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Streptococcus pneumoniae in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422083/nasopharyngeal-carriage-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-children-under-five-in-southwest-ethiopia
#1
Tiglu Gebre, Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Dagne Feye, Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Dinberu Seyoum, Mekidim Mekonnen
Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin...
April 19, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420276/the-influence-of-maternal-vaginal-flora-on-the-intestinal-colonization-in-newborns-and-3-month-old-infants
#2
Iwona Gabriel, Anita Olejek, Krystyna Stencel-Gabriel, Miroslaw Wielgoś
The role of maternal vaginal bacteria on the colonization of neonatal gut is still matter of discussion. Our aim was estimate the role of maternal vaginal flora on the development of intestinal flora in neonates and 3- months-old infants. 79 maternal-neonatal pairs were included in the study. Vaginal swabs were taken before the rupture of membranes after admission to the delivery ward. First neonatal stool (meconium) and stool at 3-months-old infants were collected and cultured. All samples were subject to a microbiological analysis for Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium (including Cl...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-2015
#3
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years who had a CSF sample tested for S.pneumoniae DNA by PCR between 2004 and 2015 were included...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414696/decrease-in-pneumococcal-otitis-media-cultures-with-concomitant-increased-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-era
#4
Basel Jabarin, Jacob Pitaro, Tzilia Lazarovitch, Haim Gavriel, Limor Muallem-Kalmovich, Ephraim Eviatar, Tal Marom
OBJECTIVE: To study the change in the incidence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) in cultures obtained from children with otitis media (OM) during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) era. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Secondary medical care center. PATIENTS: Children less than 8 years who presented with OM and had positive pneumococcal cultures during January 1, 2007 to December 12, 2014 were identified...
April 13, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412081/nasopharyngeal-polymicrobial-colonization-during-health-viral-upper-respiratory-infection-and-upper-respiratory-bacterial-infection
#5
Qingfu Xu, Jareth Wischmeyer, Eduardo Gonzalez, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403048/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#6
Lova Ravelomanana, Naim Bouazza, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as a cofactor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (from 2 to 16 years of age) from January 2012 to December 2014...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399056/the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-children-with-respiratory-infections-in-botswana
#7
Matthew S Kelly, Michael G Surette, Marek Smieja, Jeffrey M Pernica, Laura Rossi, Kathy Luinstra, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, David M Goldfarb, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Sefelani Boiditswe, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Charles Muthoga, Letang Gaofiwe, Tiny Mazhani, John F Rawls, Coleen K Cunningham, Samir S Shah, Patrick C Seed
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of child pneumonia deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Microbial communities in the nasopharynx are a reservoir for pneumonia pathogens and remain poorly described in African children. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children with pneumonia (N=204), children with upper respiratory infection symptoms (N=55), and healthy children (N=60) in Botswana between April 2012 and April 2014. We sequenced the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and used partitioning around medoids to cluster samples into microbiota biotypes...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397477/real-time-pcr-detection-of-the-most-common-bacteria-and-viruses-causing-meningitis
#8
Oya Akkaya, Hulya Iren Guvenc, Serife Yuksekkaya, Aysegul Opus, Asuman Guzelant, Meral Kaya, Muhammet Guzel Kurtoglu, Nurettin Kaya
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections require prompt diagnosis, as the clinical condition progresses rapidly and may lead to severe permanent sequelae or death. The causative agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study, samples with the diagnosis of CNS infection based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sent to us from other hospitals/labs, were studied by multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, retrospectively, the most common bacteria and viruses causing meningitis and seasonal distribution of these agents using the multiplex real-time PCR method in CSF samples...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392142/memory-b-cell-response-to-a-pcv-13-booster-in-3-5year-old-children-primed-with-either-pcv-7-or-pcv-13
#9
Johannes Trück, Amber Thompson, Begonia Morales-Aza, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Merryn Voysey, Ed Clarke, Matthew D Snape, Dominic F Kelly, Adam Finn, Andrew J Pollard
Pneumococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines provide direct protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae through the induction of persistent anti-polysaccharide antibodies, and by priming for a rapid secondary antibody response. Memory B cells (BMEM) generated during an initial immune response are responsible for both the more rapid and quantitatively greater secondary antibody response and are also thought to contribute to the ongoing production of plasma cells providing long-term antibody persistence...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389097/efficacy-of-a-novel-protein-based-pneumococcal-vaccine-against-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-infants-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-observer-blind-study
#10
Aderonke Odutola, Martin O C Ota, Martin Antonio, Ezra O Ogundare, Yauba Saidu, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Patrick K Owiafe, Fatima Ceesay, Archibald Worwui, Olubukola T Idoko, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Abdoulie Bojang, Sheikh Jarju, Isatou Drammeh, Beate Kampmann, Brian M Greenwood, Mark Alderson, Magali Traskine, Nathalie Devos, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Kristien Swinnen, Vincent Verlant, Kurt Dobbelaere, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: Conserved pneumococcal proteins are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines against pneumococcal diseases. In the first part of a two-part study, an investigational vaccine (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) containing 10 pneumococcal serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates (10VT) combined with pneumolysin toxoid and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (30μg each) was well tolerated by Gambian children. Part two, presented here, assessed the efficacy of two PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD formulations against pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC) prevalence in infants...
