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Herpes virus-6 encephalitis

Laura Krogh Jørgensen, Lars Skov Dalgaard, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Mette Nørgaard, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified all adults hospitalised with a first-time diagnosis of HSE in Denmark during 2004-2014. The HSE diagnoses were verified using medical records and microbiological data. Patients were followed for mortality through the Danish Civil Registry System. We estimated age-standardised incidence rates of HSE and 30-day, 60-day, and 1-year cumulative mortality...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
September 30, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jan Olsson, Hugo Lövheim, Emma Honkala, Pekka J Karhunen, Fredrik Elgh, Eloise H Kok
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 affects a majority of the population and recent evidence suggests involvement in Alzheimer's disease aetiology.We investigated HSV (1 and 2) prevalence in the Tampere Autopsy Study (TASTY) brain samples using PCR and sero-positivity in plasma, and associations with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.HSV was shown to be present in human brain tissue in 11/584 (1.9%) of samples in the TASTY cohort, and 6 of those samples had Alzheimer's disease neuropathological amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregations...
September 23, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Graciela Kunrath Lima, Aline Silva de Miranda, Márcia de Carvalho Vilela, Norinne Lacerda Queiroz, David Henrique Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Campos, Erna Geessien Kroon, Fabiana Simão Machado, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
The most severe manifestation of Herpes Simplex Type 1 virus (HSV-1) infection is encephalitis characterized by arousal impairment and seizures that can evolve to coma and death. Previous studies reported the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, specifically SOCS1 and SOCS3, in HSV-1 infection, suggesting that other members of this family could be involved in the immune response against HSV-1. No previous study has reported the role of SOCS2 in HSV-1 infection. In the current study, C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and mice deficient in SOCS2 gene (SOCS2(-/-)) were subjected to intracranial inoculation with 10(2) plaque forming units (PFU) of HSV-1...
September 16, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Malte Niklas Bongers, Georg Bier, Hendrik Ditt, Robert Beck, Ulrike Ernemann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new CT postprocessing tool based on frequency-selective nonlinear blending (best-contrast CT) with that of standard linear blending of unenhanced head CT in patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE), using FLAIR MRI sequences as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients (six women and nine men; mean [± SD] age, 60 ± 19 years) with proven HSE (positive polymerase chain reaction results from CSF analysis and the presence of neurologic deficits) were retrospectively enrolled...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Pitt Niehusmann, Guido Widman, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Susanne Greschus, Barbara K Robens, Alexander Grote, Albert J Becker
Autoantibody-related encephalopathies represent an important differential diagnosis in adult onset epilepsy. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old patient with new-onset epilepsy and psychotic syndrome, who underwent biopsy resection for etiological classification. MRI analysis and neuropathological examination showed a T-lymphocytic dominated encephalitis with involvement of the limbic system. An indirect immunohistochemistry approach identified autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebral spinal fluid and serum, which were confirmed by affinity purification / mass spectrometry analysis...
August 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Yu Zhou, Yan-Ping Zeng, Qin Zhou, Jing-Xia Guan, Zu-Neng Lu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is involved in the evolution of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) by facilitating the development of cerebrovascular complications. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the detrimental effects of MMP-9 in HSE has not been elucidated. Recent research finds angiotensin II plays an important role in regulation of MMP-9 activity. The aim of this work was to identify the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) captopril on MMP-9 activation after herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection...
August 2016: Neurological Research
Amy L Leber, Kathy Everhart, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Jillian Cullison, Judy Daly, Sarah Holt, Paul Lephart, Hossein Salimnia, Paul C Schreckenberger, Sharon DesJarlais, Sharon L Reed, Kimberle C Chapin, Lindsay LeBlanc, J Kristie Johnson, Nicole L Soliven, Karen C Carroll, Jo-Anne Miller, Jennifer Dien Bard, Javier Mestas, Matthew Bankowski, Tori Enomoto, Andrew C Hemmert, Kevin M Bourzac
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Derek Y Hsu, Kenneth Gordon, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis have multiple risk factors for serious infections, including immune dysregulation, systemic immunosuppressive medications, and comorbid health conditions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine rates and predictors of serious infections in hospitalized psoriasis patients and quantify costs of care, length of stay, and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2012, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the United States...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jenny J Linnoila, Matthew J Binnicker, Masoud Majed, Christopher J Klein, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of coexisting herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] or HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus, or human herpes virus 6 [HHV-6]) and autoantibodies in patients with encephalitis (herpes or autoimmune) in clinical laboratory service. METHODS: Three groups were evaluated for herpes viruses and antibodies: group 1-patients whose CSF was positive for a herpes virus by real-time PCR over a period of 6 months; group 2-patients whose CSF was positive for an autoimmune encephalitis-associated antibody over 5 years (e...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Zian Jin, Tao Sun, Xueshan Xia, Qiujiang Wei, Yuzhu Song, Qinqin Han, Qiang Chen, Juan Hu, Jinyang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Herpes B virus (BV) is a zoonotic disease caused by double-stranded enveloped DNA virus with cercopithecidae as its natural host. The mortality rate of infected people could be up to 70% with fatal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Up to now, there are no effective treatments for BV infection. Among the various proteins encoded by monkey B virus, gD, a conserved structural protein, harbors important application value for serological diagnosis of frequent variations of the monkey B virus...
