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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782876/chloride-cotransporter-kcc2-is-essential-for-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-scn
#1
A H O Olde Engberink, J H Meijer, S Michel
One of the principal neurotransmitters of the central nervous system is GABA. In the adult brain, GABA is predominantly inhibitory, but there is growing evidence indicating that GABA can shift to excitatory action depending on environmental conditions. In the mammalian central circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) GABAergic activity shifts from inhibition to excitation when animals are exposed to long day photoperiod. The polarity of the GABAergic response (inhibitory versus excitatory) depends on the GABA equilibrium potential determined by the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i )...
May 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781485/photocatalytic-difunctionalisations-of-alkenes-with-n-scn-sulfoximines
#2
Duo Zhang, Han Wang, Carsten Bolm
Reacting N-Br sulfoximines with ammonium thiocyanate leads to unprecedented sulfur reagents, which add to vinyl arenes under photocatalysis via N-centered sulfoximidoyl radicals. As a result, 1,2-difunctionalised products are obtained, which can subsequently be derivatised taking advantage of the unique properties of the thiocyanate group.
May 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777288/time-shifting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-daily-rhythms-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#3
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777007/development-of-64-cu-nota-trastuzumab-for-her2-targeting-radiopharmaceutical-with-improved-pharmacokinetics-for-human-study
#4
Sang-Keun Woo, Su Jin Jang, Min-Jung Seo, Ju Hui Park, Byoung Soo Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Yong Jin Lee, Tae Sup Lee, Gwang Il An, In Ho Song, Youngho Seo, Kwang Il Kim, Joo Hyun Kang
Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop 64 Cu-labeled trastuzumab with improved pharmacokinetics for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Methods Trastuzumab was conjugated with SCN-Bn-NOTA and radiolabeled with 64 Cu. Serum stability and immunoreactivity of 64 Cu-NOTA-trastuzumab were tested. Small animal PET imaging and biodistribution study were performed in HER2-positive breast cancer xenograft model (BT-474). Internal dosimetry of experimental animals was performed using the image-based approach with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775061/direct-photocatalytic-s-h-bond-cyanation-with-green-cn-source
#5
Wei Guo, Wen Tan, Mingming Zhao, Lvyin Zheng, Kailiang Tao, Deliang Chen, XiaoLin Fan
Herein we report a novel C-S bond cleavage and reconstruction strategy for the synthesis of thiocyanates through direct photocatalytic S-H bond cyanation from thiols and inorganic thiocyanate salts. In our strategy, the unprecedented example of cutting off C-S bond of SCN- to deliver the green "CN" sources is demonstrated. This transformation features nontoxic and inexpensive "CN" sources, available starting materials, metal-/base-/ligand-/peroxide-free, high step economy and mild conditions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764146/contrast-between-the-mechanisms-for-dissociative-electron-attachment-to-ch-3-scn-and-ch-3-ncs
#6
Thomas M Miller, Albert A Viggiano, Nicholas S Shuman
The kinetics of thermal electron attachment to methyl thiocyanate (CH3 SCN), methyl isothiocyanate (CH3 NCS), and ethyl thiocyanate (C2 H5 SCN) were measured using flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatuses at temperatures between 300 and 1000 K. CH3 SCN and C2 H5 SCN undergo inefficient dissociative attachment to yield primarily SCN- at 300 K (k = 2 × 10-10 cm3 s-1 ), with increasing efficiency as temperature increases. The increase is well described by activation energies of 0.17 eV (CH3 SCN) and 0.14 eV (C2 H5 SCN)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763768/effects-on-estrogen-dependent-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-growth-of-ni-ii-zn-ii-and-cd-ii-complexes-with-the-schiff-base-derived-from-pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde-and-5-6-diamino-1-3-dimethyluracil-explored-through-the-renin-angiotensin-system-ras
#7
Nuria A Illán-Cabeza, Sonia B Jiménez-Pulido, Francisco Hueso-Ureña, María J Ramírez-Expósito, Purificación Sánchez-Sánchez, José M Martínez-Martos, Miguel N Moreno-Carretero
A series of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with the Schiff base derived from the condensation 1:1 from pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and 5,6-diamino-1,3-dimethyluracil (6-amino-1,3-dimethyl-5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)-amino]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, DAAUPic) were synthesized and subsequently characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR and nine of them by X-ray diffraction. Except the [Zn(μ-O,O'-AcO)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]2 and [Cd(O,O'-NO3 )(μ-O4 ,(N5 ,N6 ,N1F )-DAAUPicH-1 )(H2 O)]2 ·2H2 O dimers and the [Cd(μ-S,N-SCN)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]n chain-like polymer, all of them display monomeric molecular structures...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758994/structural-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-grey-matter-covariance-impact-of-developmental-insult
#8
Casey Paquola, Maxwell Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis...
