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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921823/encoding-seasonal-information-in-a-two-oscillator-model-of-the-multi-oscillator-circadian-clock
#1
Jihwan Myung, Scott D Pauls
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a collection of about 10,000 neurons, each of which functions as a circadian clock with slightly different periods and phases, that work in concert to form and maintain the master circadian clock for the organism. The diversity among neurons confers on the SCN the ability to robustly encode both the 24-hour light pattern as well as the seasonal time. Cluster synchronization brings the different neurons into line and reduces the large population to essentially two oscillators, coordinated by a macroscopic network motif of asymmetric repulsive-attractive coupling...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916621/-64-cu-labeled-repebody-molecules-for-imaging-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-expressing-tumors
#2
Ayoung Pyo, Misun Yun, Hyeon-Sik Kim, Tae-Yoon Kim, Joong-Jae Lee, Jung Young Kim, Sunwoo Lee, Seong Young Kwon, Hee-Seung Bom, Hak-Sung Kim, Dong-Yeon Kim, Jung-Joon Min
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB family of receptors and is overexpressed in many tumor types. A repebody is a newly designed non-antibody protein scaffold for tumor targeting that contains leucine-rich repeat modules. In this study, three (64)Cu-labeled anti-EGFR repebodies with different chelators were synthesized, and their biological characteristics were assessed in cultured cells and tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Repebodies (rEgAs) were synthesized with the chelators p-SCN-Bn-NOTA, DOTA-NHS ester, or p-SCN-Bn-DTPA in 1...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912695/region-and-cell-specific-expression-of-transmembrane-collagens-in-mouse-brain
#3
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Courtney N Knill, Ubadah Sabbagh, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
Unconventional collagens are nonfribrillar proteins that not only contribute to the structure of extracellular matrices but exhibit unique bio-activities. Although roles for unconventional collagens have been well-established in the development and function of non-neural tissues, only recently have studies identified roles for these proteins in brain development, and more specifically, in the formation and refinement of synaptic connections between neurons. Still, our understanding of the full cohort of unconventional collagens that are generated in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912425/predictive-models-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-for-cirrhotic-patients-based-on-large-scale-brain-intrinsic-connectivity-networks
#4
Yun Jiao, Xun-Heng Wang, Rong Chen, Tian-Yu Tang, Xi-Qi Zhu, Gao-Jun Teng
We aimed to find the most representative connectivity patterns for minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and machine learning methods. Resting-state fMRI was administered to 33 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 43 cirrhotic patients without MHE (NMHE). The connectivity maps of 20 ICNs for each participant were obtained by dual regression. A Bayesian machine learning technique, called Graphical Model-based Multivariate Analysis, was applied to determine ICN regions that characterized group differences...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912378/systematic-mutagenesis-of-serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-reveals-essential-role-in-nematode-resistance
#5
Pramod K Kandoth, Shiming Liu, Elizabeth Prenger, Andrew Ludwig, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Robert Heinz, Zhou Zhou, Amanda Howland, Joshua Gunther, Samantha Eidson, Andi Dhroso, Peter Lafayette, Donna Tucker, Sarah Elizabeth Johnson, James Anderson, Alaa Alaswad, Silvia Cianzio, Wayne Allen Parrott, Dmitry Korkin, Khalid Meksem, Melissa G Mitchum
Rhg4 is a major genetic locus that contributes to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in the Peking-type resistance of soybean, which also requires the rhg1 gene. By map-based cloning and functional genomic approaches, we previously showed that the Rhg4 gene encodes a predicted cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GmSHMT08); however, the novel gain of function of GmSHMT08 in SCN resistance remains to be characterized. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified an allelic series of GmSHMT08 mutants that shed new light on the mechanistic aspects of GmSHMT08-mediated resistance...
September 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910068/iodine-mediated-etching-of-triangular-gold-nanoplates-for-colorimetric-sensing-of-copper-ion-and-aptasensing-of-chloramphenicol
#6
Chia-Chen Chang, Guoqing Wang, Tohru Takarada, Mizuo Maeda
A colorimetric method for fast, simple, and selective detection of Cu2+ was developed using I--mediated etching of triangular gold nanoplates (AuNPLs). The method was based on our finding that Cu2+ efficiently promoted this etching in the presence of SCN-. The etching process was accompanied by a dramatic color change from blue to red, allowing for visual and spectroscopic detection of Cu2+ with a detection limit of 10 μM and 1 μM, respectively. By incorporating molecular recognition by a DNA aptamer into this method, visual detection of chloramphenicol was also achieved with a detection limit of 5 μM...
