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Streptococcus pneumoniae in childrens

Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Felix S Dube, Mamadou Kaba, F J Lourens Robberts, Lemese Ah Tow, Sugnet Lubbe, Heather J Zar, Mark P Nicol
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection in children is increasingly thought to be polymicrobial in origin. Children with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) may have tuberculosis, other respiratory tract infections or co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens. We aimed to identify the presence of potential respiratory pathogens in nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from children with suspected PTB. METHOD: NP samples collected from consecutive children presenting with suspected PTB at Red Cross Children's Hospital (Cape Town, South Africa) were tested by multiplex real-time RT-PCR...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Qing Song, Bao-Ping Xu, Kun-Ling Shen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and impact of bacterial co-infections in children hospitalized with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China. PARTICIPANTS: 8612 children admitted to Beijing Childrens Hospital from June 2006 to June 2014. METHODS: According to the testing results of etiology we divided the cases into pure M...
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Fred J van Opzeeland, Elles Simonetti, Peter W M Hermans, Marien I de Jonge, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos
Widespread vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has significantly reduced pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Despite vaccination, overall pneumococcal colonization rates in children have not reduced and otitis media (OM) by non-vaccine serotypes remains one of the most common childhood infections. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) has been shown to be a promising protein antigen to induce broad protection against pneumococcal colonization. However, its ability to protect against OM remains unclear...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Małgorzata Gajewska, Katarzyna Lewtak, Jacques Scheres, Piotr Albrecht, Paweł Goryński
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the hospitalization trends in children aged 0-6 suffering from bacterial pneumonia in the years 2007-2011 in Poland. METHODS: The data pertained to the hospitalized patients diagnosed with the diseases registered as J13-J15 according to ICD-10. RESULTS: In the years 2007-2011, the hospitalization rate increased from 16.3/10,000 to 44.1/10,000 for boys and from 13.8/10,000 to 33.0/10,000 for girls. The most frequently hospitalized children were between 1 and 2 years of age (90...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Mansour Amin, Mozhgan Ghaderpanah, Tahereh Navidifar
Meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis (BM). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of these three bacteria using bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our cross-sectional study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained from 196 patients who were suspected of having BM and referred to the pediatric ward of Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran)...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Hui Pan, Binglin Cui, Yuanchun Huang, Jiacai Yang, William Ba-Thein
BACKGROUND: Nasal colonization with bacterial pathogens is associated with risk of invasive respiratory tract infections, but the related information for Chinese healthy children is scarce. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with healthy children from 6 kindergartens in the Chaoshan region, southern China during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were examined for five common bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus...
September 30, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
G S Tansarli, T Skalidis, N J Legakis, M E Falagas
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Brzostek, Ryszard Konior, Falko G Panzer, Nancy A François, Sudheer M Ravula, Devayani A Kolhe, Yue Song, Ilse Dieussaert, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of two follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following two 3+1 schedules up to four (NCT00624819 - Study A) and five years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, two and four years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
L Patrick Schenck, Michael G Surette, Dawn M E Bowdish
The intestinal microbiota is essential for nutrient acquisition, immune development, and exclusion of invading pathogens. The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota is less well studied and does not appear to abide by many of the paradigms of the gastrointestinal tract. Decades of carriage studies in children have demonstrated that microbe-microbe competition and collusion occurs in the URT. Whether colonization with common pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) alters immune development or susceptibility to respiratory conditions is just beginning to be understood...
October 12, 2016: FEBS Letters
Tessa R Davis, Hannah R Evans, Jennifer Murtas, Aimee Weisman, J Lynn Francis, Ahmed Khan
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The primary outcome was the number of positive blood culture results, and secondary outcomes included the effect of positive blood culture results on management, and the identification of other clinical/biochemical variables that could predict blood culture results or the course of illness. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out on all children admitted to Gosford Hospital during the 2-year period from July 2013 to June 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Anne L Wyllie, Lidewij W Rümke, Kayleigh Arp, Astrid A T M Bosch, Jacob P Bruin, Nynke Y Rots, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński
Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults is rarely detected by the gold standard culture method. With molecular tests of high sensitivity now available, we analysed upper respiratory tract samples collected during autumn/winter 2012/2013 from parents of PCV7-vaccinated infants and from childless adults, directly comparing culture and qPCR-based S. pneumoniae detection. As compared to the gold standard of testing nasopharyngeal swabs, qPCR-based analysis of oral samples significantly improved detection of pneumococcal carriage (5% versus 20%, p < 0...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Samia Hamouda, Karima Chraiet, Fatma Khalsi, Imen Bel Hadj, Ines Brini, Hanen Smaoui, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Samoud, Saida Ben Becher, Najla Ben Jaballah, Amel Kechrid, Faten Tinsa, Khadija Boussetta
Background Community-acquired pleuropneumonia (CPP) is a common complication of pneumonia in children. It is serious given its high morbidity and significant mortality. Aim To study clinical and paraclinical features of CPP in children and to establish a common therapeutic strategy. Methods Our retrospective study included patients who were hospitalized for CPP between 2004 and 2012. All data were collected from patients' medical files. Statistical analysis was made by Epi-Info 6. Results One hundred and sixty four patients were registered...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Maria-Cristina de C Brandileone, Rosemeire C Zanella, Samanta C G Almeida, Angela P Brandao, Ana F Ribeiro, Telma-Regina M P Carvalhanas, Helena Sato, Ana-Lúcia Andrade, Jennifer R Verani
In March 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the routine infant immunization program using a 4-dose schedule and catch-up for children <23months. We investigated PCV10 effect on nasopharyngeal carriage with vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) among children in São Paulo city. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 (baseline) and 2013 (post-PCV10). Healthy PCV-naïve children aged 12-23months were recruited from primary health centers during immunization campaigns...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Anneke Steens, Natacha Milhano, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Didrik F Vestrheim
BACKGROUND: As a standard method for pneumococcal carriage studies, the World Health Organization recommends nasopharyngeal swabs be transported and stored at cool temperatures in a medium containing skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerol (STGG). An enrichment broth used for transport at room temperature in three carriage studies performed in Norway may have a higher sensitivity than STGG. We therefore compared the media in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro component, three strains (serotype 4, 19F and 3) were suspended in STGG and enrichment broth...
2016: PeerJ
Chrispin Chaguza, Cheryl P Andam, Simon R Harris, Jennifer E Cornick, Marie Yang, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Arox W Kamng'ona, Julian Parkhill, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, Aras Kadioglu, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage
: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence...
September 27, 2016: MBio
N Principi, P Marchisio, C Rosazza, C S Sciarrabba, S Esposito
The principal aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding acute otitis media (AOM) with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP) and to address the question of whether AOM with STMP is a disease with specific characteristics or a severe case of AOM. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the past 15 years using the key words "acute otitis media" and "othorrea" or "spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation". More than 250 articles were found, but only those published in English and providing data on aspects related to perforation of infectious origin were considered...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ameneh Khatami, Braden Rl Rivers, Alexander C Outhred, Alison M Kesson
AIM: A prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy Australian pre-school children. METHODS: Screening for carriage of K. kingae as well as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and K. kingae was undertaken using a single bacterial throat swab taken from well children aged 6 months to 4 years. Standard laboratory procedures were used for culture and identification of organisms...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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