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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626075/sex-differences-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology-estrogen-and-androgen-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#1
Austin C Boese, Seong Chul Kim, Ke-Jie Yin, Jean-Pyo Lee, Milton H Hamblin
Sex differences between women and men are often overlooked and underappreciated when studying the cardiovascular system. It has been long assumed that men and women are physiologically similar, and this notion has resulted in females being clinically evaluated and treated for cardiovascular pathophysiological complications as males. Currently, there is increased recognition of fundamental sex differences in cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling, and pathophysiology. NIH has enacted guidelines expressly to gain knowledge about ways the sexes differ in both normal function and diseases at the various research levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system)...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624601/the-manchester-fly-facility-implementing-an-objective-driven-long-term-science-communication-initiative
#2
REVIEW
Sanjai Patel, Andreas Prokop
Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624548/glucocorticoids-and-gut-bacteria-the-galf-hypothesis-in-the-metagenomic-era
#3
REVIEW
David J Morris, Jason M Ridlon
A new concept is emerging in biomedical sciences: the gut microbiota is a virtual 'organ' with endocrine function. Here, we explore the literature pertaining to the role of gut microbial metabolism of endogenous adrenocorticosteroids as a contributing factor in the etiology of essential hypertension. A body of literature demonstrates that bacterial products of glucocorticoid metabolism are absorbed into the portal circulation, and pass through the kidney before excretion into urine. Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME) syndrome patients were found to have congenital mutations resulting in non-functional renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) and severe hypertension often lethal in childhood...
June 14, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621412/the-not-so-long-history-of-zebrafish-research-in-israel
#4
Janna Blechman, Gil Levkowitz, Yoav Gothilf
The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine. The transparency of the zebrafish embryo allows real-time visualization of the development and morphogenesis of practically all of its tissues and organs. Zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, for which innovative genetic and molecular techniques are constantly being introduced...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617497/flexible-hybrid-graphene-a-si-h-multispectral-photodetectors
#5
D S Schneider, A Bablich, M C Lemme
We report on the integration of large area CVD grown single- and bilayer graphene transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) on amorphous silicon multispectral photodetectors. The broadband transmission of graphene results in 440% enhancement of the detectors' spectral response in the ultraviolet (UV) region at λ = 320 nm compared to reference devices with conventional aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) electrodes. The maximum responsivity of the multispectral photodetectors can be tuned in their wavelength from 320 nm to 510 nm by an external bias voltage, allowing single pixel detection of UV to visible light...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614799/globalization-and-changing-trends-of-biomedical-research-output
#6
Marisa L Conte, Jing Liu, Santiago Schnell, M Bishr Omary
The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608412/semiparametric-regression-on-cumulative-incidence-function-with-interval-censored-competing-risks-data
#7
Giorgos Bakoyannis, Menggang Yu, Constantin T Yiannoutsos
Many biomedical and clinical studies with time-to-event outcomes involve competing risks data. These data are frequently subject to interval censoring. This means that the failure time is not precisely observed but is only known to lie between two observation times such as clinical visits in a cohort study. Not taking into account the interval censoring may result in biased estimation of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function, an important quantity in the competing risks framework, used for evaluating interventions in populations, for studying the prognosis of various diseases, and for prediction and implementation science purposes...
June 12, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606894/developing-a-curriculum-for-information-and-communications-technology-use-in-global-health-research-and-training-a-qualitative-study-among-chinese-health-sciences-graduate-students
#8
Zhenyu Ma, Li Yang, Lan Yang, Kaiyong Huang, Hongping Yu, Huimin He, Jiaji Wang, Le Cai, Jie Wang, Hua Fu, Lisa Quintiliani, Robert H Friedman, Jian Xiao, Abu S Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) during the last decade has transformed biomedical and population-based research and has become an essential part of many types of research and educational programs. However, access to these ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research are often lacking in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) institutions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the practical issues (ie, perceptions and learning needs) of ICT use among health sciences graduate students at 6 major medical universities of southern China...
June 12, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605402/sparse-redundancy-analysis-of-high-dimensional-genetic-and-genomic-data
#9
Attila Csala, Frans P J M Voorbraak, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Michel H Hof
Motivation: Recent technological developments have enabled the possibility of genetic and genomic integrated data analysis approaches, where multiple omics data sets from various biological levels are combined and used to describe (disease) phenotypic variations. The main goal is to explain and ultimately predict phenotypic variations by understanding their genetic basis and the interaction of the associated genetic factors. Therefore, understanding the underlying geneticmechanisms of phenotypic variations is an ever increasing research interest in biomedical sciences...
June 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603606/synthesis-and-properties-of-magnetic-optical-core-shell-nanoparticles
#10
Elyahb Allie Kwizera, Elise Chaffin, Yongmei Wang, Xiaohua Huang
Due to their high integrity, facile surface chemistry, excellent stability, and dual properties from the core and shell materials, magnetic-plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles are of great interest across a number of science, engineering and biomedical disciplines. They are promising for applications in a broad range of areas including catalysis, energy conversion, biological separation, medical imaging, disease detection and treatment. The technological applications have driven the need for high quality nanoparticles with well controlled magnetic and optical properties...
