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Jérôme Mermet, Jake Yeung, Felix Naef
Mammals have evolved an internal timing system, the circadian clock, which synchronizes physiology and behavior to the daily light and dark cycles of the Earth. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, takes fluctuating light input from the retina and synchronizes other tissues to the same internal rhythm. The molecular clocks that drive these circadian rhythms are ticking in nearly all cells in the body. Efforts in systems chronobiology are now being directed at understanding, on a comprehensive scale, how the circadian clock controls different layers of gene regulation to provide robust timing cues at the cellular and tissue level...
December 5, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Biyun Ching, Jia M Woo, Kum C Hiong, Mel V Boo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
This study aimed to obtain the coding cDNA sequences of voltage-gated Na+ channel (scn) α-subunit (scna) and β-subunit (scnb) isoforms from, and to quantify their transcript levels in, the main electric organ (EO), Hunter's EO, Sach's EO and the skeletal muscle (SM) of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, which can generate both high and low voltage electric organ discharges (EODs). The full coding sequences of two scna (scn4aa and scn4ab) and three scnb (scn1b, scn2b and scn4b) were identified for the first time (except scn4aa) in E...
2016: PloS One
Medha Airy, Garabed Eknoyan
With improvements in the care of patients with sickle hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell disease (SCD) has evolved from a disease that was fatal in childhood into one in which most survive past their 5th decade and some into old age. As a result, the renal complications of sickle hemoglobinopathies, which are age dependent, have emerged as a common and serious complication of SCD. Approximately 14 - 18% of mortality in SCD is attributed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which develops in 1/3 of individuals with SCD and progresses to end-stage renal disease in 4 - 18% of them...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Ying-Hui Li, Xue-Hui Shi, Hui-Hui Li, Jochen C Reif, Jia-Jun Wang, Zhang-Xiong Liu, Sang He, Bai-Shuang Yu, Li-Juan Qiu
A set of 585 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci was used to genotype both a panel of diverse accessions and a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) bred from the cross Zhongpin03-5373 (ZP; resistant to SCN) × Zhonghuang13 (ZH; susceptible). The SNP loci are mostly sited within genic sequence in regions of the soybean [ (L.) Merr.] genome thought to harbor genes determining resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Ichinohe). The three strongest quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) identified by association mapping (AM) involved the genes (a component of the multigene locus ), and (an paralog), as well as some other loci with smaller effects...
July 2016: Plant Genome
H Elliott Albers, James C Walton, Karen L Gamble, John K McNeill, Daniel L Hummer
Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extra-cellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors...
November 25, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Chun-Feng Wang, Ming-Jun Sun, Qi-Jie Guo, Ze-Xing Cao, Lan-Sun Zheng, Jun Tao
Multiple correlations between spin crossover and fluorescence are established in a dinuclear compound with fluorescence from d(Fe) + π(SCN) to π*(ligand) charge transfer and correlation originated from ligand to Fe(ii) energy transfer.
December 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Salvador Cardona-Serra, Stefano Sanvito
Molecules exhibiting a spin-crossover transition have been proposed for a number of applications such as molecular switches, spintronic tunable interfaces, and single molecule gates. Both the rational design of new spin-crossover systems and the improvement of the properties of the already existing ones require a theoretical understanding of the relative energy of the high (HS) and low spin state (LS) molecules in the solid-state. This has proved to be very challenging so far. Here, we shed some light on the importance of considering the symmetry and the geometry of the crystallographic cell to correctly evaluate the influence of the dipolar interactions on the relative energies of the molecular complex in both different spin states...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Changgui Gu, Ming Tang, Jos H T Rohling, Huijie Yang
In mammals, the circadian rhythms of behavioral and physiological activities are regulated by an endogenous clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is composed of ~20,000 neurons, of which some are capable of self-sustained oscillations, while the others do not oscillate in a self-sustainable manner, but show arrhythmic patterns or damped oscillations. Thus far, the effects of these non-self-sustained oscillatory neurons are not fully explored. Here, we examined how the proportion of the non-self-sustained oscillators affects the free running period under constant darkness and the ability to entrain to the light-dark cycle...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jun Hu, Lei Gao, Youliang Zhu, Peiyi Wang, Yuan Lin, Zhaoyan Sun, Song Yang, Qian Wang
Chiral helical structures have attracted increasing attention in the field of supramolecular assembly due to their critical roles in life and material sciences. In this research, an achiral amphiphile (1-[11-(2-anthracenylmethoxy)-11-oxoundecyl]pyridinium bromide, 2-APB), where the hydrophobic anthracene and the hydrophilic pyridinium units are linked by alkyl chains, was found to form chiral supramolecular assemblies in a cooperative manner in the presence of iodide anion. Moreover, these assemblies show left (L)- or right (R)-handedness randomly, independent of the assembly conditions...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Maya Nadimpalli, Jill R Stewart, Elizabeth Pierce, Nora Pisanic, David C Love, Devon Hall, Jesper Larsen, Karen C Carroll, Tsigereda Tekle, Trish M Perl, Christopher D Heaney
Swine production work is a risk factor for nasal carriage of livestock-associated (LA-) Staphylococcus aureus and also for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). However, whether LA-S. aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk of SSTI remains unclear. We aimed to examine S. aureus nasal carriage and recent (≤3 months prior to enrollment) SSTI symptoms among industrial hog operation (IHO) workers and their household contacts. IHO workers and their household contacts provided a nasal swab and responded to a questionnaire assessing self-reported personal and occupational exposures and recent SSTI symptoms...