September 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893469/-68-ga-labeled-erlotinib-a-novel-pet-probe-for-imaging-egfr-over-expressing-tumors
#7
Akanksha Jain, Mythili Kameswaran, Usha Pandey, Kumar Prabhash, Haladhar Dev Sarma, Ashutosh Dash
Molecular imaging using radiolabeled Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) is a promising strategy for detection and staging of EGFR-positive cancers. A novel analogue of one such TKI, Erlotinib has been developed for PET imaging by derivatizing the parent Erlotinib molecule for conjugation with the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-NOTA towards radiolabeling with (68)Ga. NOTA-Erlotinib conjugate was synthesized and characterized by NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The conjugate was radiolabeled with (68)Ga in 95±2% yield, as evidenced by HPLC characterization...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892743/ion-macromolecule-interactions-studied-with-model-polyurethanes
#8
Borja Fernández-d'Arlas, Miguel Ángel Huertos, Alejandro J Müller
HYPOTHESIS: The solubility and self-assembly of macromolecules in solution can be tuned by the presence of different salts. Natural proteins have been long manipulated with the aid of salts, and natural silk is processed in the gland tip across a gradient of different salts which modifies its solubility. Hence, the comprehensive understanding of the role of ion-macromolecule interactions should pave the way towards a biomimetic processing of macromolecules. EXPERIMENTS: A model polyurethane catiomer (PU(+)) with high density of hydrogen donors and acceptors (similar to proteins) has been designed and synthesized in order to study ion-macromolecule interactions by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR)...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886336/temperature-sensitive-substrate-and-product-binding-underlie-temperature-compensated-phosphorylation-in-the-clock
#9
Yuta Shinohara, Yohei M Koyama, Maki Ukai-Tadenuma, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Masaki Kikuchi, Rikuhiro G Yamada, Hideki Ukai, Hiroshi Fujishima, Takashi Umehara, Kazuki Tainaka, Hiroki R Ueda
Temperature compensation is a striking feature of the circadian clock. Here we investigate biochemical mechanisms underlying temperature-compensated, CKIδ-dependent multi-site phosphorylation in mammals. We identify two mechanisms for temperature-insensitive phosphorylation at higher temperature: lower substrate affinity to CKIδ-ATP complex and higher product affinity to CKIδ-ADP complex. Inhibitor screening of ADP-dependent phosphatase activity of CKIδ identified aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) as a temperature-sensitive kinase activator...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874778/the-impact-of-temporal-modulations-in-irradiance-under-light-adapted-conditions-on-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nuclei-scn
#10
Rachel Dobb, Franck Martial, Daniel Elijah, Riccardo Storchi, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
Electrophysiological responses of SCN neurons to light steps are well established, but responses to more natural modulations in irradiance have been much less studied. We address this deficit first by showing that variations in irradiance for human subjects are biased towards low temporal frequencies and small magnitudes. Using extracellular recordings we show that neurons in the mouse SCN are responsive to stimuli with these characteristics, tracking sinusoidal modulations in irradiance best at lower temporal frequencies and responding to abrupt changes in irradiance over a range of commonly encountered contrasts...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874045/anion-selective-cholesterol-decorated-macrocyclic-transmembrane-ion-carriers
#11
Harekrushna Behera, Nandita Madhavan
Anion transporters play a vital role in cellular processes and their dysregulation leads to a range of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Bartter's syndrome and epilepsy. Synthetic chloride transporters are known to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Herein, we report triamide macrocycles that are easily synthesized and externally functionalized by pendant membrane-permeable groups. Among a variety of chains appended onto the macrocycle scaffold, cholesterol is found to be the best with an EC50 value of 0...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872646/the-impact-of-ionic-liquids-on-the-coordination-of-anions-with-solvatochromic-copper-complexes
#12
O Kuzmina, N H Hassan, L Patel, C Ashworth, E Bakis, A J P White, P A Hunt, T Welton
Solvatochromic transition metal (TM)-complexes with weakly associating counter-anions are often used to evaluate traditional neutral solvent and anion coordination ability. However, when employed in ionic liquids (IL) many of the common assumptions made are no longer reliable. This study investigates the coordinating ability of weakly coordinating IL anions in traditional solvents and within IL solvents employing a range of solvatochromic copper complexes. Complexes of the form [Cu(acac)(tmen)][X] (acac = acetylacetonate, tmen = tetramethylethylenediamine) where [X](-) = [ClO4](-), Cl(-), [NO3](-), [SCN](-), [OTf](-), [NTf2](-) and [PF6](-) have been synthesised and characterised both experimentally and computationally...
