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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432254/tlr4-defective-c3h-hej-mice-are-not-protected-from-cast-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy
#1
Noriaki Kawanishi, Risa Nozaki, Hisashi Naito, Shuichi Machida
Recent studies have shown that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling may be an important factor in muscle atrophy and excessive inflammatory response associated with immobilization. To examine the role of TLR4 signaling on cast immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, we tested the hypothesis that muscle atrophy and inflammation after cast immobilization is reduced in TLR4-defective mice. TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) and wild type (C3H/HeN) mice were divided into control and cast-immobilization groups...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432116/effects-of-exercise-and-aging-on-skeletal-muscle
#2
Giovanna Distefano, Bret H Goodpaster
A substantial loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), a decreased regenerative capacity, and a compromised physical performance are hallmarks of aging skeletal muscle. These changes are typically accompanied by impaired muscle metabolism, including mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. A challenge in the field of muscle aging is to dissociate the effects of chronological aging per se on muscle characteristics from the secondary influence of lifestyle and disease processes. Remarkably, physical activity and exercise are well-established countermeasures against muscle aging, and have been shown to attenuate age-related decreases in muscle mass, strength, and regenerative capacity, and slow or prevent impairments in muscle metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431396/skeletal-muscle-measures-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-with-cancer-sarcopenia-or-myopenia
#3
Grant R Williams, Allison M Deal, Hyman B Muss, Marc S Weinberg, Hanna K Sanoff, Kirsten A Nyrop, Mackenzi Pergolotti, Shlomit Strulov Shachar
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle loss, commonly known as sarcopenia, is highly prevalent in older adults and linked with adverse outcomes in cancer, yet the definition and role of sarcopenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association of Computerized Tomography (CT) assessed skeletal muscle measures with physical function in older adults with cancer. RESULTS: CTs for 185 patients were available. Median age 73 (IQR 68-76) and 56.5% female. After controlling for sex and BMI, we found no evidence that SMI was associated with physical function impairments...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427790/exercise-and-ckd-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-practical-application-of-exercise-to-prevent-and-treat-physical-impairments-in-ckd
#4
Baback Roshanravan, Jorge Gamboa, Kenneth Wilund
Patients with chronic kidney disease experience substantial loss of muscle mass, weakness, and poor physical performance. As kidney disease progresses, skeletal muscle dysfunction forms a common pathway for mobility limitation, loss of functional independence, and vulnerability to disease complications. Screening for those at high risk for mobility disability by self-reported and objective measures of function is an essential first step in developing an interdisciplinary approach to treatment that includes rehabilitative therapies and counseling on physical activity...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424630/hippo-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation-in-mammals-a-controversial-relationship
#5
REVIEW
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle mass reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, satellite cell inclusion may contribute to increase muscle mass while fiber loss results in a reduction of muscle mass. Since 2010, a few studies looked at the involvement of the newly discovered Hippo pathway in the regulation of muscle mass. In line with its roles in other organs, it has been hypothesized that the Hippo pathway could play a role in different regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle as well, namely proliferation and renewal of satellite cells, differentiation, death, and growth of myogenic cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424626/a-rat-immobilization-model-based-on-cage-volume-reduction-a-physiological-model-for-bed-rest
#6
Enrica Marmonti, Sílvia Busquets, Míriam Toledo, Marina Ricci, Marc Beltrà, Victòria Gudiño, Francesc Oliva, José M López-Pedrosa, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Francisco J López-Soriano, Josep M Argilés
Bed rest has been an established treatment in the past prescribed for critically illness or convalescing patients, in order to preserve their body metabolic resource, to prevent serious complications and to support their rapid path to recovery. However, it has been reported that prolonged bed rest can have detrimental consequences that may delay or prevent the recovery from clinical illness. In order to study disuse-induced changes in muscle and bone, as observed during prolonged bed rest in humans, an innovative new model of muscle disuse for rodents is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424314/muscle-biochemistry-of-a-pelagic-delphinid-stenella-longirostris-longirostris-insight-into-fishery-induced-separation-of-mothers-and-calves
#7
Shawn R Noren, Kristi West
The length of time required for postnatal maturation of the locomotor muscle (longissimus dorsi) biochemistry [myoglobin (Mb) content and buffering capacity] in marine mammals typically varies with nursing duration, but it can be accelerated by species-specific behavioral demands, such as deep-diving and sub-ice transit. We examined how the swimming demands of a pelagic lifestyle influence postnatal maturation of Mb and buffering capacity in spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris). Mb content of newborn (1...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423519/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-cancer-cachexia-and-muscle-regeneration
