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Herpes virus-6 encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#1
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275080/impact-of-a-rapid-herpes-simplex-virus-pcr-assay-on-duration-of-acyclovir-therapy
#2
Tam T Van, Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Melissa Arevalo, Maryann Lustestica, Jennifer Dien Bard
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study assessed the impact of a direct HSV (dHSV) PCR assay on time to result and duration of acyclovir therapy in children with signs and symptoms of meningitis and encephalitis. A total of 363 patients with HSV PCR on CSF were included in this retrospective analysis, divided into the pre- and post-implementation groups. The pre-implementation arm included CSF testing performed using a laboratory-developed real-time PCR assay and the post-implementation group consisted of CSF samples tested using a direct sample-to-answer assay...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259480/do-all-children-who-present-with-a-complex-febrile-seizure-need-a-lumbar-puncture
#3
Romain Guedj, Hélène Chappuy, Luigi Titomanlio, Loic De Pontual, Sandra Biscardi, Gisèle Nissack-Obiketeki, Béatrice Pellegrino, Oussama Charara, François Angoulvant, Julien Denis, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Solène Loschi, Pierre Louis Leger, Ricardo Carbajal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess the prevalences of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis (HSV-ME) in children with a complex febrile seizure and determine these prevalences in the subgroup of children with a clinical examination result not suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 months to 5 years for a complex febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224486/human-herpes-virus-6-encephalitis-causing-severe-anterograde-amnesia-associated-with-rituximab-azathioprine-and-prednisolone-combination-therapy-for-dermatomyositis
#4
Thomas Baumer, Charlie Fry, Sebastian Luppe, Harsha Gunawardena, Kasia Sieradzan
Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is a well-recognised complication following haematological stem cell transplantation, but it is novel in the context of combination immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune disease. We report a case of severe anterograde amnesia caused by HHV-6 encephalitis in a young female patient on rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone for dermatomyositis (DM). The use of targeted biologic treatments for systemic autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is increasing, particularly when refractory to conventional management...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222752/dendritic-cells-macrophages-nk-and-cd8-t-lymphocytes-play-pivotal-roles-in-controlling-hsv-1-in-the-trigeminal-ganglia-by-producing-il1-beta-inos-and-granzyme-b
#5
Natália Lucinda, Maria Marta Figueiredo, Natália Lima Pessoa, Beatriz Senra Álvares da Silva Santos, Graciela Kunrath Lima, Arthur Molinari Freitas, Alexandre Magalhães Vieira Machado, Erna Geessien Kroon, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, Marco Antônio Campos
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cause not only mild symptoms but also blindness and encephalitis. It was previously shown that the immune response against HSV-1 occurs mainly in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and that Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 (TLR2/9) are important in mediating this response. It was also demonstrated that iNOS (nitric oxide synthase) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) play an essential role in the defense against HSV-1 infection. Importantly, the present work aimed to identify the primary cells responsible for iNOS and IL-1β production and search for other important molecules and cells that might or might not depend on TLR2/9 receptors to mediate the immune response against HSV-1...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#6
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164489/multiplex-pcr-for-the-detection-of-10-viruses-causing-encephalitis-encephalopathy-and-its-application-to-clinical-samples-collected-from-japanese-children-with-suspected-viral
#7
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122977/impact-of-type-i-interferon-on-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-experimental-live-attenuated-herpes-simplex-virus-1-vaccine-in-mice
#8
Derek J Royer, Meghan M Carr, Ana J Chucair-Elliott, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
Viral fitness dictates virulence and capacity to evade host immune defenses. Understanding the biological underpinnings of such features is essential for rational vaccine development. We have previously shown that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutant lacking the nuclear localization signal (NLS) on the ICP0 gene (0ΔNLS) is sensitive to inhibition by interferon beta (IFN-β) in vitro and functions as a highly efficacious experimental vaccine. Here, we characterize the host immune response and in vivo pathogenesis of HSV-1 0ΔNLS relative to its fully virulent parental strain in C57BL/6 mice...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930721/both-cerebral-and-hematopoietic-deficiencies-in-ccr2-result-in-uncontrolled-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-mice
#9
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#10
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817117/differences-in-t-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cell-death-mechanisms-between-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-and-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis
#11
Susanne Laukoter, Helmut Rauschka, Anna R Tröscher, Ulrike Köck, Etsuji Saji, Kurt Jellinger, Hans Lassmann, Jan Bauer
During the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the 1980 and the 1990s, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral encephalitis induced by the JC virus, was the leading opportunistic brain infection. As a result of the use of modern immunomodulatory compounds such as Natalizumab and Rituximab, the number of patients with PML is once again increasing. Despite the presence of PML over decades, little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to death of infected cells and the role the immune system plays in this process...
April 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717782/incidence-and-mortality-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-in-denmark-a-nationwide-registry-based-cohort-study
#12
Laura Krogh Jørgensen, Lars Skov Dalgaard, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Mette Nørgaard, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified all adults hospitalised with a first-time diagnosis of HSE in Denmark during 2004-2014. The HSE diagnoses were verified using medical records and microbiological data. Patients were followed for mortality through the Danish Civil Registry System. We estimated age-standardised incidence rates of HSE and 30-day, 60-day, and 1-year cumulative mortality...
