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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078659/summer-research-training-provides-effective-tools-for-underrepresented-minorities-to-obtain-doctoral-level-degrees
#1
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Ashish Damania, Teri L Turner, Gayle Slaughter, Kendal D Hirschi
The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree completion rates by participants in these programs. This study evaluates the attainment of doctoral degrees by a NIH-funded cohort of undergraduates from the 1998-2002 Baylor College of Medicine's Summer Medical Research Training (SMART) program...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077906/how-to-improve-visibility-of-scientific-biomedical-sources
#2
REVIEW
Asim Kurjak
With the rapid development of information and communications technologies, industrial nations are transforming into societies in which knowledge is the most contested and valuable good. The increased speed at which we have to acquire new knowledge, insights, and abilities is forcing us to divide up learning into novel, shorter phases. The traditional choreography of learning with its long, rigid defined school, job, and university educational periods is already obsolete today. Self-organized, lifelong learning is becoming a must...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074545/development-and-testing-of-a-database-of-nih-research-funding-of-aapm-members-a-report-from-aapm-working-group-for-the-development-of-a-research-database-wgdrd
#3
Brendan Whelan, Eduardo Moros, Rebecca Fahrig, James Deye, Thomas Yi, Michael Woodward, Paul Keall, Jeff Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: To produce and maintain a database of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members, to perform a top level analysis of this data, and to make this data (hereafter referred to as the AAPM research database) available for the use of the AAPM and its members. METHODS: NIH funded research dating back to 1985 is available for public download through the NIH exporter website, and AAPM membership information dating back to 2002 was supplied by the AAPM...
January 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071731/in-silico-experiments-of-zebrafish-behaviour-modeling-swimming-in-three-dimensions
#4
Violet Mwaffo, Sachit Butail, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069037/health-and-genetic-ancestry-testing-time-to-bridge-the-gap
#5
Andrew Smart, Deborah A Bolnick, Richard Tutton
BACKGROUND: It is becoming increasingly difficult to keep information about genetic ancestry separate from information about health, and consumers of genetic ancestry tests are becoming more aware of the potential health risks associated with particular ancestral lineages. Because some of the proposed associations have received little attention from oversight agencies and professional genetic associations, scientific developments are currently outpacing governance regimes for consumer genetic testing...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#6
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065430/informed-consent-in-dental-care-and-research-for-the-older-adult-population-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Alicia A Livinski, Joseph Millum, Steffany Chamut, Shahdokht Boroumand, Timothy J Iafolla, Margo R Adesanya, Bruce A Dye
BACKGROUND: Ethics in health care and research is based on the fundamental principle of informed consent. However, informed consent in geriatric dentistry is not well documented. Poor health, cognitive decline, and the passive nature of many geriatric patients complicate this issue. METHODS: The authors completed this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors searched the PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063110/toward-the-next-step-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-research-a-knowledge-driven-analysis-for-the-next-potential-targets-in-drug-discovery
#8
Koji Nagata, Yukie Katayama, Tomomi Sato, Yeondae Kwon, Takeshi Kawabata
More than 800 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes have been discovered in the human genome. Towards the next step in GPCR research, we performed a knowledge-driven analysis of orphan class-A GPCRs that may serve as novel targets in drug discovery. We examined the relationship between 61 orphan class-A GPCR genes and diseases using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and the DDSS tool. The OMIM database contains data on disease-related variants of the genes. Particularly, the variants of GPR101, GPR161, and GPR88 are related to the genetic diseases: growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma 2, pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (not confirmed), and childhood-onset chorea with psychomotor retardation, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060984/-saints-in-medicine-during-the-great-wars-of-the-twentieth-century
#9
María Agustina Martini, Bárbara C Finn, Julio E Bruetman, Pablo Young
In the political and social context of World War periods and unstoppable technological advances, health professionals in the early twentieth century tried to orientate the practice of medicine towards a modern anthropological concept close to the biomedical perspective, which defends the dignity of a person. Threatened by the risks represented by collectivism and the meanness of the prevailing repressive governments, a personal struggle for the defense of life aroused, which was socially expressed by the advent of bioethics, psychoanalytic theories and the concept that environment has an important role in people’s health and welfare...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060489/watching-proteins-wiggle-mapping-structures-with-two-dimensional-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Ayanjeet Ghosh, Joshua S Ostrander, Martin T Zanni
Proteins exhibit structural fluctuations over decades of time scales. From the picosecond side chain motions to aggregates that form over the course of minutes, characterizing protein structure over these vast lengths of time is important to understanding their function. In the past 15 years, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) has been established as a versatile tool that can uniquely probe proteins structures on many time scales. In this review, we present some of the basic principles behind 2D IR and show how they have, and can, impact the field of protein biophysics...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060309/symmetric-bihemispheric-postmortem-brain-cutting-to-study-healthy-and-pathological-brain-conditions-in-humans
#11
Diego Iacono, Maria Geraci-Erck, Hui Peng, John Paul Bouffard
Neuropathologists, at times, feel intimidated by the amount of knowledge needed to generate definitive diagnoses for complex neuropsychiatric phenomena described in those patients for whom a brain autopsy has been requested. Although the advancements of biomedical sciences and neuroimaging have revolutionized the neuropsychiatric field, they have also generated the misleading idea that brain autopsies have only a confirmatory value. This false idea created a drastic reduction of autopsy rates and, consequently, a reduced possibility to perform more detailed and extensive neuropathological investigations, which are necessary to comprehend numerous normal and pathological aspects yet unknown of the human brain...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057608/acupuncture-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Taipin Guo, Bowen Zhu, Qian Zhang, Yejiao Yang, Qi He, Xinghe Zhang, Xiantao Tai
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP), a childhood disease of high morbidity and serious harmfulness, has no effective therapies to completely relieve the associated pain. Acupuncture has been used widely in China to alleviate several CP symptoms, such as pain and motion disorders, despite the deficiency of high-quality evidence related to this practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review protocol is to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP...