2016: PloS One
Paul M Jeene, Eva Versteijne, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Jacques J G H M Bergmann, Elisabeth D Geijsen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Maarten C C M Hulshof
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) metastases in esophageal cancer is not well established. We analyzed the prognostic value of SCN disease in patients after definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) for esophageal cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients treated between 2003 and 2013 to identify the prognostic value of metastasis in the SCN on treatment failure and survival. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (50...
November 15, 2016: Acta Oncologica
James Park, Haisun Zhu, Sean O'Sullivan, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, David R Weaver, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli
Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jun-Ho Choi, Minhaeng Cho
Carrying out molecular dynamics simulations and graph theoretical analyses of high salt solutions, and comparing numerically calculated vibrational spectroscopic properties of water with femtosecond IR pump-probe experimental data, we have recently found that ions in high salt solutions can form two morphologically different ion aggregate structures. In the cases of NaCl solutions, Na(+) and Cl(-) tend to form compact cluster-like ion aggregate in high NaCl solutions. In contrast, K(+) and SCN(-) form spatially extended network-like ion aggregates that also exhibit a percolating network behavior...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lan Zhou, Qian Gao, Meng Nie, Jing-Li Gu, Wei Hao, Lin Wang, Ji-Min Cao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer sleep disorders and circadian rhythm disturbances (CRDs). The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, and treatments are lacking. In this study, we characterized the locomotor activity, clock gene expression, morphological degeneration and energy metabolism of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), together with retinal light sensing, in ApoE(-/-) mice, a model for AD. Compared with the control C57BL/6J mice, ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited disordered circadian locomotor activity under dim light and constant darkness, with impaired re-entrainment to phase change schedules...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Glenn R Yamakawa, Priyoneel Basu, Filomeno Cortese, Johanna MacDonnell, Danica Whalley, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle
Sleep and wake states are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. One such important system is the circadian clock, which provides temporal structure to sleep and wake. Conversely, changes in behavioral state, such as sleep deprivation (SD) or arousal, can phase shift the circadian clock. Here we demonstrate that the level of wakefulness is critical for this arousal resetting of the circadian clock. Specifically, drowsy animals with significant power in the 7- to 9-Hz band of their EEGs do not exhibit phase shifts in response to a mild SD procedure...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adam M Bayless, John M Smith, Junqi Song, Patrick H McMinn, Alice Teillet, Benjamin K August, Andrew F Bent
α-SNAP [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein] and NSF proteins are conserved across eukaryotes and sustain cellular vesicle trafficking by mediating disassembly and reuse of SNARE protein complexes, which facilitate fusion of vesicles to target membranes. However, certain haplotypes of the Rhg1 (resistance to Heterodera glycines 1) locus of soybean possess multiple repeat copies of an α-SNAP gene (Glyma.18G022500) that encodes atypical amino acids at a highly conserved functional site...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natalia Mendez, Diego Halabi, Carlos Spichiger, Esteban R Salazar, Karina Vergara, Pamela Alonso-Vasquez, Pamela Carmona, Jose M Sarmiento, Hans G Richter, Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan
Chronic exposure to light at night, as in shift work, alters biological clocks (chronodisruption), negatively impacting pregnancy outcome in humans. Actually the interaction of maternal and fetal circadian systems could be a key factor determining a fitting health in adults. We propose that chronic photoperiod shift (CPS) during pregnancy alter maternal circadian rhythms and impair circadian physiology in the adult offspring, increasing health risks. Pregnant rats were exposed to normal photoperiod (12 h light, 12 h dark) or to CPS until 85% of gestation...
December 2016: Endocrinology
Ki-Seung Kim, Tri D Vuong, Dan Qiu, Robert T Robbins, J Grover Shannon, Zenglu Li, Henry T Nguyen
Integration of genetic analysis, molecular biology, and genomic approaches drastically enhanced our understanding of genetic control of nematode resistance and provided effective breeding strategies in soybeans. Three nematode species, including soybean cyst (SCN, Heterodera glycine), root-knot (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita), and reniform (RN, Rotylenchulus reniformis), are the most destructive pests and have spread to soybean growing areas worldwide. Host plant resistance has played an important role in their control...
October 28, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Akanksha Jain, Anupam Mathur, Usha Pandey, Haladhar Dev Sarma, Ashutosh Dash
Development of (68)Ga labeled fatty acids is of immense interest due to the availability of (68)Ga through a generator and its superiority over SPECT based tracers in carrying out dynamic imaging on a PET scanner. Our present work explores the influence of different chelators on the cardiac uptake and pharmacokinetics of the (68)Ga-labeled fatty acids. Two new (68)Ga labeled fatty acids were synthesized by conjugation of 11-aminoundecanoic acid with the bifunctional chelators (BFCs) viz. p-SCN-Bn-DTPA (S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and p-SCN-Bn-NODAGA (S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid) and their comparison was carried out with the previously reported (68)Ga-NOTA-undecanoic acid...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Lenka Polidarová, Martin Sládek, Zuzana Novosadová, Alena Sumová
Circadian regulation of behavior worsens with age, however, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Specifically, it is not clear to what extend the ability of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) to generate the rhythm is affected by aging. This study aimed to ascertain the effect of aging on the functioning of the SCN of mPer2(Luciferase) mice under unnatural lighting conditions, such as constant light (LL). Under LL, which worsened the age-induced effect on behavioral rhythms, a marginal age-dependent effect on in vitro rhythmicity in explants containing the middle, but not the rostral/caudal, regions of the SCN was apparent; the proportion of mice in which middle-region SCN explants were completely arrhythmic or had an extremely long period (>30 h) was 47% in aged mice and 27% in adults...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
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