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Enterovirus encephalitis in children.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405145/aetiological-study-of-viruses-causing-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-north-west-india
#1
Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Bharti Malhotra, Aradhana Chauhan, Hemant Malhotra, Pratibha Sharma, Farah Deeba, Khushbu Trivedi, Anjenya M Swamy
CONTEXT: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study is a hospital-based descriptive, observational study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374213/cerebrospinal-fluid-chemokine-patterns-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-related-encephalitis
#2
Jinling Liu, Shuxian Li, Chunyan Cai, Yingchun Xu, Yuan Jiang, Zhimin Chen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) as well as neurological complications, such as encephalitis. The chemokines involved in the migration of leukocytes have increasingly been implicated in infectious diseases of the central nervous system. Few studies have evaluated the levels of chemokines in HMFD children with EV71-related encephalitis. In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the chemokines IL-8, RANTES, MIG, MCP-1 and IP-10 in 99 children with EV71-related encephalitis and 22 children with febrile convulsion (FC)...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323107/serological-survey-of-neutralizing-antibodies-to-eight-major-enteroviruses-among-healthy-population
#3
Rui Zhu, Tong Cheng, Zhichao Yin, Dongxiao Liu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Yuqiong Que, Xiangzhong Ye, Qiyi Tang, Qinjian Zhao, Shengxiang Ge, Shuizhen He, Ningshao Xia
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284418/the-aetiologies-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-hospitalised-cambodian-children
#4
Paul Turner, Kuong Suy, Le Van Tan, Pora Sar, Thyl Miliya, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Sona Soeng, Nicholas P J Day, H Rogier van Doorn, Claudia Turner
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The aetiologies of these potentially vaccine-preventable infections have not been well established in Cambodia. METHODS: We did a one year prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected CNS infection at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) samples underwent culture, multiplex PCR and serological analysis to identify a range of bacterial and viral pathogens...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242411/a-retrospective-study-of-331-deaths-in-children-with-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-guangxi-china
#5
Zhi-Yong Yang, Xiu-Qi Chen, Dan Sun, Dan Wei
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of children with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) who died. METHODS: 331 deaths due to HFMD were included in this retrospective study; 15 autopsies were performed. RESULTS: Most cases were seen in children aged below 3 years, and with enterovirus 71 infection (91%). The mean (SD) duration of HFMD from onset to death was 3.7(2.9) days. The mean (SD) age of fast progressors (from onset to death less than 4 days) was 17...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233145/suppression-of-interleukin-6-increases-enterovirus-a71-lethality-in-mice
#6
Li-Chiu Wang, Hui-Wen Yao, Chuan-Fa Chang, Shainn-Wei Wang, Shih-Min Wang, Shun-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce fatal encephalitis in young children. Clinical reports show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with brainstem encephalitis are significantly elevated. We used a murine model to address the significance of endogenous IL-6 in EV-A71 infection. RESULTS: EV-A71 infection transiently increased serum and brain IL-6 protein levels in mice. Most importantly, absence of IL-6 due to gene knockout or depletion of IL-6 using neutralizing monoclonal antibody enhanced the mortality and tissue viral load of infected mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165766/clinical-analysis-of-59-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-diseases-due-to-enterovirus-ev71-and-concomitant-viral-encephalitis
#7
M-G Wang, H-M Sun, X-M Liu, X-Q Deng
OBJECTIVE: To analyzed the clinical features of children with HFMD and viral encephalitis and to summarize some treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 59 children with HFMD were included in this study. All children underwent complete blood count, blood biochemical test cerebrospinal fluid examination, chest X-ray and brain MRI. RESULTS: One child died 24 hours after admission due to central respiratory failure with myocardial damage...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158047/-fatal-case-of-enterovirus-a71%C3%A2-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-infection
#8
V Corvest, C Archimbaud, A-S L'Honneur, C Henquell, H Peigue-Lafeuille, M Decobert, A Mirand
Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with enterovirus (EV) infections is a common pediatric pathology that is usually considered as benign. However, neurological complications of varying severity, sometimes fatal, are possible, particularly when EV-A71 is involved. Several Asian countries are regularly affected by large-scale epidemics of EV infections with substantial morbidity and mortality, where early screening and appropriate therapeutic management are a public health challenge. In 2016, Europe experienced an epidemic of unusual magnitude, associated with increasing cases of severe neurological complications in Spain and France, mainly affecting children...
