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Streptococcus pneumoniae in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#1
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#2
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077083/evaluation-of-the-line-probe-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-bacterial-meningitis-pathogens-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-from-children
#3
Ahmet Soysal, Demet Gedikbasi Toprak, Salih Türkoğlu, Mustafa Bakir
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of the line probe assay (LPA) with conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as real-time PCR for Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children during the multicenter national surveillance of bacterial meningitis between the years 2006 and 2009 in Turkey. RESULTS: During the study period 1460 subjects were enrolled and among them 841 (57%) met the criteria for probable bacterial meningitis...
January 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072501/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-warao-amerindians-significant-relationship-with-stunting
#4
Lilly M Verhagen, Meyke Hermsen, Ismar A Rivera-Olivero, María Carolina Sisco, Marien I de Jonge, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0 - 4 years, 227 children aged 5 - 10 years, and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0 - 4 years...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067813/pneumococcal-colonization-in-the-familial-context-and-implications-for-anti-pneumococcal-immunization-in-adults-results-from-the-binocolo-project-in-sicily
#5
Fabio Tramuto, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Francesco Vitale, On Behalf Of The Binocolo Group
The spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae within families has been scarcely investigated so far. This feasibility study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in school-aged children and co-habiting relatives and to explore the potential link between the family environment and the sharing of pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine. Oropharyngeal samples of 146 subjects belonging to 36 different family groups were molecularly tested for pneumococcal detection and serotyping. The overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 65...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062161/-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-respiratory-infections
#6
José María Marimón, José María Navarro-Marí
Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide, being viruses, bacteria and fungi involved in their etiology. The rapid diagnosis allows for a better clinical management of the patient, for adopting public health measures and for controlling possible outbreaks. The main etiologic agents can be diagnosed within the first hours after the onset of symptoms with antigen detection techniques, primarily immunochromatography. Results are obtained in 15-30minutes, with 70-90% sensitivity and >95% specificity for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila serogroup O1 infections from urine, Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs and respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates...
January 3, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062125/propensity-of-pneumococcal-carriage-serotypes-to-infect-the-lower-airways-of-children-with-chronic-endobronchial-infections
#7
Kim M Hare, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Susan Pizzutto, Helen L Petsky, Gabrielle B McCallum, Amanda J Leach
BACKGROUND: Chronic endobronchial infections in children are responsible for a high disease burden. Streptococcus pneumoniae is frequently isolated; however, few publications have described serotypes associated with non-invasive lower airway infection. METHODS: Paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from children undergoing bronchoscopy for chronic cough. NP swabs were also collected from asymptomatic children in otitis media surveillance studies (controls)...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042527/pediatric-rhinosinusitis
#8
Dana T Badr, Jonathan M Gaffin, Wanda Phipatanakul
Rhinosinusitis, is defined as an inflammation of the paranasal and nasal sinus mucosae. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)is a common problem in the pediatric age group and the diagnosis and treatment are challenging due to the chronicity and similarity of symptoms with allergic rhinitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Although it is less common than acute rhinosinusitis, CRS is becoming more frequent and significantly affects the quality of life in children and can substantially impair daily function. CRS is characterized by sinus symptoms lasting more than 3 months despite medical therapy...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#9
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032483/indirect-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-national-immunization-programs-for-children-on-adult-pneumococcal-disease
#10
REVIEW
Young Keun Kim, David LaFon, Moon H Nahm
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was developed to overcome the limitations of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which produces poor immunogenicity in infants younger than 2 years. As many countries have included PCVs in national immunization programs for children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae has declined markedly, not only among the vaccinated pediatric population, but also among unvaccinated adults. In this review, we present a concise overview of the indirect effects of mass pediatric PCV immunization on unvaccinated adults...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029140/prevention-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-available-pneumococcal-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases...