April 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#11
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376809/molecular-characterization-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-casablanca-morocco
#12
Idrissa Diawara, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Khalid Katfy, Kaotar Nayme, Houria Belabbes, Mohammed Timinouni, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco...
April 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376442/prevalence-of-atypical-pathogens-in-patients-with-cough-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Christian Marchello, Ariella Perry Dale, Thuy Nhu Thai, Duk Soo Han, Mark H Ebell
PURPOSE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute cough, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are often caused by infections with viruses or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis among patients with these illnesses in the ambulatory setting has not been previously summarized. We set out to derive prevalence information from the existing literature...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373088/clinical-presentation-and-treatment-of-septic-arthritis-in-children
#14
I Moro-Lago, G Talavera, L Moraleda, G González-Morán
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological features, clinical presentation, and treatment of children with septic arthritis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective review was conducted on a total of 141 children with septic arthritis treated in Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid) between the years 2000 to 2013. The patient data collected included, the joint affected, the clinical presentation, the laboratory results, the appearance, Gram stain result, and the joint fluid culture, as well as the imaging tests and the treatment...
March 31, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367876/serotype-replacement-in-adult-pneumococcal-pneumonia-after-the-introduction-of-seven-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-for-children-in-japan-a-systematic-literature-review-and-pooled-data-analysis
#15
Shungo Katoh, Motoi Suzuki, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of adult pneumonia. Following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) for children, serotype replacement has been reported in adult invasive pneumococcal diseases, but it has not been well-studied for adult pneumococcal pneumonia cases in Asia. To investigate serotype replacement in adult pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan, we conducted a systematic literature search across five databases using terms including pneumococcus, serotype, and their synonyms and derivatives...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366695/-streptococcus-pyogenes-infection-in-paediatrics-from-pharyngotonsillitis-to-invasive-infections
#16
David Espadas Maciá, Eva María Flor Macián, Rafael Borrás, Sandrine Poujois Gisbert, Juan Ignacio Muñoz Bonet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococci (GAS) cause many infections in infancy. Changes in its epidemiology have been described in recent years, including an increase in invasive infections (iGAS). METHODS: A retrospective-descriptive study was conducted on children less than 15 years old, with GAS infections, in particular iGAS, and their complications from February 2004-April 2014. RESULTS: A total of 2,192 positive cultures were obtained of which 92...
March 31, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359798/effect-of-high-valency-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-in-spidnet-countries-an-observational-multicentre-study
#17
Camelia Savulescu, Pavla Krizova, Agnes Lepoutre, Jolita Mereckiene, Didrik F Vestrheim, Pilar Ciruela, Maria Ordobas, Marcela Guevara, Eisin McDonald, Eva Morfeldt, Jana Kozakova, Emmanuelle Varon, Suzanne Cotter, Brita A Winje, Carmen Munoz-Almagro, Luis Garcia, Jesus Castilla, Andrew Smith, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Lucia Pastore Celentano, Germaine Hanquet
BACKGROUND: The Streptococcus pneumoniae Invasive Disease network (SpIDnet) actively monitors populations in nine sites in seven European countries for invasive pneumococcal disease. Five sites use 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) alone and four use the ten-valent PCV (PCV10) and PCV13. Vaccination uptake is greater than 90% in six sites and 67-78% in three sites. We measured the effects of introducing high-valency PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years...
March 27, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357413/next-generation-sequencing-combined-with-specific-pcr-assays-to-determine-the-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-profiles-of-middle-ear-fluid-collected-from-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#18
Saara Sillanpää, Lenka Kramna, Sami Oikarinen, Markku Sipilä, Markus Rautiainen, Janne Aittoniemi, Jussi Laranne, Heikki Hyöty, Ondrej Cinek
The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriome of acute otitis media with a novel modification of next-generation sequencing techniques. Outpatient children with acute otitis media were enrolled in the study, and middle ear fluids were collected during 90 episodes from 79 subjects aged 5 to 42 months (median age, 19 months). The bacteriome profiles of middle ear fluid samples were determined by a nested-PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (V4 region), followed by mass sequencing. The profiling results were compared to the results of specific PCR assays targeting selected prevalent pathogens...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351556/diagnostic-value-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage%C3%A2-in-children-with-nonresponding-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Chih-Min Tsai, Kin-Sun Wong, Wei-Ju Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Pi-Lien Hung, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children. In CAP, causative agents are seldom identified using noninvasive diagnostic procedures. For those children not responding to empiric antibiotic therapy, it is vital to identify the causative pathogens for further management. METHODS: We aimed to determine the usefulness of identifying the causative agents by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in hospitalized children with nonresponding CAP...
February 17, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#20
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
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