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Streptococcus pneumoniae in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739823/interleukin-17a-aggravates-middle-ear-injury-induced-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-through-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#1
Wei Wang, Wenbin Liu, Jiali Liu, Zimeng Wang, Fangmei Fan, Yurong Ma, Chunfang Jin, Yun Xiang, Yifei Huang, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu, Yibing Yin, Yujuan He
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common bacterial infection diseases in children aged 2-7 yr worldwide. We previously demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-17A promotes an acute inflammatory response characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the middle ear cavity during Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn)-induced AOM. Generally, inflammatory response is viewed as an effector that frequently causes local tissue damage. However, little is known about the pathogenic effects of IL-17A in AOM. Here, we investigated the pathogenic effects of IL-17A by using wild-type (WT) and IL-17A knockout (KO) mouse models...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737858/the-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-turkish-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#2
Halil Özdemir, Caner Yıldız, Selin Nar Ötgün, Hatice Erkol, Adem Karbuz, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Tuğçe Tural Kara, Ayşegül Gözalan, Rıza Durmaz, Ergin Çiftçi, Derya Aysev, Erdal İnce
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective single-center study was to determine the changings in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in children with IPD after the period (1 to 7 years) of vaccination with PCV7 (2008) and PCV13 (2011). POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 39 Turkish children with IPD between ages 1 month and 18 years in Ankara, Turkey. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified using standard laboratory procedures from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, and other sterile body fluids and tissues...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#3
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#4
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736198/characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-serotype-19a-isolates-from-argentina-1993-2014
#5
Paula Gagetti, Diego Faccone, Vanesa Reijtman, Sofia Fossati, Marisa Rodriguez, Omar Veliz, Paola Ceriana, Mabel Regueira, Alejandra Corso
The aim of this study was to characterize Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease in children, collected in Argentina between 1993 and 2014. A total of 176 isolates serotype 19A were analyzed. There was an increase in the proportion of serotype 19A isolates from 3% in 1993 to 6% in 2011, prior to the introduction of PCV13 in 2012, and from 2012 to 2014 its proportion gradually decreased. Penicillin resistance among serotype 19A isolates throughout the study period was 65...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736074/a-novel-genetic-variant-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-11a-discovered-in-fiji
#6
Sam Manna, Belinda Ortika, Eileen M Dunne, Kathryn E Holt, Mike Kama, Fiona M Russell, Jason Hinds, Catherine Satzke
OBJECTIVES: As part of annual cross-sectional Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage surveys in Fiji (2012-2015), we detected pneumococci in over 100 nasopharyngeal swabs that serotyped as '11F-like' by microarray. We examined the genetic basis of this divergence in the 11F-like capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus, compared to the reference 11F cps sequence. The impact of this diversity on capsule phenotype, as well as serotyping results using genetic and serological methods, was determined...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#7
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725562/pleural-empyema-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-due-to-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-healthy-spanish-traveler-in-japan
#8
Tetsuya Sakai, Daisuke Taniyama, Saeko Takahashi, Morio Nakamura, Takashi Takahashi
Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) causes invasive infections including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and local infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of an invasive GAS infection with pneumonia and pleural empyema (PE) followed by STSS (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and acute renal insufficiency) in a healthy male adult. He received combined supportive therapies of PE drainage, anti-DIC agent, hemodialysis, and antimicrobials and eventually made a clinical recovery...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#9
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722638/antibiotic-resistance-in-young-children-in-kilosa-district-tanzania-4-years-after-mass-distribution-of-azithromycin-for-trachoma-control
#10
Evan M Bloch, Sheila K West, Kasubi Mabula, Jerusha Weaver, Zakayo Mrango, Beatriz Munoz, Thomas Lietman, Christian Coles
Mass administration of azithromycin (MDA) is integral to trachoma control. Recent studies suggest that MDA may increase drug-resistant pathogens, yet findings from prior studies suggest little long-term impact on resistance. This disparity may be linked to differences in pre-MDA community-level resistance patterns. We describe carriage prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) (nasopharyngeal swab collection), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) (nasopharyngeal swabs), and Escherichia coli (EC) (rectal swabs) in 1,047 children ages 1-59 months in a district with MDA cessation 4 years ago...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719310/severity-of-pneumonia-in-under-5-year-old-children-from-developing-countries-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#11
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sanchez Picot, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Anand Kawade, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, For The Gabriel Network
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from India (Lucknow, Vadu), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Mali (Bamako), and Paraguay (San Lorenzo). Children aged 2-60 months with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were enrolled prospectively...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711387/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-children%C3%A2-5years-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-india-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Jyotsana Singh, Suba Sundaresan, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into India's universal immunization program...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707578/acute-otitis-media-in-children
#13
Alexander Kc Leung, Alex H C Wong
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media is a common childhood infection. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, complications and particularly treatment of acute otitis media in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "acute otitis media". Patents were searched using the key term "acute otitis media" from www...