March 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Hülya Maraş Genç, Emek Uyur Yalçın, Murat Sayan, Asuman Bayhan, Selim Öncel, Emin Sami Arısoy, Bülent Kara
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Neurologic sequelae are common even after early initiation of acyclovir treatment. The host immune response during HSE can also lead to brain damage. There are an increasing number of reports favoring steroid use in HSE. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the prognosis of children with HSE with and without steroid therapy. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively screened our hospital archive from 2009 to 2014 for patients diagnosed with HSE with a positive result for herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Márcia Carvalho Vilela, Graciela Kunrath Lima, David Henrique Rodrigues, Norinne Lacerda-Queiroz, Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso, Aline Silva de Miranda, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Erna Geessien Kroon, Marco Antônio Campos, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that may cause severe encephalitis. The exacerbated immune response against the virus contributes to the disease severity and death. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a mediator capable of inducing increase in vascular permeability, production of cytokines on endothelial cells and leukocytes. We aimed to investigate the activation of PAF receptor (PAFR) and its contribution to the severity of the inflammatory response in the brain following HSV-1 infection...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Berit Jordan, Sabrina Kösling, Alexander Emmer, Antje Koch, Tobias Müller, Malte Kornhuber
The early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) enables induction of antiviral therapy in this potentially life-threatening disease. The study aimed to determine clinical findings including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data and MRI imaging in HSVE patients and to identify features distinguishing HSVE from encephalitis of other viral etiologies. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who were diagnosed with viral encephalitis between 2000 and 2014 at the University Hospital Halle. Forty-nine patients with viral encephalitis were identified...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Alexandra Chapuis, Cécile Chabrot, Audrey Mirand, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson
BACKGROUND: The case of a central nervous system human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) and Toxoplasma gondii co-infection after an umbilical cord blood transplantation in a chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia patient is reported. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old Caucasian man underwent an umbilical cord blood transplantation within the context of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. On day 37 post-graft, he presented with a severe headache; PCRs of cerebrospinal fluid and blood were positive for T...
May 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Satoshi Kamei
Cognitive impairments, including dementia, can present as first symptoms at the acute stage, and/or as sequelae in the chronic stages, in some patients with bacterial meningitis (BM) or encephalitides. BM and encephalitides are lifethreatening neurological emergencies, and early recognition, efficient decision-making, and rapid commencement of therapy can be lifesaving. Empirical therapy should be initiated promptly whenever BM or encephalitides are a probable diagnosis. In this article cognitive impairments, including dementia, presenting in patients with BM, Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis, and Anti N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis are reviewed...
April 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
S Gennai, A Rallo, D Keil, A Seigneurin, R Germi, O Epaulard
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is associated with a high risk of mortality and sequelae, and early diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department are necessary. However, most patients present with non-specific febrile, acute neurologic impairment; this may lead clinicians to overlook the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We aimed to identify which data collected in the first hours in a medical setting were associated with the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective case-control study in four French public hospitals from 2007 to 2013...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Benjamin Berger, Maximilian Pytlik, Tilman Hottenrott, Oliver Stich
PURPOSE: A 2012 report and subsequent case series described anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in patients during the acute phase and relapse of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis (HSV1E). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown and systematic studies on other viral infections of the nervous system are missing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of consecutive patients treated for neurological HSV1, HSV2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections in our tertiary care university hospital between 2003 and 2013 for the presence of antibodies directed against the NR1a subunit of the NMDAR using indirect immunofluorescence...
February 17, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Abhinbhen W Saraya, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Sininat Petcharat, Nuntaporn Sittidetboripat, Siriporn Ghai, Henry Wilde, Thiravat Hemachudha
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. The high mortality rate (70-80 %) of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be reduced to 20-30 % by antiviral therapy. However, normocellular CSF can lure physicians to look for non-infectious causes, resulting in delayed treatment. This study aimed to investigate, characterize and differentiate HSE patients, with normocellular and pleocytosis CSF, according to neuroimaging patterns, underlying disease, CSF viral load and clinical outcome...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Saverio G Parisi, Monica Basso, Claudia Del Vecchio, Samantha Andreis, Elisa Franchin, Federico Dal Bello, Silvana Pagni, Maria Angela Biasolo, Riccardo Manganelli, Luisa Barzon, Giorgio Palù
OBJECTIVES: Very few data exist on viral meningitis and encephalitis in elderly patients (>65 years old). METHODS: This study investigated the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), enterovirus (EV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human parechoviruses (HPeVs), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) through real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in patients >65 years old who had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tested for a suspected central nervous system infection...
March 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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