December 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024738/recent-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-nasopharynxes-of-korean-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#12
Seung Beom Han, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Sang Hyuk Ma, Chun Soo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Young Youn Choi
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012512/no-evidence-for-impaired-humoral-immunity-to-pneumococcal-proteins-in-australian-aboriginal-children-with-otitis-media
#13
Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Karli J Corscadden, Harvey L Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Jessica Hillwood, Sophie Toster, Phillipa Edminston, Guicheng Zhang, Anthony Keil, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. METHODS: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006650/rise-of-multidrug-resistant-non-vaccine-serotype-15a-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-united-kingdom-2001-to-2014
#14
Carmen Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Rosy Reynolds, Regina Janes, Rachel Pike, Robert Hill, Maimuna Kimuli, Peter Staves, Michel Doumith, Timothy Harrison, David M Livermore
Conjugate vaccines have reduced pneumococcal disease in vaccinated children and unvaccinated adults, but non-vaccine serotypes are of concern, particularly if antibiotic resistant. We reviewed Streptococcus pneumoniae collected via: (i) the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) surveillances from 2001-2014; (ii) Public Health England's (PHE) invasive isolate surveillance from 2005-2014 and (iii) referral to PHE for resistance investigation from 2005-2014. Serotype 15A increased in all series, with many representatives showing triple resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and penicillin...
December 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000028/demonstration-of-the-herd-effect-in-adults-after-the-implementation-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-pcv13-in-children
#15
C Hays, Q Vermee, A Agathine, A Dupuis, E Varon, C Poyart, M-C Ploy, J Raymond
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the evolution of serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children from the same population area with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM), 5 years after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). From 2009 to 2015, 839 strains of S. pneumoniae strains were collected (481 from adults and 358 from children). Serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998266/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-cases-in-france-between-2001-and-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#16
Anna Alari, Hélène Chaussade, Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Lénaig Le Fouler, Emmanuelle Varon, Lulla Opatowski, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. METHODS: Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci...
December 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997514/serotypes-not-included-in-13-valent-pneumococcal-vaccine-as-causes-of-acute-otitis-media-with-spontaneous-tympanic-membrane-perforation-in-a-geographic-area-with-high-vaccination-coverage
#17
Paola Marchisio, Susanna Esposito, Marina Picca, Elena Baggi, Leonardo Terranova, Annalisa Orenti, Elia Biganzoli, Nicola Principi
In 177 children living in an area with high 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coverage who had acute otitis media (AOM) complicated with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP), Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in the middle ear fluid of 48 (27.1%) subjects, with 37 (77.1%) cases caused by non-PCV13 serotypes.
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994923/microbiological-features-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-bulgarian-children-for-the-period-1998-2014
#18
Raina Tzvetanova Gergova, Guergana Petrova, Stefan Gergov, Petko Minchev, Ivan Mitov, Tanya Strateva
BACKGROUND: Across the globe, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are the most prevalent cause of morbidity in childhood. AIMS: The aim of our study is to analyze the incidence and etiology of bacterial URTIs in Bulgarian children, as well as the increasing antimicrobial resistance to the most common etiologic agents over a period of 17 years. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: The study material comprised the data from 4768 patients (aged 1-16 years) with URTI during the period from 1998-2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956163/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-aged-younger-than-5-years-in-india-a-surveillance-study
#19
Anand Manoharan, Vikas Manchanda, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sanjay Lalwani, Meera Modak, Sushama Bai, Ajith Vijayan, Anita Shet, Savitha Nagaraj, Sunil Karande, Gita Nataraj, Vijay N Yewale, Shrikrishna A Joshi, Ranganathan N Iyer, Mathuram Santosham, Geoffrey D Kahn, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. METHODS: In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931989/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-of-the-italian-population-towards-neisseria-meningitidis-streptococcus%C3%A2-pneumoniae-and-hpv-diseases-and-vaccinations-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#20
C de Waure, G Quaranta, C Ianuale, D Panatto, D Amicizia, L Apprato, P Campanella, M Colotto, C De Meo, F Di Nardo, E M Frisicale, D I La Milia, E Rizzitelli, S Aquilani, M P Briata, V Frumento, L Marensi, A Spadea, V Turello, R Gasparini, W Ricciardi
OBJECTIVES: This study addressed knowledge of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and human papillomavirus (HPV), and attitudes and behaviours towards vaccines against them. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, multicentre study. METHODS: Data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 530 adults who accessed four Departments of Prevention of the Italian National Health Service in 2013. RESULTS: Less than 50% of people gave the right answer to all the questions concerning the three diseases, but 96...
December 2016: Public Health
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