July 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698782/prevalence-and-etiology-of-bacteremia-in-febrile-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-at-a-nigeria-tertiary-hospital
#14
Biobele Brown, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Catherine Trippe, Olufunmilayo Olopade
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: As a result of immune defects in Sickle cell disease (SCD), affected individuals are prone to infection from encapsulated bacterial pathogens like Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Studies on the etiological agents of bacteremia in children with SCD in Nigeria are few and have revealed a spectrum of organisms that is different from those recorded in other parts of the world. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of bacteremia, etiological agents and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in febrile children with SCD attending the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696530/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-single-dose-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-oncology-patients
#15
Te-Yu Hung, Rishi S Kotecha, Christopher C Blyth, Sarah K Steed, Ruth B Thornton, Anne L Ryan, Catherine H Cole, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: Children receiving immunosuppressive treatment for cancer are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) can prevent pneumococcal disease in healthy children; however, there is an absence of literature regarding the benefit of PCV13 in immunocompromised children with cancer. METHODS: A prospective, open-label cohort study recruited children between ages 1 and 18 years who were receiving active immunosuppressive therapy (AIT) or were within 12 months after completing immunosuppressive therapy (CIT)...
July 11, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694854/antimicrobial-resistant-pattern-and-capsular-typing-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-children-in-sistan-baluchestan
#16
Zahra Gharailoo, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Niloofar Halvani, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Ankyloglossia is an anatomic developmental anomaly determining by thick and short, fi brotic ferenum. Tongue changes have severe eff ects on occlusion and oropharyngeal structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the position of hyoid in children 7-11 years` old with ankyloglossia in lateral cephalometric radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In this study 260 nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from non-vaccinated healthy children between 6 months to 6 years old at medical centers in Sistan-Baluchestan during August 2013 to January 2014...
September 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690025/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-ceftriaxone-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-taiwan
#17
Hao-Yuan Lee, Tsu-Lan Wu, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Chieh Li, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was associated with mortality, but the risk factors associated with mortality remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed. All patients with IPD from 2011 to 2013 admitted in a medical center were screened and collected for their clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 134 IPD isolates derived from these patients belonged to three major serotypes (19A, 6A and 3), which are included in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), but not in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688781/immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-among-children-with-underlying-medical-conditions
#18
Sabelle Jallow, Shabir A Madhi, Richard Madimabe, Nosisa Sipambo, Avy Violari, Udai Kala, Karen Petersen, Sanushka Naidoo, Charl Verwey, David P Moore, Marta C Nunes
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease in children under 5years. Immunocompromised children and those with underlying diseases are at increased risk of severe complications from vaccine-preventable infections. We studied the humoral immune response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in children with HIV-infection, kidney or lung disease and compared this to the response in healthy control children. METHODS: Children aged 12-71months with underlying conditions including HIV-infection and those with kidney and lung diseases (at-risk children), and a healthy control group were vaccinated with PCV13...
July 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671978/estimated-severe-pneumococcal-disease-cases-and-deaths-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-children-younger-than-5-years-of-age-in-south-africa
#19
Claire von Mollendorf, Stefano Tempia, Anne von Gottberg, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Charles Feldman, Jeane Cloete, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Cheryl Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe bacterial infections globally. A full understanding of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal disease burden, following its introduction in 2009 in South Africa, can support national policy on PCV use and assist with policy decisions elsewhere. METHODS: We developed a model to estimate the national burden of severe pneumococcal disease, i.e. disease requiring hospitalisation, pre- (2005-2008) and post-PCV introduction (2012-2013) in children aged 0-59 months in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668654/measurement-of-pneumococcal-igg-antibody-carriage-and-infection-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-under-five-years-of-age-with-acute-respiratory-infection-in-niger
#20
Dan Dano Ibrahim, Sani Ousmane, Kamayé Moumouni, Ali Elhadji Mahamane
Pneumonia is the major cause of mortality in children under five years. A total of 751 children aged 1-59 months admitted for acute respiratory infection were included in this study. Pneumococcal serum IgG antibody was determined by ELISA. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined by molecular analyses of nasopharyngeal swabbings, and the rapid urinary diagnostic test Binax NOW(®)Sp was used for detection of pneumococcal antigen in urine. A total of 224 (29.8%) children had vaccination record books, and among them, 186 (83%) were vaccinated with the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV-23), 7 (3%) were vaccinated with the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-13), and 31 (14%) had not been vaccinated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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