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Tomoko Yoshikawa, Natsuko F Inagaki, Seiji Takagi, Shigeru Kuroda, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) yields photoperiodic response to transfer seasonal information to physiology and behavior. To identify the precise location involved in photoperiodic response in the SCN, we analyzed circadian Period1 and PERIOD2 rhythms in horizontally sectioned SCN of mice exposed to a long or short day. Statistical analyses of bioluminescence images with respective luciferase reporters on pixel level enabled us to identify the distinct localization of three oscillating regions; a large open-ring-shape region, the region at the posterior end and a sharply demarcated oval region at the center of the SCN...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weiwu Li, Eva Rose, Minh Vu Tran, Ralph Hübner, Andrzej Łapiński, Roman Świetlik, Svetlana A Torunova, Elena I Zhilyaeva, Rimma N Lyubovskaya, Martin Dressel
We explore the nature of the metal-insulator transition in the two-dimensional organic compound β(″)-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl by x-ray, electrical transport, ESR, Raman, and infrared investigations. Magnetic and vibrational spectroscopy concurrently reveal a gradual dimerization along the stacking direction (a-b), setting in already at the crossover temperature of 150 K from the metallic to the insulating state. A spin gap of Δσ=47 meV is extracted. From the activated resistivity behavior below T = 55 K, a charge gap of Δρ=60 meV is derived...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Abou Attia Fekria M
Two new methods for the determination of amineptine (AMN) and amprolium (AMP) have been developed. The methods consist of extractin the ion - pairs between the drug and the inorganic complex [Co (SCN)₄](-2). The optimal experimental conditions of both methods including pH, concentration of Co (II) and tlxocyanate ions, and the organic solvents were studied. The optimum pH was found to be 3.9, nitrobenzene proved to be the most suitable solvent, giving quantitative extraction for the two drugs. The two drugs can be determined in the organic phase spectrophotometrically at 625 nm showing Sandell sensitivities of 0...
August 15, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Juliane F Ferreira, Izilda A Bagatin
A new quinoline-amide calix[4]arene 3-receptor for detection of hazardous anions and cations have been synthesized. The 3-receptor was examined for its sensing properties towards several different anions (Cr2O7(2-), SCN(-), F(-), Cl(-), NO3) and metal ions (Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Ag(+)) by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. It was detected that the 3-receptor has only sensing ability for Cr2O7(2-) and Hg(2+) ions, resulting in the association constants higher for Cr2O7(2-) than to the Hg(2+) ions. High selectivity towards Cr2O7(2-) were also observed by fluorescence measurement among other ions (F(-), Cl(-), SCN(-), Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Ag(+)) with a low limit of detection (7...
August 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Shibashis Halder, Arka Dey, Aradhita Bhattacharjee, Joaquín Ortega-Castro, Antonio Frontera, Partha Pratim Ray, Partha Roy
A Cd(ii) based 2D metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cd(4-bpd)(SCN)2]n (1) where 4-bpd = 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene, has been synthesized and characterized by standard methods including single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. When it is sandwiched between ITO coated glass and Al, 1 shows interesting conduction properties. The I-V characteristics of the ITO/1/Al configuration measured in the dark and under illumination of incident light exhibit a highly non-linear rectifying behavior, which signifies its Schottky diode character...
August 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ryan M Grippo, Aarti M Purohit, Qi Zhang, Larry S Zweifel, Ali D Güler
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
July 26, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yuanyuan Zhou, Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Rui Liu, Peng Xiang, Jingsheng Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Yuxi Duan, Lijie Chen
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101) produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
Bin Tian, Shichen Wang, Timothy C Todd, Charles D Johnson, Guiliang Tang, Harold N Trick
BACKGROUND: The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. RESULTS: In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production)...
August 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
Cyro Hauaji Zacarias, Claudia Esteban, Gilson Lucio Rodrigues, Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento
The cassava roots used for flour production contain high amounts of cyanogenic glycosides and are, therefore, potential hydrogen cyanide (HCN) releasers. This fact is the cause of an increasing health concern in the sector of cassava processing. Brazilian workers engaged in the flour production may be chronically exposed to HCN in levels above the safety limits. This hypothesis is based on the drastic reduction in cyanide content of cassava roots during a traditional Brazilian method of processing and in the physical properties of the compound, which makes it very susceptible to volatilization and air contamination...
