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Shanaz Diessler, Corinne Kostic, Yvan Arsenijevic, Aki Kawasaki, Paul Franken
Besides its role in vision, light impacts physiology and behavior through circadian and direct (aka 'masking') mechanisms. In Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS), the dysregulation of both sleep-wake behavior and melatonin production strongly suggest impaired non-visual light perception. We discovered that mice haploinsufficient for the SMS causal gene, Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1), were hypersensitive to light such that light eliminated alert and active-wake behaviors, while leaving time-spent-awake unaffected...
May 26, 2017: ELife
Julian Lommen, Anna Stahr, Marc Ingenwerth, Amira A H Ali, Charlotte von Gall
Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are involved in mediating intercellular signalling via purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). P2X and P2Y receptors have been implicated in numerous body functions including learning, memory and sleep. All of these body functions show time-of-day-dependent variations controlled by the master circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Evidence exists for a role of purinergic signalling in intercellular coupling within SCN. However, few studies have been performed on the expression of purinergic receptors in SCN...
May 26, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Martina Pfeffer, Horst-Werner Korf, Helmut Wicht
In mammals, the rhythmic secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland is driven by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The robust nightly peak of melatonin secretion is an output signal of the circadian clock and is supposed to deliver the circadian message to the whole of the organism. Since the circadian system regulates many behavioral and physiological processes, its disruption by external (shift-work, jet-lag) or internal desynchronization (blindness, aging) causes many different health problems...
May 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Nitin Lavande, Angel Acuña, Nuno Basílio, Vitor Francisco, Dipalee D Malkhede, Luis Garcia-Rio
The formation of inclusion complexes between lucigenin (N,N'-dimethyl-9,9'-biacridinium dinitrate) and p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCn; n = 6, 8) was investigated by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Both SC6 and SC8 were found to form 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 host-guest complexes with lucigenin showing up to 10(9) M(-1) binding affinities. Strong quenching of the lucigenin fluorescence upon complexation was observed. Fluorescence regeneration after competitive binding with other potential guests present in solution was used as an indicator displacement assay to characterize the binding mechanism and affinity of alkaline metal ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+)) with SC6 and SC8...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joshua W Mouland, Adam R Stinchcombe, Daniel B Forger, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
A direct retinal projection targets the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (an important hypothalamic control center). The accepted function of this projection is to convey information about ambient light (irradiance) to synchronize the SCN's endogenous circadian clock with local time and drive the diurnal variations in physiology and behavior [1-4]. Here, we report that it also renders the SCN responsive to visual images. We map spatial receptive fields (RFs) for SCN neurons and find that only a minority are excited (or inhibited) by light from across the scene as expected for irradiance detectors...
May 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Zongzhen He, Junying Zhang, Xiguo Yuan, Zhaowen Liu, Baobao Liu, Shouheng Tuo, Yajun Liu
The stratification of cancer into subtypes that are significantly associated with clinical outcomes is beneficial for targeted prognosis and treatment. In this study, we integrated somatic mutation and gene expression data to identify clusters of patients. In contrast to previous studies, we constructed cancer-type-specific significant co-expression networks (SCNs) rather than using a fixed gene network across all cancers, such as the network-based stratification (NBS) method, which ignores cancer heterogeneity...
2017: PloS One
Katherine D Holland, Thomas M Bouley, Paul S Horn
OBJECTIVE: Variants in neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunits genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN8A are common in early onset epileptic encephalopathies and other autosomal dominant childhood epilepsy syndromes. However, in clinical practice, missense variants are often classified as variants of uncertain significance when missense variants are identified but heritability cannot be determined. Genetic testing reports often include results of computational tests to estimate pathogenicity and the frequency of that variant in population-based databases...
May 18, 2017: Epilepsia
Szymon Wojtyła, Wojciech Macyk, Tomasz Baran
Bare and photosensitized copper iodides were tested in photocatalysed degradation of an organic dye (Acid Red 1) and inactivation of fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). CuI, with the band gap energy slightly lower than that of TiO2, appeared to be highly efficient in these processes. Sensitization of copper iodide was achieved by surface modification with [Cu(SCN)2(phen)2]. The photosensitization mechanism encompasses a metal to metal charge transfer, Cu(I) → Cu(II). The applied photosensitizer binds to CuI through thiocyanate ligands resulting in the formation of an active Cu(II)/Cu(I) hybrid photocatalyst ([Cu(II)(SCN)2(phen)2]@Cu(I)I)...