May 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756029/circadian-behavioral-responses-to-light-and-optic-chiasm-evoked-glutamatergic-epscs-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-iprgc-conditional-vglut2-knock-out-mice
#9
Michael G Moldavan, Patricia J Sollars, Michael R Lasarev, Charles N Allen, Gary E Pickard
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator that functions as a biological clock. ipRGCs use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGlut2) to package glutamate into synaptic vesicles and light-evoked resetting of the SCN circadian clock is widely attributed to ipRGC glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is also packaged into vesicles in ipRGCs and PACAP may be coreleased with glutamate in the SCN...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751738/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-reveal-that-bacteria-promote-plant-defense-during-infection-of-soybean-cyst-nematode-in-soybean
#10
Wenshu Kang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Lijie Chen, Yuxi Duan
BACKGROUND: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Our previous study showed that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus simplex strain Sneb545 promotes soybean resistance to SCN. Here, we conducted a combined metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis to gain information regarding the biological mechanism of defence enhancement against SCN in Sneb545-treated soybean. To this end, we compared the transcriptome and metabolome of Sneb545-treated and non-treated soybeans under SCN infection...
May 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750810/mtor-signaling-regulates-central-and-peripheral-circadian-clock-function
#11
Chidambaram Ramanathan, Nimish D Kathale, Dong Liu, Choogon Lee, David A Freeman, John B Hogenesch, Ruifeng Cao, Andrew C Liu
The circadian clock coordinates physiology and metabolism. mTOR (mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a major intracellular sensor that integrates nutrient and energy status to regulate protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell growth. Previous studies have identified a key role for mTOR in regulating photic entrainment and synchrony of the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Given that mTOR activities exhibit robust circadian oscillations in a variety of tissues and cells including the SCN, here we continued to investigate the role of mTOR in orchestrating autonomous clock functions in central and peripheral circadian oscillators...
May 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749996/absorption-refrigeration-cycles-with-ammonia-ionic-liquid-working-pairs-studied-by-molecular-simulation
#12
Tim M Becker, Meng Wang, Abhishek Kabra, Seyed Hossein Jamali, Mahinder Ramdin, David Dubbeldam, Carlos A Infante Ferreira, Thijs J H Vlugt
For absorption refrigeration, it has been shown that ionic liquids have the potential to replace conventional working pairs. Due to the huge number of possibilities, conducting lab experiments to find the optimal ionic liquid is infeasible. Here, we provide a proof-of-principle study of an alternative computational approach. The required thermodynamic properties, i.e., solubility, heat capacity, and heat of absorption, are determined via molecular simulations. These properties are used in a model of the absorption refrigeration cycle to estimate the circulation ratio and the coefficient of performance...
April 18, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743294/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-scn-in-young-and-old-rhesus-macaques
#13
Dominique Eghlidi, Selva Leticia Luna, Donald Brown, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the location of a master circadian pacemaker. It receives photic signals from the environment via the retinal hypothalamic tract, which play a key role in synchronizing the body's endogenously-generated circadian rhythms with the 24-hour rhythm of the environment. Therefore, it is plausible that age-related changes within the SCN contribute to the etiology of perturbed activity-rest cycles that become prevalent in humans during aging. To test this hypothesis, we used Gene Arrays and qRT-PCR to profile age-related gene expression changes within the SCN of male rhesus macaques - a pragmatic translational animal model of human aging, which similarly displays an age-related attenuation of daytime activity levels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738935/effect-of-air-flow-rate-on-development-of-aerobic-granules-biomass-activity-and-nitrification-efficiency-for-treating-phenol-thiocyanate-and-ammonium
#14
Sachin Kumar Tomar, Saswati Chakraborty
The impact of air flow rate on aerobic granulation was evaluated for treating toxic multiple pollutants; phenol (400 mg L-1 ), thiocyanate (100 mg L-1 ) and ammonia nitrogen (100 mg L-1 ) by using three lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (R1, R2 and R3). Larger granules (2938.67 ± 64.91 μm) with higher biomass concentration (volatile solids of 4.17 ± 0.09 g L-1 ), higher granule settling velocity (55.56 ± 1.36 m h-1 ) and lower sludge volume index (35.25 ± 1...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730553/exploration-of-solvent-responsive-cr-3-schiff-base-conjugates-formonitoring-cr-3-ions-and-organophosphates-fabrication-of-spot-testingdevices
#15
Jaswant Singh, Varinder Kaur, Raghubir Singh, Vimal K Bhardwaj
Herein, we report 2-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazono)(phenyl)methyl)-5-methoxyphenol (SB) synthesized by Schiff base condensation and characterized by spectroscopic techniques, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. In solution phase, it interacts with Cr3+ ions and exhibits a prominent fluorimetric switch due to the formation of SB·Cr3+ conjugate. The dual behavior of SB·Cr3+ conjugates i.e. self-aggregation in high water fraction (fw  > 50%) and dissolution in low water fraction (fw  < 50%) proves this conjugation excellent tool for monitoring Cr3+ ions...