July 27, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Céline Mariette, Elzbieta Trzop, Serhane Zerdane, Pierre Fertey, Daopeng Zhang, Francisco J Valverde-Muñoz, José Antonio Real, Eric Collet
The complex relaxation from the photoinduced high-spin phase (PIHS) to the low-spin phase of the bimetallic two-dimensional coordination spin-crossover polymer [Fe[(Hg(SCN)3)2](4,4'-bipy)2]n is reported. During the thermal relaxation, commensurate and incommensurate spin-state concentration waves (SSCWs) form. However, contrary to the steps forming at thermal equilibrium, associated with long-range SSCW order, the SSCWs forming during the relaxation from the PIHS phase correspond to short-range order, revealed by diffuse X-ray scattering...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vahagn Makaryan, Merideth L Kelley, Breanna Fletcher, Audrey Anna Bolyard, Andrew Aprikyan, David C Dale
Mutations in ELANE, the gene for neutrophil elastase (NE), a protease expressed early in neutrophil development, are the most frequent cause of cyclic (CyN) and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). We hypothesized that inhibitors of NE, acting either by directly inhibiting enzymatic activity or as chaperones for the mutant protein, might be effective as therapy for CyN and SCN. We investigated β-lactam-based inhibitors of human NE (Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ, USA), focusing on 1 inhibitor called MK0339, a potent, orally absorbed agent that had been tested in clinical trials and shown to have a favorable safety profile...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lukhanyo Mekuto, Seteno K O Ntwampe, John B N Mudumbi, Enoch A Akinpelu, Maxwell Mewa-Ngongang
The data presented in this article contains the bacterial community structure of the free cyanide (CN(-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) degrading organisms that were isolated from electroplating wastewater and synthetic SCN(-) containing wastewater. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 regions was undertaken using the 27F and 518R oligonucleotide primers following the metacommunity DNA extraction procedure. The PCR amplicons were processed using the illumina® reaction kits as per manufacturer׳s instruction and sequenced using the illumina® MiSeq-2000, using the MiSeq V3 kit...
August 2017: Data in Brief
Marcela C M Vaz, Valdemar I Esteves, Ricardo Calado
The illegal use of cyanide poisoning to supply live reef fish to several markets is one of the main threats to coral reefs conservation in the Indo-Pacific. The present study performed the first survey ever monitoring the marine aquarium trade in the EU for the presence of physiological evidence consistent with cyanide poisoning in live reef fish. This survey was also the first one worldwide employing a non-invasive sampling approach. Nearly 15% of the fish screened displayed physiological evidence of being illegally collected using cyanide poisoning (by testing positive for the presence of the thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) in their urine)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chen-Gang Wang, Atsushi Goto
Herein, a new reaction of an alkyl iodide (R-I) with an azide anion (N3(-)) to reversibly generate the corresponding alkyl radical (R(•)) is reported. Via this new reaction, N3(-) was used as an efficient catalyst in living radical polymerization, yielding a well-defined polymer-iodide. A particularly interesting finding was the solvent selectivity of this reaction; namely, R-I and N3(-) generated R(•) in nonpolar solvents, while the substitution product R-N3 was generated in polar solvents. Exploiting this unique solvent selectivity, a one-pot synthesis of polymer-N3 was attained...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Le Zhang, Lei Yu, Jian Zhang-Van Enk, Gang Huang, Jifeng Zhang
Modulation of liquid-liquid phase separation temperature (Tph) for liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of a Fc-fusion protein was studied at pH values below, near and above its pI where the net charge of the protein was positive, neutral and negative, respectively, in KF, KCl, KSCN and MgCl2 solutions. At the pH value near the pI, the monotonic drop in Tph for all the salt solutions suggests that both the anion and cation can disrupt attractive protein-protein interactions, effectively salting-in the protein...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Galina Brychkova, Assylay Kurmanbayeva, Aizat Bekturova, Inna Khozin, Dominic Standing, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Moshe Sagi
The amino acid cysteine plays a major role in plant response to abiotic stress by being the donor of elemental sulfur for the sulfuration of the molybdenum cofactor, otherwise the last step of ABA biosynthesis, the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde, is inactivated. Additionally, cysteine serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of glutathione, the reactive oxygen species scavenger essential for redox status homeostasis during stress. Cysteine is generated by the sulfate reductive pathway where sulfite oxidase (SO; EC 1...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shan-Ming Jiang, Li-Ping Zeng, Li Tang, Ni Li, Zhu-Ping Xu, Xin Wei
Sleep accounts for a third of one's lifetime, partial or complete deprivation of sleep could elicit sever disorders of body function. Previous studies have reported the higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients, but the definite mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. On the other hand, it is well known by us that the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) serve additional ocular functions, called non-image-forming (NIF) functions, in the regulation of circadian rhythm, melatonin secretion, sleep, mood and others...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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