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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553599/glycemic-control-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-our-evolving-faith-in-the-face-of-evidence
#1
René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Victor M Montori
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the concordance between the accumulating evidence about the impact of tight versus less tight glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus since the publication of UKPDS (UK Prospective Diabetes Study) in 1998 until 2015 with the views about that evidence published in journal articles and practice guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched in top general medicine and specialty journals for articles referring to glycemic control appearing between 2006 and 2015 and identified the latest practice guidelines...
September 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25954799/type-2-diabetes-and-metformin-first-choice-for-monotherapy-weak-evidence-of-efficacy-but-well-known-and-acceptable-adverse-effects
#2
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Many guidelines recommend metformin as first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. This recommendation is primarily based on the results of the Ukpds trial published in 1998. However, the methodology of this trial has been criticised. In 2014, does the harm-benefit balance of metformin still justify its first-line use in type 2 diabetes? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. In the Ukpds trial, involving about 1700 overweight diabetic patients, metformin monotherapy for about 10 years was more effective in reducing mortality than glycaemic control based mainly on dietary measures, and also more effective than treatment with a sulphonylurea such as chlorpropamide or glibenclamide, or with insulin...
November 2014: Prescrire International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23557845/hba1c-targets-in-type-2-diabetes-guidelines-and-evidence
#3
(no author information available yet)
Type 2 diabetes is defined by chronic hyperglycaemia, decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance and is often associated with overweight or obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.(1) Aims of treatment include minimising long-term complications (e.g. cardiovascular disease, blindness, chronic kidney disease, premature mortality) and avoiding unwanted effects of treatment (e.g. severe hypoglycaemia, weight gain).(1) Publication of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 33 study in 1998 suggested that 'intensive blood glucose control' to lower the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in people with type 2 diabetes reduced microvascular disease but not macrovascular complications...
April 2013: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23286961/-glycemic-targets-and-cardiovascular-morbi-mortality
#4
REVIEW
Lyse Bordier, Bernard Bauduceau
The 2008-year was full of learning experience and suspense in diabetologia. The past studies, UKPDS in type 2 diabetic patients and DCCT in type 1 diabetic patients have shown that intensive treatment during a short period did reduce the incidence of microvascular events and in the long term, the incidence of macrovascular events linked to diabetes. The conclusions of recent studies quote, from ACCORD, an increased mortality in the type 2 diabetic patients using intensive therapy, from ADVANCE, a reduction of microvascular complications and from VADT, no effect...
May 2013: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23074528/community-based-care-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-an-evidence-based-analysis
#5
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry's newly released Diabetes Strategy.After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed...
2009: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23074526/behavioural-interventions-for-type-2-diabetes-an-evidence-based-analysis
#6
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry's newly released Diabetes Strategy.After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed...
2009: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22925682/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#7
M Monami, B Ahrén, I Dicembrini, E Mannucci
AIMS: Preliminary data from randomized trials with metabolic outcomes have shown that treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could be associated with a reduced incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE). The present meta-analysis is aimed at verifying this protective effect, collecting all available data from randomized trials. METHODS: A comprehensive search for published and unpublished trials with a duration ≥24 weeks comparing DPP4i with placebo or other drugs was performed, retrieving all MACE reported as serious adverse events together with death from any cause...
February 2013: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22217193/pharmacologic-prevention-of-microvascular-and-macrovascular-complications-in-diabetes-mellitus-implications-of-the-results-of-recent-clinical-trials-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Nikhil Tandon, Mohammed K Ali, K M Venkat Narayan
Observational epidemiologic data indicate that lower blood glucose levels, blood pressure (BP), and lipid parameters are associated with a lower incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications in people with diabetes. While no threshold for this effect is discernible in these observational studies, intervention studies do not mirror this finding. The earliest glycemia target study in type 2 diabetes mellitus, UKPDS, demonstrated unequivocal benefits of tight glucose control on microvascular complications, but needed a prolonged follow-up to demonstrate a benefit on macrovascular outcomes and mortality...
