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"Muscle mass"

Marta Lonnie, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Anthony W Watson, Elizabeth A Williams, Emma J Stevenson, Simon Penson, Alexandra M Johnstone
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Yunlong Zou, Zhiyuan Li, Yunjing Zou, Haiyang Hao, Ning Li, Qiuyan Li
The regulatory function of Fbxo40 has been well characterized in mice. As a key component of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Fbxo40 induces IRS1 ubiquitination, thus inactivating the IGF1/Akt pathway. The expression of Fbxo40 is restricted to muscle, and mice with an Fbxo40 null mutation exhibit muscle hypertrophy. However, the function of FBXO40 has not been elucidated in pigs, and it is not known whether FBXO40 mutations affect their health. We therefore generated FBXO40 knockout pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Elizabeth Carey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Carmelo Messina, Gabriele Maffi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent two major health problems with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. The correlation between these diseases has been widely reported, leading to the development of the term "osteosarcopenia" to diagnose those patients suffering from both diseases. Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) being the most commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Imaging technique other than DXA is represented by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Takahiro Onuma, Tamotsu Kamishima, Tsuyoshi Shimamura, Norio Kawamura, Kenichiro Yamashita, Kenneth Sutherland, Hiroshi Takeda
Background: The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle have been observed to be closely related with post-transplantation mortality in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, the effect of LDLT on skeletal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of trunk muscle mass and adiposity in recipients of LDLT. Methods: The study population included LDLT recipients at Hokkaido University Hospital who underwent pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans (31 recipients; 14 males, and 17 females)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
E J Stevenson, A W Watson, J M Brunstrom, B M Corfe, M A Green, A M Johnstone, E A Williams
'Ageing well' has been highlighted as an important research area by the World Health Organization. In the UK, healthy ageing has been identified as a priority research area by multiple Research Councils and is a key NHS priority. Sarcopaenia, the decline of muscle mass/strength and a key component of healthy ageing, can have a major impact on quality of life and is associated with premature mortality. Increasing protein intake at all stages of the life course may help to reduce the rate of muscle decline and the onset of associated health conditions...
March 2018: Nutrition Bulletin
Graham P Holloway, Andrew M Holwerda, Paula M Miotto, Marlou L Dirks, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2 O2 emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2 O2 emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2 O2 and the fraction of electron leak to H2 O2 , in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Carolyn J Baglole, Feng Liang, Hussein Traboulsi, Angela Rico de Souza, Christian Giordano, Josephine T Tauer, Frank Rauch, Basil J Petrof
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in type I collagen genes. Respiratory complications have been largely attributed to spine and ribcage deformities. We hypothesized that direct involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma and/or diaphragm by the disease may occur. METHODS: In Col1a1Jrt/+ mice, a model of severe dominant OI, mean linear intercept length (Lm) was used to assess distal airspace size. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) phenotype of diaphragm muscle fibers, as well as contractile properties, were determined...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Boudewijn J J Smeets, David J Brinkman, Eelco C J Horsten, Jacqueline A E Langius, Harm J T Rutten, Wouter J de Jonge, Misha D P Luyer
BACKGROUND: Myopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) is associated with an increased risk of complications following colorectal surgery, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigates the effect of myopenia on the early postoperative systemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 78 patients undergoing colorectal surgery, the presence of myopenia was preoperatively assessed using computed tomography images of the third lumbar vertebra...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Ifigeneia Kalampouka, Angel van Bekhoven, Bradley T Elliott
Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger ( n = 6, 18-35 years of age) or older ( n = 6, >57 years of age)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Diego Moreno-Pérez, Carlo Bressa, María Bailén, Safa Hamed-Bousdar, Fernando Naclerio, Manuel Carmona, Margarita Pérez, Rocío González-Soltero, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Claudia Carabaña, Mar Larrosa
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( n = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( n = 12) for 10 weeks...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Mathias T Vangsoe, Malte S Joergensen, Lars-Henrik L Heckmann, Mette Hansen
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Aline Marcadenti, Larissa Loures Mendes, Estela Iraci Rabito, Jaqueline da Silva Fink, Flávia Moraes Silva
BACKGROUND: There are many nutrition screening tools currently being applied in hospitals to identify risk of malnutrition. However, multivariate statistical models are not usually employed to take into account the importance of each variable included in the instrument's development. OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate the concurrent and predictive validities of a new screening tool of nutrition risk. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was developed, in which 4 nutrition screening tools were applied to all patients...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Alberto A Castro, Theodore Garland
We have used selective breeding with house mice to study coadaptation of morphology and physiology with the evolution of high daily levels of voluntary exercise. Here, we compared hindlimb bones and muscle masses from the 11th generation of four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of house mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running with four non-selected control (C) lines. Mass, length, diameter, and depth of the femur, tibia-fibula, and metatarsal bones, as well as masses of gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, were compared by analysis of covariance with body mass or body length as the covariate...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Priscila B Zanella, Camila C Àvila, Carolina G de Souza
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and functional status in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its relationship with pulmonary circulation parameters and functional performance. METHODS: The study is cross-sectional with 34 subjects, who were evaluated in terms of anthropometric measurements, physical performance, pulmonary circulation, and regular physical activity. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean age of 47...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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