April 27, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729071/syntheses-and-evaluation-of-68-ga-and-153-sm-labeled-dota-conjugated-bisphosphonate-ligand-for-potential-use-in-detection-of-skeletal-metastases-and-management-of-pain-arising-from-skeletal-metastases
#16
Sudipta Chakraborty, Dibakar Goswami, Rubel Chakravarty, Shahiralam Khan Mohammed, H D Sarma, Ashutosh Dash
This article reports the syntheses and evaluation of 68 Ga- and 153 Sm-complexes of a new DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid)-conjugated geminal bisphosphonate, DOTA-Bn-SCN-BP, for their potential uses in the early detection of skeletal metastases by imaging and palliation of pain arising from skeketal metastases, respectively. The conjugate was synthesized in high purity following an easily adaptable three step reaction scheme. Gallium-68- and 153 Sm-complexes were prepared in high yield (>98%) and showed excellent in vitro stability in phosphate buffered slaine (PBS) and human serum...
May 5, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722925/molecular-dynamics-phase-transition-and-frequency-tuned-dielectric-switch-of-an-ionic-co-crystal
#17
Jing-Yan Liu, Shi-Yong Zhang, Ying Zeng, Xia Shu, Zi-Yi Du, Chun-Ting He, Wei-Xiong Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen
Dielectric switches that can be converted between high and low dielectric states by thermal stimuli have attracted much interest owing to their many potential applications. Currently one main drawback for practical application lies in the non-tunability of their switch temperatures (TS). We report here an ionic co-crystal (Me3NH)4[Ni(SCN)6] that contains a multiply rotatable Me3NH+ ion and a solely rotatable one due to a more spacious supramolecular cage for the former one. This compound undergoes an isostructural order-disorder phase transition and it can function as a frequency-tuned dielectric switch with highly adjustable TS, which is further revealed by the variable-temperature structure analyses and molecular dynamics simulations...
May 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721962/the-retinal-circadian-clock-and-photoreceptor-viability
#18
Kenkichi Baba, Christophe P Ribelayga, P Michael Iuvone, Gianluca Tosini
Circadian rhythms are present in most living organisms, and these rhythms are not just a consequence of the day/night fluctuation, but rather they are generated by endogenous biological clocks with a periodicity of about 24 h. In mammals, the master pacemaker of circadian rhythms is localized in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN controls circadian rhythms in peripheral organs. The retina also contains circadian clocks which regulate many aspects of retinal physiology, independently of the SCN...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718540/obesity-gestational-diabetes-and-macrosomia-are-associated-with-increasing-rates-of-early-term-induction-of-labour-at-the-canberra-hospital
#19
Jonathan T McGuane, Lori Grlj, Michael J Peek
BACKGROUND: Early-term delivery is an important cause of short-term neonatal morbidity and associated high healthcare costs, with possible additional long-term developmental ramifications. As a form of 'iatrogenic' delivery, induction of labour (IOL) is a potentially modifiable contributor to this burden. AIMS: To determine patterns of, and primary indication for, early-term IOL, as well as temporal trends in this primary indication and differences from other modes of delivery with respect to maternal factors and maternal/neonatal outcomes...
May 2, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710120/a-histologic-study-of-the-circadian-system-in-parkinson-disease-multiple-system-atrophy-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#20
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, Robert Courtney, Thomas T Warner, Janice L Holton
Importance: Circadian dysfunction may be associated with the symptoms and neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), although the underlying neuroanatomical site of disruption and pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Objective: To perform a neuropathological analysis of disease-specific inclusions in the key structures of the circadian system in patients with PD, MSA, and PSP...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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