February 1, 2012: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21186350/common-variants-near-atm-are-associated-with-glycemic-response-to-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Kaixin Zhou, Celine Bellenguez, Chris C A Spencer, Amanda J Bennett, Ruth L Coleman, Roger Tavendale, Simon A Hawley, Louise A Donnelly, Chris Schofield, Christopher J Groves, Lindsay Burch, Fiona Carr, Amy Strange, Colin Freeman, Jenefer M Blackwell, Elvira Bramon, Matthew A Brown, Juan P Casas, Aiden Corvin, Nicholas Craddock, Panos Deloukas, Serge Dronov, Audrey Duncanson, Sarah Edkins, Emma Gray, Sarah Hunt, Janusz Jankowski, Cordelia Langford, Hugh S Markus, Christopher G Mathew, Robert Plomin, Anna Rautanen, Stephen J Sawcer, Nilesh J Samani, Richard Trembath, Ananth C Viswanathan, Nicholas W Wood, Lorna W Harries, Andrew T Hattersley, Alex S F Doney, Helen Colhoun, Andrew D Morris, Calum Sutherland, D Grahame Hardie, Leena Peltonen, Mark I McCarthy, Rury R Holman, Colin N A Palmer, Peter Donnelly, Ewan R Pearson
Metformin is the most commonly used pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes. We report a genome-wide association study for glycemic response to metformin in 1,024 Scottish individuals with type 2 diabetes with replication in two cohorts including 1,783 Scottish individuals and 1,113 individuals from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study. In a combined meta-analysis, we identified a SNP, rs11212617, associated with treatment success (n = 3,920, P = 2.9 × 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.35, 95% CI 1.22-1.49) at a locus containing ATM, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene...
February 2011: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20959956/intensive-glycaemic-control-and-cancer-risk-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-major-trials
#10
J A Johnson, S L Bowker
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes and risk of cancer incidence or cancer mortality. We were interested to determine if data from major randomised controlled trials would support a hypothesis that improving glycaemic control may reduce the risk of cancer outcomes. METHODS: We included major randomised controlled trials conducted with an overall aim of intensified glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes...
January 2011: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20807681/intensive-glucose-control-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Richard J Macisaac, George Jerums
Numerous observational studies have clearly shown a relationship between hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), which involved subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, just failed to show that intensive glucose control significantly reduces CV events. The results of three subsequent large randomised controlled trials, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD), Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) and the Veterans Administration Diabetes Trial (VADT), that involved approximately 25,000 subjects with established type 2 diabetes also failed to show that intensive glucose control, aiming for a glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) level<7%, significantly reduces CV events...
October 2011: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20646668/newer-agents-for-blood-glucose-control-in-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#12
REVIEW
N Waugh, E Cummins, P Royle, C Clar, M Marien, B Richter, S Philip
BACKGROUND: In May 2008, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued an updated guideline [clinical guideline (CG) 66] for the management of all aspects of type 2 diabetes. This report aims to provide information on new drug developments to support a 'new drugs update' to the 2008 guideline. OBJECTIVE: To review the newer agents available for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes from four classes: the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue exenatide; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin; the long-acting insulin analogues, glargine and detemir; and to review concerns about the safety of the thiazolidinediones...
July 2010: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20489417/glucose-lowering-and-cardiovascular-disease-what-do-we-know-and-what-should-we-do
#13
REVIEW
Alice Y Y Cheng, Lawrence A Leiter
For the reduction of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, glycemic control has been shown to be an important and effective intervention. However, considering the findings from several recent, large, randomized controlled trials, the utility of very tight glycemic control in all those with type 2 diabetes, for the reduction of cardiovascular disease remains controversial. The decision to aim for very tight glycemic control must be individualized and the potential benefit of reduced risk of nephropathy must be weighed against the increased risk for hypoglycemia...
