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Enterovirus encephalitis in children.

Li Wei, Zhang Qiong, Shen Xiao-Ting, Liu Yu-Jie, Mao Jian-Hua, Shu Qiang, Shang Shi-Qiang
Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A-D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou.Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5'UTR region...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
María Cabrerizo, María Díaz-Cerio, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Núria Rabella, David Tarragó, María Pilar Romero, María José Pena, Cristina Calvo, Sonia Rey-Cao, Antonio Moreno-Docón, Inés Martínez-Rienda, Almudena Otero, Gloria Trallero
The epidemiology and clinical association of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections, as well as the type-distribution-according-to-age, were determined during a 4-year study period in Spain. During 2010-2013, a total of 21,832 clinical samples were screened for EV and the detection frequency was 6.5% (1,430). Of the total EV-negative samples, only 1,873 samples from 2011 to 2013 were available for HPeV testing. HPeV was detected in 42 (2%) of them. Positive samples were genotyped using PCR and sequencing...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
An-Ting Liou, Szu-Yao Wu, Chun-Che Liao, Ya-Shu Chang, Chih-Shin Chang, Chiaho Shih
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth A Caine, Louise H Moncla, Monica D Ronderos, Thomas C Friedrich, Jorge E Osorio
UNLABELLED: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has spread throughout the Asia-Pacific region, affecting millions of young children, who develop symptoms ranging from painful blisters around their mouths and hands to neurological complications. Many members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) cause HFMD. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the primary causative agents and has been linked to severe disease. Vaccine efficacy and pathogenesis studies for EV71 have been limited because there is a lack of suitable animal models...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
S Aswathyraj, G Arunkumar, E K Alidjinou, D Hober
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Marco Turati, Yann Glard, David Afonso, Jacques Griffet, Marco Bigoni
Levetiracetam is a relatively novel antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of partial and generalized seizures in adult and children. Several animal studies describe a possible drug adverse effect on skeletal growth and metabolism. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female child who underwent a prolonged 7-year treatment with levetiracetam for sporadic secondary convulsions secondary to enterovirus encephalitis at the age of 15 months. This patient developed an osteochondritis dissecans lesion (OCD) of the talar head well treated conservatively...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Wen Yi Thong, Audrey Han, S J Furene Wang, Jeremy Lin, Mas Suhaila Isa, Evelyn Siew Chuan Koay, Stacey Kiat-Hong Tay
INTRODUCTION: Enterovirus infections in childhood can be associated with significant neurological morbidity. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and range of neurological manifestations, determine the clinical characteristics and assess differences in the clinical outcomes for Singaporean children diagnosed with enterovirus infections. METHODS: In this single-centre, case-control study, clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients admitted from August 2007 to October 2011 to National University Hospital, Singapore, and diagnosed with enterovirus infection based on the enterovirus polymerase chain reaction test or cultures from throat and rectal swabs or cerebrospinal fluid samples...
June 1, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Se Yong Jung, Hong Ju Shin, Jo Won Jung, Han Ki Park, Yu Rim Shin, Young Hwan Park, Nam Kyun Kim, Jae Young Choi
OBJECTIVES: The clinical outcome of children with severe acute myocarditis who require mechanical circulatory support is not well known. Therefore, we studied the survival and clinical courses of patients with acute fulminant myocarditis supported by extracorporeal life support (ECLS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 13 consecutive children with acute fulminant myocarditis who were treated with ECLS between April 2013 and April 2015. Demographics, initial symptoms, laboratory results, management, clinical courses and last follow-up status were investigated...
August 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Hong-Tao Zhou, Hai-Su Yi, Yong-Hui Guo, Yu-Xian Pan, Shao-Hua Tao, Bin Wang, Man-Jun Chen, Mei Yang, Nan Yu
BACKGROUND: A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA). However, the complication of diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses has been neglected, and a summary of its clinical features and impact on HFMD/HA is unavailable. METHODS: We included inpatients with HFMD/HA admitted to the Paediatric Department of Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K L Wong
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T1 signal and T2 signal on sagittal view without enhancement during (1) acute stage, and (2) convalescence stage of pediatric patients with Enterovirus 71 related brainstem encephalitis (BE), and with respect to (3) healthy normal. METHODS: Our subjects were hospitalized between March 2010 and October 2012, and underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI studies. The research question to be answered is whether the comparison of the MRI image intensity histograms and relevant statistical quantification can add new knowledge to the diagnosis of BE patients...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
P N Britton, R C Dale, E Elliott, M Festa, K Macartney, R Booy, C A Jones
We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records...
