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Sara Westrøm, Tina B Bønsdorff, Nasir Abbas, Øyvind S Bruland, Thora J Jonasdottir, Gunhild M Mælandsmo, Roy H Larsen
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a rare form of cancer but with a substantial need for new active drugs. There is a particular need for targeted therapies to combat metastatic disease. One possible approach is to use an antibody drug conjugate or an antibody radionuclide conjugate to target the osteosarcoma metastases and circulating tumor cells. Herein we have evaluated a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody targeting CD146 both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: A murine monoclonal anti-CD146 IgG1 isotype antibody, named OI-3, was developed along with recombinant chimeric versions with human IgG1 or human IgG3 Fc sequences...
2016: PloS One
Payam Hayati, Ali Reza Rezvani, Ali Morsali, Pascal Retailleau, S García-Granda
Nanoparticles of two new coordination compounds, [Hg2(L)2(Br)4]n (1) and [Hg(L')(SCN)2] (2), (L=2-amino-4-methylpyridine, L'=2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid), have been synthesized by use of a sonochemical process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The single crystal X-ray data of compounds 1 and 2 imply that the Hg(II) ions are four and five coordinated, respectively...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Rick van Dorp, Ewout Foppen, Jorge Mendoza, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Eric Fliers, Peter H Bisschop, Johanna H Meijer, Andries Kalsbeek, Tom Deboer
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah M Hatcher, Sarah M Rhodes, Jill R Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C Carroll, Christopher D Heaney
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. METHODS: In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
L Müller, D Weinert
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Lee J Wylie, Terezia Holland, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN(-)), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO3(-)) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO3(-) metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO3(-) supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite ([NO2(-)]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS)...
October 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Malini Riddle, Erica Mezias, Duncan Foley, Joseph LeSauter, Rae Silver
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locus of the master circadian clock, bears many neuronal types. At the cellular-molecular level, the clock is comprised of feedback loops involving "clock" genes including Period1 and Period2, and their protein products, PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 (PER1/2). In the canonical model of circadian oscillation, the PER1/2 proteins oscillate together. While their rhythmic expression in the SCN as a whole has been described, the possibility of regional differences is unknown...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jingyu Lin, Dan Wang, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G Köllner, Mitra Mazarei, Hong Guo, Vincent R Pantalone, Prakash Arelli, Charles Neal Stewart, Ningning Wang, Feng Chen
Plant terpene synthase genes (TPSs) have roles in diverse biological processes. Here we report the functional characterization of one member of the soybean TPS gene family, which was designated GmAFS. Recombinant GmAFS produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of a sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. GmAFS is closely related to (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase gene from apple, both phylogenetically and structurally. GmAFS was further investigated for its biological role in defense against nematodes and insects...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Oliver Rawashdeh, Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-often referred to as the master circadian clock-is essential in generating physiologic rhythms and orchestrating synchrony among circadian clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that periodic motivation induced by rhythmically pairing 2 reinforcing stimuli [methamphetamine (METH) and running wheel (RW)] restores autonomous circadian activity in arrhythmic SCN-lesioned (SCNX) C3H/HeN mice. Sham-operated and SCNX mice were treated with either METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle in association, dissociation, or absence of an RW...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sourav Roy, Anik Bhattacharyya, Sourav Purkait, Antonio Bauzá, Antonio Frontera, Shouvik Chattopadhyay
Two new hetero-tetranuclear nickel(ii)/cadmium(ii) complexes, a cubane [(CH3CO2)2Ni2(L(1))2Cd2(NCS)2] (1) and a linear tetramer [(DMSO)2NiL(2)Cd(NCS)(μ1,3-SCN)Ni(DMSO)L(2)Cd(NCS)2] (2) {where H2L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)propane-1,3-diamine and H2L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxysalicylidene)propane-1,3-diamine are potential octadentate compartmental Schiff bases}, were synthesized and characterized. The structures of both complexes were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex 1 contained a Ni2Cd2O4 cubane core, whereas complex 2 featured an end-to-end thiocyanate-bridged tetranuclear moiety...
September 27, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bonnie L Keeler, Jesse D Gourevitch, Stephen Polasky, Forest Isbell, Chris W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Despite growing recognition of the negative externalities associated with reactive nitrogen (N), the damage costs of N to air, water, and climate remain largely unquantified. We propose a comprehensive approach for estimating the social cost of nitrogen (SCN), defined as the present value of the monetary damages caused by an incremental increase in N. This framework advances N accounting by considering how each form of N causes damages at specific locations as it cascades through the environment. We apply the approach to an empirical example that estimates the SCN for N applied as fertilizer...