May 2010: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20387997/systematic-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-biphasic-insulin-aspart-30-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
William J Valentine, Richard F Pollock, Juliette Plun-Favreau, Jeremy White
OBJECTIVES: To review the cost-effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart (BIAsp 30) compared to other insulin regimens in the treatment of type 2 diabetes based on published literature. METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and EconLit and a selection of congress/meeting databases were systematically searched using combinations of search terms designed to identify publications describing cost-effectiveness analyses of BIAsp 30 in patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 2010: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17636824/rosiglitazone-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
B Richter, E Bandeira-Echtler, K Bergerhoff, C Clar, S H Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has long been recognised as a strong, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a problem which accounts for approximately 70% of all mortality in people with diabetes. Prospective studies show that compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, the relative risk of cardiovascular mortality for men with diabetes is two to three and for women with diabetes is three to four. The two biggest trials in type 2 diabetes, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP) study did not reveal a reduction of cardiovascular endpoints through improved metabolic control...
2007: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17443605/long-acting-insulin-analogues-versus-nph-insulin-human-isophane-insulin-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
K Horvath, K Jeitler, A Berghold, S H Ebrahim, T W Gratzer, J Plank, T Kaiser, T R Pieber, A Siebenhofer
BACKGROUND: Despite indications from epidemiological trials that higher blood glucose concentrations are associated with a higher risk for developing micro- and macrovascular complications, evidence for a beneficial effect of antihyperglycaemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is conflicting. Two large studies, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), did not find a reduction of cardiovascular endpoints through improvement of metabolic control...
2007: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17054272/pioglitazone-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
B Richter, E Bandeira-Echtler, K Bergerhoff, C Clar, S H Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has long been recognised as a strong, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a problem which accounts for approximately 70% of all mortality in people with diabetes. Prospective studies show that compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, the relative risk of cardiovascular mortality for men with diabetes is two to three and for women with diabetes is three to four. The two biggest trials in type 2 diabetes, the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP) study did not reveal a reduction of cardiovascular endpoints through improved metabolic control...
2006: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16915799/self-monitoring-blood-glucose-and-quality-of-care
#18
Michele Mancuso, Carmela Ingegnosi, Manuela Caruso-Nicoletti
Studies like the DCCT and the UKPDS showed that prevention of Type 1 diabetes mellitus complications can be obtained if glucose level is maintained as close as possible to normal. Consequently management of diabetes has significantly changed in the last two decades since the aim of maintaining a good metabolic control has been pursued through intensive insulin therapy and self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG). However, although SMBG is extremely helpful in preventing and treating hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis, its role in maintaining a good metabolic control is controversial...
2005: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16709308/cost-utility-analysis-in-a-uk-setting-of-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Andrew J Palmer, Sean Dinneen, James R Gavin, Alastair Gray, William H Herman, Andrew J Karter
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in type 2 diabetes patients has been shown in meta-analyses of randomized trials to improve HbA(1c) by approximately 0.4% when compared to no SMBG. However, the cost of testing supplies is high, improvements in health utility due to improved glycaemic control may be possible and cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated. METHODS: A peer-reviewed validated model projected improvements in lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), long-term costs and cost-effectiveness of SMBG versus no SMBG...
May 2006: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16231574/-do-beta-blockers-prevent-coronary-events-in-hypertensive-patients
#20
REVIEW
F Diévart, S Ragot, J Julien, D Herpin
Beta-blockers have been considered for decades as effective agents in preventing coronary events in hypertensive patients. Actually, the scrutiny of the available data arises some doubts over the real value of this pharmacological class. In primary prevention, the clinical benefits of beta-blockers are poorly documented: the studies conducted against placebo (MRC, IPPPSH...) did not show any significant differences regarding the rate of coronary events (except within non smokers); moreover, the beneficial effect of propranolol in preventing sudden deaths and silent myocardial infarctions has been reported byjust one retrospective analysis...
September 2005: Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux
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