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Biomedical science

Sara S Franco, Karolina Szczesna, Maria S Iliou, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Ali Mobasheri, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Cancer cells, stem cells and cancer stem cells have for a long time played a significant role in the biomedical sciences. Though cancer therapy is more effective than it was a few years ago, the truth is that still none of the current non-surgical treatments can cure cancer effectively. The reason could be due to the subpopulation called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs), being defined as those cells within a tumour that have properties of stem cells: self-renewal and the ability for differentiation into multiple cell types that occur in tumours...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Katherine Picho, Lauren A Maggio, Anthony R Artino
Recent crises over the credibility of research in psychology and the biomedical sciences have highlighted the need for researchers to view and treat replication research as essential to the accumulation of knowledge. In this article, the authors make the case for the utility of replication in medical education research. Specifically, the authors contend that because research in medical education often adopts theories from other disciplines, replication is necessary to gauge the applicability of those theories to the specific medical education context...
October 20, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Yao Cheng, Jie Xia, Mingliang Lai, Nansheng Cheng, Sirong He
BACKGROUND: The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: For the initial version of this review, we searched the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), Embase (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015)...
October 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Cynthia N Fuhrmann
PhD-trained biomedical scientists are moving into an increasingly diverse variety of careers within the sciences. However, our graduate and postdoctoral training programs have historically focused on academic career preparation, and have not sufficiently prepared trainees for transitioning into other scientific careers. Advocates for science have raised the concern that our collective disregard of the broader career development needs for predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees could drive talent away from science in upcoming generations...
October 20, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
M Hrubý, J Kučka, J Pánek, P Štěpánek
For many important research topics in polymer science the use of radionuclides brings significant benefits concerning nanotechnology, polymer drug delivery systems, tissue engineering etc. This contribution describes important achievements of the radionuclide laboratory at Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (IMC) in the area of polymers for biomedical applications. Particular emphasis will be given to water-soluble polymer carriers of radionuclides, thermoresponsive polymer radionuclide carriers, thermoresponsive polymers for local brachytherapy, polymer scaffolds modified with (radiolabeled) peptides and polymer copper chelators for the therapy of Wilson´s disease...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Dileep K Rohra, Vikram K Rohra, Peter Cahusac
To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Jae M Sevelius, Madeline B Deutsch, Robert Grant
INTRODUCTION: Globally, transgender ("trans") women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Rui Yang, Shuo Yang, Rong Li, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao, Yanwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The study evaluated the effect of hyperandrogenism (HA) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on metabolic parameters. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang data and VIP for clinical observational studies. The study evaluated PCOS patients with or without HA on metabolic parameters was included. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, indexes of insulin resistance (IR) including homeostasis model assessment IR index (HOMA-IR), incidence of IR, biomarkers of serum lipid metabolism such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)...
October 18, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Kejia Hu, Chao Chen, Qingyao Meng, Ziv Williams, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: With the tremendous advances in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), the literature in this field has grown exponentially; examination of highly cited articles is a tool that can help identify outstanding scientific studies and landmark papers. This study examined the characteristics of 100 highly cited BCI papers over the past 10 years. METHODS: The Web of Science was searched for highly cited papers related to BCI research published from 2006 to 2015...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Peter J Kelly, Gregory W Albers, Anastasios Chatzikonstantinou, Gian Marco De Marchis, Julia Ferrari, Paul George, Mira Katan, Michael Knoflach, Jong S Kim, Linxin Li, Eun-Jae Lee, Jean-Marc Olivot, Francisco Purroy, Nicolas Raposo, Peter M Rothwell, Vijay K Sharma, Bo Song, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Cathal Walsh, Yuming Xu, Aine Merwick
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at highest risk of early stroke after transient ischaemic attack has been improved with imaging based scores. We aimed to compare the validity and prognostic utility of imaging-based stroke risk scores in patients after transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of published and unpublished individual-patient data from 16 cohort studies of transient ischaemic attack done in Asia, Europe, and the USA, with early brain and vascular imaging and follow up...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Sally J Wadsworth, John C DeFries, Erik G Willcutt, Bruce F Pennington, Richard K Olson
Because of recent concerns about the replication of published results in the behavioral and biomedical sciences (Ioannidis, PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, 2005, p. e124; Open Science Collaboration, Science, Vol. 349, 2015, p. 943; Pashler & Wagenmakers, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 7, 2012, pp. 528-530), we have conducted a replication of our recently published analyses of longitudinal reading performance and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder data from twin pairs selected for reading difficulties (Wadsworth et al...
October 17, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Sarwar Beg, Mahfoozur Rahman, Atul Jain, Sumant Saini, Patrick Midoux, Chantal Pichon, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Sohail Akhter
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), porous hybrid polymer-metal composites at the nanoscale, are recent innovations in the field of chemistry; they are novel polymeric materials with diverse biomedical applications. MOFs are nanoporous materials, consisting of metal ions linked together by organic bridging ligands. The unique physical and chemical characteristics of MOFs have attracted wider attention from the scientific community, exploring their utility in the field of material science, biology, nanotechnology and drug delivery...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
George A Mensah
The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) has been highly successful in investigating the prevalence, characteristics, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic American cohort of adult men and women free of CVD at baseline. MESA has also championed the use of novel biomarkers and emerging imaging techniques for the assessment of subclinical CVD and has created an extensive set of data that continues to fuel dozens of ongoing analyses. Insights from MESA include the first demonstration of ethnic differences in coronary artery calcification and its association with subclinical disease progression and incident CVD...
September 2016: Global Heart
Elisabetta Vignudelli, Giuseppe Monaco, Maria Rosaria Antonella Gatto, Simonetta Franco, Claudio Marchetti, Giuseppe Corinaldesi
PURPOSE: Coronectomy of mandibular third molars is a procedure that still raises a number of questions. The aim of the present study was to answer one unsolved question: the periodontal healing distal to the mandibular second molar after third molar coronectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of 30 patients treated at the Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science of the University of Bologna...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Yongcai Chen, Zhuo Chen, Shuo Cui, Zhiyang Li, Zhengjiang Yuan
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug widely used to reduce blood loss during joint replacements, including total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there is no final consensus regarding the composition of an optimal administration of TXA regime between topical and systemic (intravenous). The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of topical and intravenous (IV) regimen of TXA during TKA and THA. METHODS: Five relevant electronic online databases, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical Database were systematically searched in November 2015...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bart Ellenbroek, Jiun Youn
Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Tim Aitman, Paraminder Dhillon, Aron M Geurts
Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Camille Yip, Nian-Lin Reena Han, Ban Leong Sng
Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
S S Harsoor
Completion of research is logically followed by process of submission of the outcomes for publication. The objective of this article is to sensitise the young potential authors to improve their skill of writing so that the acceptance rate of publication is improved without significant comments and efforts of the editors of the journal. The article is based on the available literature combined with the experience of the author himself as reviewer and editor of biomedical journals. The treatment patterns of clinicians are moving towards evidence-based medical practice...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Bruce A Wilcox, Pierre Echaubard
This review examines the association of Asian liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) from the standpoint of two contrasting research perspectives: that aligned with the biomedical model predominantly employed to date; and, that aligned with ecological (and evolutionary) thinking increasingly being used to frame research questions that address this association in Northeast Thailand. An examination of the assumptions that underlie most of this research, requisite of evidence-based health research, shows how a broadened research frame that incorporates 'ecologic' perspectives provides alternatives to the prevailing scientific interpretations and public narrative...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology International
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