October 2016: Science Advances
P M H Vieira, F A S Arêdes, A Ferreira, M F S Ferreira
Nematodes are important pests of soybean throughout the world and cause high yield losses. As a control strategy, the identification of resistance genes is an important aim of breeding studies. Plants possess resistance genes (R), which are responsible for the recognition of pathogens and activation of the defense system. R genes and resistance gene analogs (RGAs) possess conserved domains, from which nucleotide-binding site is the most common. Using degenerate primers originating from these domains, it is possible to identify and isolate sequences of R and RGA genes...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Erica L Schoeller, Daniel D Clark, Sandeepa Dey, Nathan V Cao, Sheila J Semaan, Ling W Chao, Alexander S Kauffman, Lisa Stowers, Pamela L Mellon
Circadian rhythms synchronize physiological processes with the light-dark cycle and are regulated by a hierarchical system initiated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a hypothalamic region that receives direct photic input. The SCN then entrains additional oscillators in the periphery. Circadian rhythms are maintained by a molecular transcriptional feedback loop, of which BMAL1 is a key member. Disruption of circadian rhythms by deletion of the BMAL1 gene (Bmal1 KO) induces a variety of disease states, including infertility in males, due to unidentified mechanisms...
October 5, 2016: Endocrinology
Jacob J Hughey, Atul J Butte
The daily timing of mammalian physiology is coordinated by circadian clocks throughout the body. Although measurements of clock gene expression indicate that these clocks in mice are normally in phase with each other, the situation in humans remains unclear. We used publicly available data from five studies, comprising over 1000 samples, to compare the phasing of circadian gene expression in human brain and human blood. Surprisingly, after controlling for age, clock gene expression in brain was phase-delayed by ~8...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Sahar Farajnia, Johanna H Meijer, Stephan Michel
One feature of the mammalian circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is its ability to measure day length and thereby contribute to the seasonal adaptation of physiology and behavior. The timing signal from the SCN, namely the 24 hr pattern of electrical activity, is adjusted according to the photoperiod being broader in long days and narrower in short days. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and gamma-aminobutyric acid play a crucial role in intercellular communication within the SCN and contribute to the seasonal changes in phase distribution...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
Shiori Nonaka, Tsutomu Katsuyama, Tatsuhiko Kondo, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Tadao Asami, Shunsuke Yajima, Shinsaku Ito
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode and one of the most serious soybean pests. Herein, we present the heterocyclic compound 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and its derivatives as novel hatching stimulants for SCN. Phen treatment promoted hatching of second-stage juveniles of SCNs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the hatching of SCNs following treatment with Phen occurred more rapidly than that following treatment with the known hatching stimulant, glycinoeclepin A (GEA)...
September 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Deyra A Ramírez, Elizabeth Vieyra, Aldo I González, Carolina Morán, Roberto Domínguez, Leticia Morales-Ledesma
The aims of the present study were to analyze if the superior ovarian nerve (SON) plays a role in the neural signals from suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that lead to ovulation and ovarian steroids secretion on proestrus day. Rats on proestrus day were treated at 11.00 to 11.30 or 17.00 to 17.30 hours with 1 of the 3 experimental procedures (1) unilateral or bilateral SON sectioning, (2) unilateral or bilateral injury to the SCN, or (3) unilateral injury to the SCN followed by unilateral sectioning of the SON ipsilateral to the treated SCN...
September 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
C Gizowski, C Zaelzer, C W Bourque
Circadian rhythms have evolved to anticipate and adapt animals to the constraints of the earth's 24-hour light cycle. Although the molecular processes that establish periodicity in clock neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are well understood, the mechanisms by which axonal projections from the central clock drive behavioural rhythms are unknown. Here we show that the sleep period in mice (Zeitgeber time, ZT0-12) is preceded by an increase in water intake promoted entirely by the central clock, and not motivated by physiological need...
September 28, 2016: Nature
Miranda Davies-Tuck, Joanne C Mockler, Lynne Stewart, Michelle Knight, Euan M Wallace
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether the association between obesity and a range of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes differed in South Asian and Australian and New Zealand born women. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of singleton births in South Asian (SA) and Australian/New Zealand (AUS/NZ) born women at an Australian hospital between 2009 and 2013. The interaction between maternal region of birth and obesity on a range of maternal and perinatal outcomes was assessed using multivariate logistic regression...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Eric L Bittman
A new study utilizes transgenic mice to elucidate the coupling between cells of a neuronal pacemaker that determines circadian period.
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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