May 17, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Mathew Paul Watts, Liam Patrick Spurr, Han Ming Gan, John William Moreau
Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) forms as a by-product of cyanidation during gold ore processing and can be degraded by a variety of microorganisms utilizing it as an energy, nitrogen, sulphur and/or carbon source. In complex consortia inhabiting bioreactor systems, a range of metabolisms are sustained by SCN(-) degradation; however, despite the addition or presence of labile carbon sources in most bioreactor designs to date, autotrophic bacteria have been found to dominate key metabolic functions. In this study, we cultured an autotrophic SCN(-)-degrading consortium directly from gold mine tailings...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiang Miao, Xinlong Yan, Dan Qu, Dabing Li, Franklin Feng Tao, Zaicheng Sun
It is highly desirable and great challenge for red light emission carbon dots under long wavelength excitation. Here, we developed a facile route to synthesize carbon dots with red emission due to the doping effect of S and N elements borrowing from the concept of semiconductor. The maximum emission locates at 594 nm under 560 nm excitation. The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) is as high as 29% and 22% in ethanol and water, respectively. FTIR and XPS clearly illustrated the presence of -SCN, and -COOH groups, which endow with high sensitivity for ion detection of Fe3+...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Zhongyuan Ruan
Mammals not only can be synchronized to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle, but also to a cycle with a non-24-h period. The range of the period of the external cycle, for which the animals can be entrained to, is called the entrainment range, which differs among species. The entrainment range as a characteristic of the animal is determined by the main circadian clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. The SCN is composed of ∼10000 heterogeneous neurons, which can be divided into two subgroups, i...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Kaoru Goto, Masao Doi, Tianyu Wang, Sumihiro Kunisue, Iori Murai, Hitoshi Okamura
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute an immensely important class of drug targets with diverse clinical applications. There are still more than 120 orphan GPCRs whose cognate ligands and physiological functions are not known. A set of circadian pacemaker neurons that governs daily rhythms in behavior and physiology resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Malfunction of the circadian clock has been linked to a multitude of diseases, such as sleeping disorders, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, which makes the clock an attractive target for drug development...
May 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
Sarah T Mitchell, Tracy J Costello, Kara M Nedderman
OBJECTIVE: To compare time to first dose of oral morphine used in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) versus a special care nursery (SCN) setting. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed of patient data from two community hospitals in a single health network. Infants born at either facility between January 2013 and August 2015 were eligible for inclusion in the study if treated for NAS with a course of oral morphine...
May 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
Nobuyuki Takayama, Lee Wah Lim, Toyohide Takeuchi
Zwitterionic monolithic columns were synthesized by a one-pot reaction using [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide, ethylene dimethacrylate, methanol and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) as the monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. The optimum conditions for polymerization and the efficiency of the prepared columns were examined for ion chromatography. The separation of five kinds of inorganic anions was achieved. The back pressures were monitored as increasing flow-rate, and the resulting plate heights (i...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Marc D Ruben, John B Hogenesch
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus are described as master pacemaker cells for biological rhythms. However, a series of recent studies demonstrate the importance of another cell type, astrocytes, for biological timekeeping.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Hitoshi Uchida, Takahiro J Nakamura, Nana N Takasu, Aya Obana-Koshino, Hitomi Ono, Takeshi Todo, Takayoshi Sakai, Wataru Nakamura
Salivary secretion displays day-night variations that are controlled by the circadian clock. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates daily physiological rhythms by prompting peripheral oscillators to adjust to changing environments. Aquaporin 5 (Aqp5) is known to play a key role in salivary secretion, but the association between Aqp5 and the circadian rhythm is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Aqp5 expression in submandibular glands (SMGs) is driven by the central clock in the SCN or by autonomous oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yue Zhuang, Wenjing Yuan, Liu Qian, Shan Chen, Gaoquan Shi
Thin films of a thiocyanate ion (SCN(-))-doped organometal halide perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x, were used as a sensing material for developing high-performance gas sensors. The CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x-based chemiresistor-type sensor can sensitively and selectively detect acetone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at room temperature with high sensitivities of 5.6 × 10(-3) and 5.3 × 10(-1) ppm(-1). The limits of detection for acetone and NO2 were measured to be 20 ppm and 200 ppb. This sensor also exhibited excellent repeatability, and its environmental stability was greatly improved by doping the perovskite with SCN(-) ions...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kumiko Dojo, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Jean-Michel Fustin, Masao Doi, Masaki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Okamura
Among nonphotic stimulants, a classic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, is known to have a strong and unique phase-resetting effect on the circadian clock: Intracerebroventricular carbachol treatment causes phase delays during the subjective early night and phase advances in the subjective late night, but the effects of this drug on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in vivo and in vitro are still controversial. In the present study, we succeeded in reproducing the biphasic phase-shifting effect of carbachol on clock gene expression in organotypic SCN slices prepared from mice carrying a Per1-promoter fused luciferase gene ( Per1-luc)...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Si-Yue Li, Ya-Li Wang, Wen-Wen Liu, Dong-Jun Lyu, Fen Wang, Cheng-Jie Mao, Ya-Ping Yang, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with long-term levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment are suffering from severe circadian dysfunction. However, it is hard to distinguish that the circadian disturbance in patients is due to the disease progression itself, or is affected by L-DOPA replacement therapy. This study was to investigate the role of L-DOPA on the circadian dysfunction in a rat model of PD. METHODS: The rat model of PD was constructed by a bilateral striatal injection with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), followed by administration of saline or 25 mg/kg L-DOPA for 21 consecutive days...
May 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
James C Walton, John K McNeill, Khallyl A Oliver, H Elliott Albers
Recent molecular studies suggest that the expression levels of δ and γ2 GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits regulate the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA neurotransmission in multiple brain regions. We investigated the expression of GABAAδ and GABAAγ2 and the functional significance of a change in balance between these subunits in a robust local GABA network contained within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). Muscimol, which can activate both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs, injected into the SCN during the day phase advanced the circadian pacemaker, whereas injection of the extrasynaptic GABAA superagonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP) had no effect on circadian phase...
March 2017: ENeuro
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