March 19, 2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603008/scientific-citations-favor-positive-results-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Bram Duyx, Miriam J E Urlings, Gerard M H Swaen, Lex M Bouter, Maurice P Zeegers
OBJECTIVE: Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of Science Core Collection and Medline, yielding 52 studies in total. We classified these studies on scientific discipline, selection method and other variables. We also performed random effects meta-analyses to pool the effect of positive versus negative results on subsequent citations...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596987/biodegradable-polyphosphazene-based-blends-for-regenerative-engineering
#12
Kenneth S Ogueri, Jorge L Escobar Ivirico, Lakshmi S Nair, Harry R Allcock, Cato T Laurencin
The occurrence of musculoskeletal tissue injury or disease and the subsequent functional impairment is at an alarming rate. It continues to be one of the most challenging problems in the human health care. Regenerative engineering offers a promising transdisciplinary strategy for tissues regeneration based on the convergence of tissue engineering, advanced materials science, stem cell science, developmental biology and clinical translation. Biomaterials are emerging as extracellular-mimicking matrices designed to provide instructive cues to control cell behavior and ultimately, be applied as therapies to regenerate damaged tissues...
March 2017: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592178/artificially-engineered-protein-polymers
#13
Yun Jung Yang, Angela L Holmberg, Bradley D Olsen
Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587631/bacterial-etiologic-agents-causing-neonatal-sepsis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-gondar-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Tsehaynesh G/Eyesus, Feleke Moges, Setegn Eshetie, Biruk Yeshitela, Ebba Abate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a blood stream infection which is seen in the first month of life of the neonate. Bacterial profile of neonatal septicemia is constantly changing thus, current knowledge on the patterns of bacterial isolates, its antibiotic resistance profile, and associated factors, are essential to design and implement appropriate interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial etiologic agents, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of neonatal sepsis among neonates...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585739/iron-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-cytotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes
#15
Usha Singh Gaharwar, Ramovatar Meena, Paulraj Rajamani
Over the past few decades nanotechnology and material science has progressed extremely rapidly. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) owing to their unique magnetic properties have a great potential for their biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, there is an inevitable need to address the issue of safety and health effects of these nanoparticles. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of IONPs on rats' lymphocytes. Using different assays, we studied diverse parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase activity, antioxidant enzymes activity and DNA damage measurements...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585310/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#16
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). However, it is still questionable if eradication of hepatitis C virus in the blood eliminates hepatitis C in the body, and improves survival and leads to fewer complications...
June 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584129/future-of-fundamental-discovery-in-us-biomedical-research
#17
Michael Levitt, Jonathan M Levitt
Young researchers are crucially important for basic science as they make unexpected, fundamental discoveries. Since 1982, we find a steady drop in the number of grant-eligible basic-science faculty [principal investigators (PIs)] younger than 46. This fall occurred over a 32-y period when inflation-corrected congressional funds for NIH almost tripled. During this time, the PI success ratio (fraction of basic-science PIs who are R01 grantees) dropped for younger PIs (below 46) and increased for older PIs (above 55)...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579453/building-dialogues-between-clinical-and-biomedical-research-through-cross-species-collaborations
#18
REVIEW
Hsiao-Tuan Chao, Lucy Liu, Hugo J Bellen
Today, biomedical science is equipped with an impressive array of technologies and genetic resources that bolster our basic understanding of fundamental biology and enhance the practice of modern medicine by providing clinicians with a diverse toolkit to diagnose, prognosticate, and treat a plethora of conditions. Many significant advances in our understanding of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions have arisen from fruitful dialogues between clinicians and biomedical research scientists. However, the increasingly specialized scientific and medical disciplines, globalization of science and technology, and complex datasets often hinder the development of effective interdisciplinary collaborations between clinical medicine and biomedical research...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576567/developing-a-data-sharing-community-for-spinal-cord-injury-research
#19
REVIEW
Alison Callahan, Kim D Anderson, Michael S Beattie, John L Bixby, Adam R Ferguson, Karim Fouad, Lyn B Jakeman, Jessica L Nielson, Phillip G Popovich, Jan M Schwab, Vance P Lemmon
The rapid growth in data sharing presents new opportunities across the spectrum of biomedical research. Global efforts are underway to develop practical guidance for implementation of data sharing and open data resources. These include the recent recommendation of 'FAIR Data Principles', which assert that if data is to have broad scientific value, then digital representations of that data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). The spinal cord injury (SCI) research field has a long history of collaborative initiatives that include sharing of preclinical research models and outcome measures...
May 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575861/diagnostic-accuracy-of-pcr-for-detecting-alk-gene-rearrangement-in-nsclc-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Xia Zhang, Jian-Guo Zhou, Hua-Lian Wu, Hu Ma, Zhi-Xia Jiang
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusion has been reported in 3~5% non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detecting the gene status, but the diagnostic capacity of it is still controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of PCR for detecting ALK gene rearrangement in NSCLC patients. RESULTS: 18 articles were enrolled, which included 21 studies, involving 2800 samples from NSCLC patients...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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