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"Muscle mass"

Tomonori Sato, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Sarcopenia is a condition of the loss of muscle mass that is associated with aging and that increases the risk for bedridden state, thereby warranting studies of interventions that attenuate sarcopenia. Here the effects of 2-month dietary L-lysine (Lys) supplementation (1.5-3.0 %) on myofibrillar protein degradation and major proteolytic systems were investigated in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). At 36 weeks of age, skeletal muscle and lean body mass was reduced in SAMP8 when compared with control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1)...
October 17, 2016: Biogerontology
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ilse Reinders, Marjolein Visser, Laura Schaap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Angela M Sanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of anorexia of aging, including its complex pathophysiology and the multifaceted interventions required to prevent adverse health consequences from this geriatric syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia of aging is extremely common, occurring in up to 30% of elderly individuals; however, this diagnosis is frequently missed or erroneously attributed to a normal part of the aging process. With aging, impairments in smell and taste can limit the desire to eat...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Yoon Suk Jung, Nam Hee Kim, Seungho Ryu, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn
GOALS: We aimed to ascertain whether low relative muscle mass is associated with colorectal neoplasm (CRN) risk. BACKGROUND: CRN and sarcopenia have common pathophysiological mechanisms such as insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and physical inactivity. However, the direct relationship between the 2 diseases has not been investigated. STUDY: A cross-sectional study was performed on 81,885 examinees who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rhett L Peterson, Kate C Parkinson, Jeffrey B Mason
Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d) ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice...
2016: Journal of Transplantation
Leland Perice, Nir Barzilai, Joe Verghese, Erica F Weiss, Roee Holtzer, Pinchas Cohen, Sofiya Milman
Mutations that reduce somatotropic signaling result in improved lifespan and health-span in model organisms and humans. However, whether reduced circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is detrimental to cognitive and muscle function in older adults remains understudied. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in Ashkenazi Jews with exceptional longevity (age ≥95 years). Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and muscle function with the chair rise test, grip-strength, and gait speed...
October 14, 2016: Aging
Ryuta Shintakuya, Kenichiro Uemura, Yoshiaki Murakami, Naru Kondo, Naoya Nakagawa, Kazuhide Urabe, Keisuke Okano, Kazuo Awai, Toru Higaki, Taijiro Sueda
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. It has been reported pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is associated with serum nutritional markers in chronic pancreatitis. However, there has been no report about the relationship between sarcopenia and PEI. The aim of this study is to determine whether body composition, including skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and serum nutritional markers are associated with pancreatic exocrine function in patients with pancreatic disease...
October 11, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Alice Sabatino, Giuseppe Regolisti, Laura Bozzoli, Filippo Fani, Riccardo Antoniotti, Umberto Maggiore, Enrico Fiaccadori
MAIN PROBLEM: In patients with Acute Kidney Injury there is a lack of nutritional variables that can assess nutritional status, more specifically lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle mass, at the individual level. In this clinical setting, ultrasound (US)) of the quadriceps femoris could represent a widely available, non-invasive, affordable, and reliable tool to evaluate skeletal muscle. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study in adult critically ill patients with KDIGO stage 3 AKI on dialysis...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ana Cecilia Gomes Silva, Daniela Volcan Almeida, Bruna Felix Nornberg, Jessica Ribeiro Pereira, Diego Martins Pires, Carine Dahl Corcini, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Luis Fernando Marins
Growth hormone (GH) transgenesis presents a high potential application in aquaculture. However, excess GH may have serious consequences due to pleiotropic actions. In order to study these effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio), two transgenic lines were developed. The first expresses GH ubiquitously and constitutively (F0104 line), while the second expresses the GH receptor in a muscle-specific manner (Myo-GHR line). Results from the F0104 line showed accelerated growth but increased reproductive difficulties, while Myo-GHR did not show the expected increase in muscle mass...
October 14, 2016: Transgenic Research
Gommaar D'Hulst, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle wasting has been shown to be a mechanism by which humans are able to adapt to extreme altitude. Nonetheless, the literature is conflicting regarding the altitude or time point at which this phenomenon starts to occur. Using the metric recently suggested by Garvivan-Lewis et al. (8), we propose an hypoxic dose of 5000 km·h as the cut-off point above which hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy starts to develop. As such, we suggest that both elevation and hours of altitude exposure should be incorporated in future studies unraveling hypoxic regulation of muscle mass...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Sara Mazzucco, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Stefano Lazzer, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Joern Rittweger, Mladen Gasparini, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Narici
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (D5Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Mingxin Li, Lidong Zhai, Wanfu Wei
Rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesized form of adjuvant arthritis exhibited throughout many animal species, inhibits liver function and circulation of IGF-I and contributes to the degradation of skeletal muscle mass. One of the primary goals of the present study is determining whether a high-Methionine (high-Met) diet is capable of reducing the adverse effects of arthritis, namely, loss of body mass. Following adjuvant injection, forty arthritic rats were randomly assigned to either a control group with a basal diet or a high-Met group with the same basal diet + 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Ma Paz Redondo-Del-Río, Ma Alicia Camina-Martín, Laura Moya-Gago, Sandra de-la-Cruz-Marcos, Vincenzo Malafarina, Beatriz de-Mateo-Silleras
OBJECTIVE: To compare body composition as assessed by conventional and vector bioelectrical impedance analysis according to the nutritional cataloging using body mass index (BMI) in a group of institutionalized elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 38 institutionalized elderly. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analysis. Differences in body composition were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA, or their corresponding nonparametric tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0...
October 10, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter Ten Dijke, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V Lezhnina, Ivan V Ozerov, Aleksandr M Aliper, Willem M Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Cindy J M Loomans
Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Fábio Lera Orsatti, Paulo Ricardo Prado Nunes, Aletéia de Paula Souza, Fernanda Maria Martins, Anselmo Alves de Oliveira, Rosekeila Simões Nomelini, Márcia Antoniazi Michelin, Eddie Fernando Cândido Murta
BACKGROUND: Menopause increases body fat and decrease muscle mass and strength which contribute to sarcopenia. The amount of appendicular muscle mass has been frequently used to diagnose sarcopenia. Different measures of appendicular muscle mass have been proposed. However, no studies compared the most salient measure (appendicular muscle mass corrected by body fat) of the appendicular muscle mass to physical function in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of three different measures of appendicular muscle mass (absolute, corrected by stature and corrected by body fat) with physical function in postmenopausal women...
October 8, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Hiroyasu Mori, Akio Kuroda, Michiko Araki, Reiko Suzuki, Satoshi Taniguchi, Motoyuki Tamaki, Yuko Akehi, Munehide Matsuhisa
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to contribute to muscle weakness in a diabetic animal model. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a proposed marker for accumulation of AGEs in the skin. We aimed to investigate the relationship between AGEs accumulation, sarcopenia, and muscle function of Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-six patients with type 1 diabetes participated in this cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia parameters (skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and knee extension strength) were compared with subcutaneous AGEs accumulation using skin AF...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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