January 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697585/human-herpesvirus-6-infection-following-haploidentical-transplantation-immune-recovery-and-outcome
#13
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
December 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664135/hsv-presence-in-brains-of-individuals-without-dementia-the-tasty-brain-series
#14
Jan Olsson, Hugo Lövheim, Emma Honkala, Pekka J Karhunen, Fredrik Elgh, Eloise H Kok
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 affects a majority of the population and recent evidence suggests involvement in Alzheimer's disease aetiology. We investigated the prevalence of HSV type 1 and 2 in the Tampere Autopsy Study (TASTY) brain samples using PCR and sero-positivity in plasma, and associations with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. HSV was shown to be present in human brain tissue in 11/584 (1.9%) of samples in the TASTY cohort, of which six had Alzheimer's disease neuropathological amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregations...
November 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646480/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-socs2-contributes-to-encephalitis-in-a-model-of-herpes-infection-in-mice
#15
Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Graciela Kunrath Lima, Aline Silva de Miranda, Márcia de Carvalho Vilela, Norinne Lacerda Queiroz, David Henrique Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Campos, Erna Geessien Kroon, Fabiana Simão Machado, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
The most severe manifestation of Herpes Simplex Type 1 virus (HSV-1) infection is encephalitis characterized by arousal impairment and seizures that can evolve to coma and death. Previous studies reported the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, specifically SOCS1 and SOCS3, in HSV-1 infection, suggesting that other members of this family could be involved in the immune response against HSV-1. No previous study has reported the role of SOCS2 in HSV-1 infection. In the current study, C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and mice deficient in SOCS2 gene (SOCS2(-/-)) were subjected to intracranial inoculation with 10(2) plaque forming units (PFU) of HSV-1...
September 16, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533625/improved-ct-detection-of-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-encephalitis-based-on-a-frequency-selective-nonlinear-blending-comparison-with-mri
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Malte Niklas Bongers, Georg Bier, Hendrik Ditt, Robert Beck, Ulrike Ernemann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new CT postprocessing tool based on frequency-selective nonlinear blending (best-contrast CT) with that of standard linear blending of unenhanced head CT in patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE), using FLAIR MRI sequences as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients (six women and nine men; mean [± SD] age, 60 ± 19 years) with proven HSE (positive polymerase chain reaction results from CSF analysis and the presence of neurologic deficits) were retrospectively enrolled...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431532/non-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-and-central-nervous-hhv-6b-reactivation-causality-or-coincidence
#17
Pitt Niehusmann, Guido Widman, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Susanne Greschus, Barbara K Robens, Alexander Grote, Albert J Becker
Autoantibody-related encephalopathies represent an important differential diagnosis in adult onset epilepsy. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old patient with new-onset epilepsy and psychotic syndrome, who underwent biopsy resection for etiological classification. MRI analysis and neuropathological examination showed a T-lymphocytic dominated encephalitis with involvement of the limbic system. An indirect immunohistochemistry approach identified autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebral spinal fluid and serum, which were confirmed by affinity purification / mass spectrometry analysis...
August 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354147/the-effect-of-captopril-on-the-expression-of-mmp-9-and-the-prognosis-of-neurological-function-in-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-mice
#18
Yu Zhou, Yan-Ping Zeng, Qin Zhou, Jing-Xia Guan, Zu-Neng Lu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is involved in the evolution of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) by facilitating the development of cerebrovascular complications. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the detrimental effects of MMP-9 in HSE has not been elucidated. Recent research finds angiotensin II plays an important role in regulation of MMP-9 activity. The aim of this work was to identify the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) captopril on MMP-9 activation after herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection...
August 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335149/multicenter-evaluation-of-biofire-filmarray-meningitis-encephalitis-panel-for-detection-of-bacteria-viruses-and-yeast-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-specimens
#19
Amy L Leber, Kathy Everhart, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Jillian Cullison, Judy Daly, Sarah Holt, Paul Lephart, Hossein Salimnia, Paul C Schreckenberger, Sharon DesJarlais, Sharon L Reed, Kimberle C Chapin, Lindsay LeBlanc, J Kristie Johnson, Nicole L Soliven, Karen C Carroll, Jo-Anne Miller, Jennifer Dien Bard, Javier Mestas, Matthew Bankowski, Tori Enomoto, Andrew C Hemmert, Kevin M Bourzac
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324314/serious-infections-in-hospitalized-patients-with-psoriasis-in-the-united-states
#20
Derek Y Hsu, Kenneth Gordon, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis have multiple risk factors for serious infections, including immune dysregulation, systemic immunosuppressive medications, and comorbid health conditions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine rates and predictors of serious infections in hospitalized psoriasis patients and quantify costs of care, length of stay, and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2012, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the United States...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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