July 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Hans de Graaf, Emanuela Pelosi, Andrea Cooper, John Pappachan, Kim Sykes, Iain MacIntosh, Diane Gbesemete, Tristan W Clark, Sanjay V Patel, Saul N Faust, Marc Tebruegge
BACKGROUND: Most enterovirus surveillance studies lack detailed clinical data, which limits their clinical usefulness. This study aimed to describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of severe enterovirus infections in children, and to determine whether there are associations between causative enterovirus genotypes and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of microbiological and clinical data from a tertiary children's hospital in the South of England over a 17-month period (2012-2013)...
July 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hooi-Ling Teoh, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Philip N Britton, Tejaswi Kandula, Michelle S Lorentzos, Robert Booy, Cheryl A Jones, William Rawlinson, Vidiya Ramachandran, Michael L Rodriguez, P Ian Andrews, Russell C Dale, Michelle A Farrar, Hugo Sampaio
IMPORTANCE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes a spectrum of neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Further understanding of the characteristics of EV71-related neurological disease, factors related to outcome, and potential responsiveness to treatments is important in developing therapeutic guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize EV71-related neurological disease and neurological outcome in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective 2-hospital (The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network) inpatient study of 61 children with enterovirus-related neurological disease during a 2013 outbreak of EV71 in Sydney, Australia...
March 2016: JAMA Neurology
Himanshu Gupta, Pushwinder Dhunputh, Ankita N Bhatt, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Shashikiran Umakanth
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a diffuse encephalopathy associated with coma and seizures commonly caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) in children with severe malaria. We present a case of a 19-year-old man with CM due to Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was negative for Japanese B encephalitis, enterovirus, herpes simplex 1 and 2, varicella and mumps viruses as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). P. falciparum and P. vivax species were analysed by microscopy, immunochromatography and PCR assays and confirmed mono-infection of P...
January 8, 2016: Tropical Doctor
Paul F Horwood, Alessio Andronico, Arnaud Tarantola, Henrik Salje, Veasna Duong, Channa Mey, Sovann Ly, Philippe Dussart, Simon Cauchemez, Philippe Buchy
Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak.
January 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Silke Vollbach, Andreas Müller, Jan Felix Drexler, Arne Simon, Christian Drosten, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger, Marcus Panning
BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) are significant causes of encephalitis and meningitis in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, type and viral RNA concentration of EV and HPeV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in an unselected cohort of patients <18 years admitted to Bonn university hospital from 1998 to 2008. METHODS: A total of 327 CSF samples from 327 patients were retrospectively tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for EV and HPeV, and by real-time PCR for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1/2 (HSV), and varizella zoster-virus (VZV)...
2015: Virology Journal
So-Phia Chew, Shu-Ling Chong, Sylvaine Barbier, Aji Matthew, Jan Hau Lee, Yoke Hwee Chan
BACKGROUND: Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. METHODS: We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, and lab findings were collected...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Philip N Britton, Lynette Khoury, Robert Booy, Nicholas Wood, Cheryl A Jones
OBJECTIVE: The clinical epidemiology of childhood encephalitis in Australia is inadequately understood. We aimed to describe recent trends in childhood encephalitis-related hospitalisation. STUDY DESIGN: We identified encephalitis-related hospital admissions (2000-2012) in national datasets among children ≤14 years using ICD encephalitis codes. We calculated hospitalisation rates and analysed trends by year, age, gender, location, indigenous status and aetiology...
January 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Xiong-Fei Pan, Ulla K Griffiths, Mark Pennington, Hongjie Yu, Mark Jit
The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article)...
November 17, 2015: Vaccine
Nili Yanai Milshtein, Gideon Paret, Shimon Reif, Ora Halutz, Galia Grisaru-Soen
OBJECTIVES: The clinical characteristics, pathogens, and outcome were analyzed to investigate the etiology of acute pediatric encephalitis in 2 tertiary pediatric medical centers in Israel. METHODS: A retrospective study among children aged 1 month to 18 years hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute encephalitis between January 1999 and December 2009. Data on presenting symptoms, clinical findings, microbiological, virologic, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies, laboratory results, and hospital course were retrieved from the medical records and the computerized microbiology database...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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