschildren. The aim of this study was to depict report the common Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) responsible for bloodstream infections in children and determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), ) Hospital, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted within a six-year period (March 2011 to September 2016) for pediatric patients with BSI...
August 21, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827496/cerebrospinal-fluid-cathelicidin-correlates-with-the-bacterial-load-and-outcomes-in-childhood-bacterial-meningitis
#18
Okko Savonius, Otto Helve, Irmeli Roine, Sture Andersson, Annika Saukkoriipi, Antonio González Mata, Heikki Peltola, Tuula Pelkonen
BACKGROUND: Large cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial load in bacterial meningitis (BM) relates to poor outcome. However, the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin seems important to host defense. We studied how cathelicidin concentrations and bacterial load in CSF relate in childhood BM and to what extent they may predict the disease outcome. METHODS: The patient data originated from a large prospective clinical trial in Latin America in 1996-2003 in which the CSF samples were collected on admission (CSF1) and 12-24 hours later (CSF2)...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#19
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#20
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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