September 28, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#13
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860458/intracellular-chloride-regulation-in-avp-and-vip-neurons-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#14
Nathan J Klett, Charles N Allen
Several reports have described excitatory GABA transmission in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker of circadian physiology. However, there is disagreement regarding the prevalence, timing, and neuronal location of excitatory GABA transmission in the SCN. Whether GABA is inhibitory or excitatory depends, in part, on the intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl(-)]i). Here, using ratiometric Cl(-) imaging, we have investigated intracellular chloride regulation in AVP and VIP-expressing SCN neurons and found evidence suggesting that [Cl(-)]i is higher during the day than during the night in both AVP+ and VIP+ neurons...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858407/neural-correlates-of-food-anticipatory-activity-in-mice-subjected-to-once-or-twice-daily-feeding-periods
#15
Ashutosh Rastogi, Eric M Mintz
In rodents, restricted food access to a limited period each day at a predictable time results in the appearance of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Two shorter periods of food access each day can result in two FAA bouts. In this study, we examine FAA under 12:12 and 18:6 photoperiods in mice (Mus musculus) with one or two food access periods per day, and measure the activation of the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial, and arcuate nuclei by assaying Fos protein expression, while making use of tissue-type plasminogen activator knockout mice to assess the role of neural plasticity in adaptation to restricted feeding cycles...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856099/rna-seq-data-comparisons-of-wild-soybean-genotypes-in-response-to-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#16
Hengyou Zhang, Bao-Hua Song
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines), one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855650/novel-rbfox2-isoforms-associated-with-alternative-exon-usage-in-rat-cortex-and-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#17
L M M Partridge, D A Carter
Transcriptome diversity in adult neurons is partly mediated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including the RBFOX factors. RBFOX3/NeuN, a neuronal maturity marker, is strangely depleted in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons, and may be compensated by a change in Rbfox2 expression. In this study, we found no superficial changes in Rbfox2 expression in the SCN, but mRNA population analysis revealed a distinct SCN transcript profile that includes multiple novel Rbfox2 isoforms. Of eleven isoforms in SCN and cerebral cortex that exhibit exon variation across two protein domains, we found a 3-fold higher abundance of a novel ('-12-40') C-terminal domain (CTD)-variant in the SCN...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855287/gaba-transporters-regulate-tonic-and-synaptic-gabaa-receptor-mediated-currents-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-neurons
#18
Michael G Moldavan, Olga Cravetchi, Charles N Allen
GABA is a principal neurotransmitter in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that contributes to intercellular communication between individual circadian oscillators within the SCN network and the stability and precision of the circadian rhythms. GABA transporters (GAT) regulate the extracellular GABA concentration and modulate GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. GABA transport inhibitors were applied to study how GABAAR-mediated currents depend on the expression and function of GAT. Nipecotic acid inhibits GABA transport and induced an inward tonic current in concentration-dependent manner during whole-cell patch clamp recordings from SCN neurons...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852484/sickle-cell-disease-and-albuminuria-recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-sickle-cell-nephropathy
#19
Vincent Audard, Pablo Bartolucci, Thomas Stehlé
Albuminuria is considered to be a relevant biomarker for the detection of early glomerular damage in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Improvements in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying albuminuria are required, because increasing numbers of patients with SCD are developing chronic kidney disease. The early recognition of sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) and studies of the natural course of this emerging renal disease are therefore crucial, together with identification of the associated clinical and biological risk factors, to make it possible to initiate kidney-protective therapy at early stages of renal impairment...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852059/comparative-rna-seq-analysis-uncovers-a-complex-regulatory-network-for-soybean-cyst-nematode-resistance-in-wild-soybean-glycine-soja
#20
Hengyou Zhang, Susanne Kjemtrup-Lovelace, Changbao Li, Yan Luo, Lars P Chen, Bao-Hua Song
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most damaging pest of soybean worldwide. The molecular mechanism of SCN resistance remains largely unknown. We conducted a global RNA-seq comparison between a resistant genotype (S54) and a susceptible genotype (S67) of Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, to understand its regulatory network in SCN defense. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in S54 (2,290) was much larger than that in S67 (555). A number of defense-related genes/pathways were significantly induced only in S54, while photosynthesis and several metabolic pathways were affected in both genotypes with SCN infection...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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