November 17, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076102/epidemiological-profile-of-acute-viral-encephalitis
#9
Rajesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Dipti Agarwal, Bendangienla Jamir, Shashi Khare, Samrendra Narayan
OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). METHODS: An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo - 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. An enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibodies was performed for measles, mumps, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
October 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049009/seroepidemiology-of-coxsackievirus-b5-in-infants-and-children-in-jiangsu-province-china
#10
Fan Gao, Lianlian Bian, Xiaotian Hao, Yalin Hu, Xin Yao, Shiyang Sun, Pan Chen, Ce Yang, Ruixiao Du, Jingxin Li, Fengcai Zhu, Qunying Mao, Zhenglun Liang
Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) is associated with various human diseases such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, paralysis, herpangina, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, there is currently no effective vaccine against CV-B5.The seroepidemiologic characteristics of CV-B5 remained unknown. A cohort study was carried out in 176 participants aged 6-35 months from January 2012 to January 2014. The serum samples were collected and tested for CV-B5 neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) four times during these two years...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029128/evolution-and-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-enterovirus-a71-subgenogroups-in-vietnam
#11
Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Celeste Donato, Vu Thi Huyen Trang, Nguyen Trung Kien, Ph M Mai Thuy Trang, Tran Quoc Khanh, Dang Thi Nguyet, October Sessions, Hoang Quoc Cuong, Phan Trong Lan, Vu Thi Que Huong, H Rogier van Doorn, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran
Background: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the major cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease and viral encephalitis in children across the Asia-Pacific region, including in Vietnam which has experienced a high burden of disease in recent years. Multiple subgenogroups (C1, C4, C5 and B5) concurrently circulate in the region with a large variation in epidemic severity. The relative differences in their evolution and epidemiology were examined within Vietnam and globally. Methods: A total of 752 VP1 gene sequences were analysed (413 generated in this study combined with 339 obtained from GenBank), collected from patients in 36 provinces in Vietnam during 2003-2013 along with epidemiological metadata...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#12
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854257/hrs-plays-an-important-role-for-tlr7-signaling-to-orchestrate-inflammation-and-innate-immunity-upon-ev71-infection
#13
Zhen Luo, Maolin Ge, Junbo Chen, Qibin Geng, Mingfu Tian, Zhi Qiao, Lan Bai, Qi Zhang, Chengliang Zhu, Ying Xiong, Kailang Wu, Fang Liu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Intracellular TLRs must traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the endolysosomal network from where they initiate complete signaling, leading to inflammatory response...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#14
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm3 and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756983/morphological-characteristics-of-fatal-pediatric-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-clinicopathological-study-with-related-receptors-of-ev71
#15
Yong-Yao Gu, Ke Shi, Sha Yao, Xia Yang, Yu-Hui Liu, Lan Tang, Yi-Wu Dang, Gang Chen, Zhen-Bo Feng, Hong-Bo Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathological features of fatal pediatric hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: The histopathological features of HFMD were first summarized from literature, and then confirmed by in-house autopsies. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect the distribution and expression level of two enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1) in the samples of autopsies...
July 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705180/etiology-and-prognosis-of-acute-viral-encephalitis-and-meningitis-in-chinese-children-a-multicentre-prospective-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Junhong Ai, Zhengde Xie, Gang Liu, Zongbo Chen, Yong Yang, Yuning Li, Jing Chen, Guo Zheng, Kunling Shen
BACKGROUND: In China, there were few studies about the pathogens of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in children in recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize the etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective study. Two hundred and sixty one viral encephalitis patients and 285 viral meningitis patients were enrolled. The mean age of viral encephalitis and meningitis were 5...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697163/utility-of-lumbar-puncture-in-children-presenting-with-status-epilepticus
#17
Kenneth A Michelson, Todd W Lyons, Kara B Johnson, Lise E Nigrovic, Marvin B Harper, Amir A Kimia
OBJECTIVES: Because meningitis may trigger seizures, we sought to determine its frequency in children with first-time status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 1 month to 21 years who presented to a single pediatric emergency department between 1995 and 2012 with SE and who had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation. We defined bacterial meningitis as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture positive for a bacterial pathogen or CSF pleocytosis (CSF white blood cells ≥10 cells/mm) with a blood culture positive for a bacterial pathogen...
August 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566084/-multicenter-investigation-of-bufavirus-in-the-etiology-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections-of-adults-and-children
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Aylin Altay Koçak, Murat Öcal, Meltem Polat, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Anıl Aktaş Tapısız, Hasan Tezer, Aykut Özkul, Koray Ergünay, Gülendam Bozdayı, Kamruddin Ahmed
Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536430/aetiology-of-acute-meningoencephalitis-in-cambodian-children-2010-2013
#19
Paul F Horwood, Veasna Duong, Denis Laurent, Channa Mey, Heng Sothy, Ky Santy, Beat Richner, Seiha Heng, Sopheak Hem, Justine Cheval, Christopher Gorman, Philippe Dussart, Menno D de Jong, Alexandra Kerleguer, Bertrand Guillard, Bernadette Murgue, Marc Lecuit, Xavier de Lamballerie, Jeremy J Farrar, Arnaud Tarantola, Marc Eloit, Philippe Buchy
Acute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two Cambodian paediatric hospitals to determine the major aetiologies associated with AME in the country. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were screened by molecular and cell culture methods for a range of pathogens previously associated with AME in the region. CSF and serum (acute and convalescent) were screened for antibodies to arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV)...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469998/analysis-of-mirnas-involved-in-mouse-brain-damage-upon-enterovirus-71-infection
#20
Xiaoxia Yang, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Nan Liu, Yuan Liang, Fuli Wu, Beibei Liang, Yongrui Li, Jinyan Wang, Chunyu Sheng, Hao Li, Hongbo Liu, Qiuxia Ma, Chaojie Yang, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes brainstem encephalitis in children. MiRNAs have been found to play various functions in EV71 infection in human cell lines. To identify potential miRNAs involved in the inflammatory injury in CNS, our study, for the first time, performed a miRNA microarray assay in vivo using EV71 infected mice brains. Twenty differentially expressed miRNAs were identified (four up- and 16 down-regulated) and confirmed by qRT-PCR. The target genes of these miRNAs were analyzed using KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis, revealing that the miRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of inflammation and neural system function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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