January 5, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057335/big-data-science-a-literature-review-of-nursing-research-exemplars
#13
Bonnie L Westra, Martha Sylvia, Elizabeth F Weinfurter, Lisiane Pruinelli, Jung In Park, Dianna Dodd, Gail M Keenan, Patricia Senk, Rachel L Richesson, Vicki Baukner, Christopher Cruz, Grace Gao, Luann Whittenburg, Connie W Delaney
BACKGROUND: Big data and cutting-edge analytic methods in nursing research challenge nurse scientists to extend the data sources and analytic methods used for discovering and translating knowledge. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and synthesize exemplars of big data nursing research applied to practice and disseminated in key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals. METHODS: A literature review of studies published between 2009 and 2015...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056721/controlling-new-knowledge-genomic-science-governance-and-the-politics-of-bioinformatics
#14
Brian Salter, Charlotte Salter
The rise of bioinformatics is a direct response to the political difficulties faced by genomics in its quest to be a new biomedical innovation, and the value of bioinformatics lies in its role as the bridge between the promise of genomics and its realization in the form of health benefits. Western scientific elites are able to use their close relationship with the state to control and facilitate the emergence of new domains compatible with the existing distribution of epistemic power - all within the embrace of public trust...
January 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053064/scientific-knowledge-and-technology-animal-experimentation-and-pharmaceutical-development
#15
Lewis B Kinter, Joseph J DeGeorge
Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049518/an-ontological-analysis-of-medical-bayesian-indicators-of-performance
#16
Adrien Barton, Jean-François Ethier, Régis Duvauferrier, Anita Burgun
BACKGROUND: Biomedical ontologies aim at providing the most exhaustive and rigorous representation of reality as described by biomedical sciences. A large part of medical reasoning deals with diagnosis and is essentially probabilistic. It would be an asset for biomedical ontologies to be able to support such a probabilistic reasoning and formalize Bayesian indicators of performance: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In doing so, one has to consider that not only the positive and negative predictive values, but also sensitivity and specificity depend upon the group under consideration: this is the "spectrum effect"...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048687/tu-fg-207b-05-funding-opportunities-at-the-national-science-foundation
#17
W Olbricht
: Up-to-date knowledge about federal funding opportunities related to medical physics research, as well as obtaining skills for writing effective grant proposals are critical for academic and entrepreneurial medical physicists. In this symposium, program directors from key federal research funding agencies, including the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and the National Science Foundation, will present information about current funding opportunities relevant to the field of medical physics...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048641/tu-fg-207b-01-report-on-development-of-a-database-of-nih-funding-of-medical-physicists
#18
B Whelan
: Up-to-date knowledge about federal funding opportunities related to medical physics research, as well as obtaining skills for writing effective grant proposals are critical for academic and entrepreneurial medical physicists. In this symposium, program directors from key federal research funding agencies, including the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and the National Science Foundation, will present information about current funding opportunities relevant to the field of medical physics...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047995/tu-fg-206-00-imaging-informatics
#19
Paul Nagy
The field of imaging informatics is a subfield of biomedical informatics that combines medical physics with computer, clinical, and cognitive sciences. In this session jointly sponsored with the Society of Imaging Informatics in Medicine, we will provide an overview of the field starting with the highly applied role of information technology working with imaging modalities to research areas in computer vision, annotation markup, and semantic ontologies that can leverage machine encoded reasoning systems. We will highlight new technologies that are beneficial to medical physicists conducting research as well as translating research into clinical practice...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047976/tu-fg-207b-02-nibib-funding-opportunities
#20
S Krosnick
: Up-to-date knowledge about federal funding opportunities related to medical physics research, as well as obtaining skills for writing effective grant proposals are critical for academic and entrepreneurial medical physicists. In this symposium, program directors from key federal research funding agencies, including the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and the National Science Foundation, will present information about current funding opportunities relevant to the field of medical physics...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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