#8
Andrea Camperi, Fabrizio Pin, Domiziana Costamagna, Fabio Penna, Maria Lopez Menduina, Zaira Aversa, Teresa Zimmers, Roberto Verzaro, Raffaella Fittipaldi, Giuseppina Caretti, Francesco Maria Baccino, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Costelli
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422542/routine-yoga-practice-impacts-whole-body-protein-utilization-in-healthy-women
#9
Megan Colletto, Nancy Rodriguez
Whole body protein utilization (WBPU), which includes flux (Q), protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and whole body protein balance (WBPB), provides insight regarding muscle mass, a criterion for sarcopenia. PURPOSE: To characterize yoga's impact on WBPU, body composition and functional measures in healthy (50-65y) women. METHODS: WBPU and functional measures were compared between women who routinely practiced yoga (YOGA; n=7) and non-active counterparts (CON; n=8)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422532/effects-of-post-exercise-protein-intake-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-during-resistance-training-is-there-an-optimal-ratio-between-fast-and-slow-proteins
#10
Marina Fabre, Christophe Hausswirth, Eve Tiollier, Odeline Molle, Julien Louis, Alexandre Durguerian, Nathalie Neuveux, Xavier Bigard
While effects of the two classes of proteins found in milk (i.e. soluble proteins, including whey, and casein) on muscle protein synthesis have been well investigated after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE), the combined effects of these two proteins on the muscle responses to resistance training (RT) have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of protein supplementation varying by the ratio between milk soluble proteins (fast-digested protein) and casein (slow-digested protein) on the muscle to a 9-week RT program...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421264/epidemiology-of-sarcopenia-determinants-throughout-the-lifecourse
#11
S C Shaw, E M Dennison, C Cooper
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength; it is a major contributor to the risk of physical frailty, functional impairment in older people, poor health-related quality of life and premature death. Many different definitions have been used to describe sarcopenia and have resulted in varying estimates of prevalence of the condition. The most recent attempts of definitions have tried to integrate information on muscle mass, strength and physical function and provide a definition that is useful in both research and clinical settings...
April 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421192/exercise-and-protein-intake-a-synergistic-approach-against-sarcopenia
#12
REVIEW
Anna Maria Martone, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Luca Santoro, Angela Di Giorgio, Antonio Nesci, Alex Sisto, Angelo Santoliquido, Francesco Landi
Sarcopenia, the age-dependent loss of muscle mass and function/strength, is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for adverse outcomes in frail older people. As such, the skeletal muscle is a relevant target for interventions aimed at preventing or postponing the occurrence of negative health-related events in late life. The association among physical inactivity, insufficient intake of energy and protein, and poor muscle health in older adults suggests that physical exercise and targeted nutritional supplementation may offer substantial therapeutic gain against sarcopenia and its negative correlates...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420761/in-situ-measurements-of-tensile-forces-in-the-tibialis-anterior-tendon-of-the-rat-in-concentric-isometric-and-resisted-co-contractions
#13
Martin Schmoll, Ewald Unger, Hazel Sutherland, Michael Haller, Manfred Bijak, Hermann Lanmüller, Jonathan C Jarvis
Tensile-force transmitted by the tibialis anterior (TA) tendon of 11 anesthetized adult male Wistar rats (body-mass: 360.6 ± 66.3 g) was measured in-situ within the intact biomechanical system of the hind-limb using a novel miniature in-line load-cell. The aim was to demonstrate the dependence of the loading-profile experienced by the muscle, on stimulation-frequency and the resistance to shortening in a group of control-animals. Data from these acute-experiments shows the type of loading achievable by means of implantable electrical stimulators activating agonists or agonist/antagonist groups of muscles during programmed resistance-training in freely moving healthy subjects...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420559/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-underweight-overweight-and-obesity-in-korean-adults-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-from-1998-to-2014
#14
Hyun-Young Shin, Hee-Taik Kang
BACKGROUND: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2014. METHODS: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m(2) or lower, 23 kg/m(2) or higher, and 25 kg/m(2) or higher, respectively...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419998/dynamics-of-l-carnitine-in-plasma-and-urine-in-patients-undergoing-cisplatin-chemotherapy
#15
Daisuke Gomi, Aika Tanaka, Toshirou Fukushima, Takashi Kobayashi, Hirohide Matsushita, Nodoka Sekiguchi, Akiyuki Sakamoto, Shigeru Sasaki, Keiko Mamiya, Tomonobu Koizumi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have indicated that cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) causes urinary excretion of L-carnitine (LC). However, the underlying cofactors affecting the increased urinary excretion remain unclear. The present study was performed to evaluate the dynamics of LC in plasma and urine after CDDP chemotherapy and to examine the relations with clinical parameters, such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and renal function. METHODS: Twenty-two patients treated with CDDP therapy were selected...
April 19, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417157/impact-of-cachexia-on-outcomes-in-aggressive-lymphomas
#16
Reem Karmali, Taha Alrifai, Ibtihaj A M Fughhi, Ronald Ng, Vineela Chukkapalli, Palmi Shah, Sanjib Basu, Sunita Nathan, Kelly Szymanski-Grant, Leo I Gordon, Parameswaran Venugopal, Frank J Penedo, Jeffrey A Borgia
Cancer cachexia is defined as a state of involuntary weight loss, attributed to altered body composition with muscle mass loss and/or loss of adiposity. Identifying the association between cancer cachexia and outcomes may pave the way for novel agents that target the cancer cachexia process. Clinical parameters for measurement of cancer cachexia are needed. We conducted a single-institution retrospective analysis that included 86 NHL patients with the aim of identifying an association between cancer cachexia and outcomes in aggressive lymphomas using the cachexia index (CXI) suggested by Jafri et al...
April 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416075/muscle-strength-rather-than-muscle-mass-is-associated-with-osteoporosis-in-older-chinese-adults
#17
Yixuan Ma, Liyuan Fu, Liye Jia, Peipei Han, Li Kang, Hairui Yu, XiaoYu Chen, Xing Yu, Lin Hou, Lu Wang, Wen Zhang, Kaijun Niu, Qi Guo
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the association of muscle strength and muscle mass with osteoporosis (OP) is of special interest as muscles are a potential target for interventions (i.e., strength training). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study encompassing people aged ≥ 60 years (average age: 66.9 ± 6.2 years; men, n = 516; women, n = 652) in the Hangu area of Tianjin, China. The study populations were invited to participate in a comprehensive geriatric assessment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415034/validation-of-a-new-mortality-risk-prediction-model-for-people-65-years-and-older-in-northwest-russia-the-crystal-risk-score
#18
Anna Turusheva, Elena Frolova, Vaes Bert, Eralda Hegendoerfer, Jean-Marie Degryse
BACKGROUND: Prediction models help to make decisions about further management in clinical practice. This study aims to develop a mortality risk score based on previously identified risk predictors and to perform internal and external validations. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals aged 65+ in St. Petersburg (Russia), all-cause mortality risks over 2.5 years follow-up were determined based on the results obtained from anthropometry, medical history, physical performance tests, spirometry and laboratory tests...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414253/suggestions-for-assessment-of-muscle-mass-in-primary-care-setting
#19
Ozlem Yilmaz, Gulistan Bahat
Sarcopenia is one of the prevalent geriatric syndromes that adversely affects the functionality in the older adults. The diagnosis of sarcopenia requires documentation of decreased muscle mass and decreased muscle strength or physical function. The implication of user-friendly and inexpensive methods that could be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings is suggested in a recent debate paper. For muscle mass assessment, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were described as having the same ease for muscle mass assessment in terms of applicability...
April 17, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411349/effect-of-low-appendicular-lean-mass-grip-strength-and-gait-speed-on-the-functional-outcome-after-surgery-for-distal-radius-fractures
#20
Young Hak Roh, Jung Ho Noh, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slow gait speed or weak grip strength are at risk for poor functional recovery after surgery for distal radius fracture, even when they have similar radiologic outcomes. INTRODUCTION: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and consequent loss in muscle function associate with aging, and this condition negatively impacts the activities of daily living and increases elderly individuals' frailty to falls. Thus, patients with low appendicular lean mass would show different functional recovery compared to those without this condition after surgery for distal radius fracture (DRF)...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
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