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"Limb proportion"

R L Jantz, L Meadows Jantz
OBJECTIVES: The pattern of static and secular allometry was examined in a time series of limb bone lengths from individuals with birth years ranging from 1840 to 1989. The main hypothesis investigated was that secular changes in limb proportions, as seen in changes in the brachial and crural indices, can be explained by allometric responses to increasing size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum lengths of humerus, radius, femur, and tibia were obtained from 19th and 20th centuries identified skeletons...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
A S Pollard, B G Charlton, J R Hutchinson, T Gustafsson, I M McGonnell, J A Timmons, A A Pitsillides
Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cinnamon M Pace, Sarah Mortimer, Jenna A Monroy, Kiisa C Nishikawa
Titin contributes to sarcomere assembly, muscle signaling, and mechanical properties of muscle. The mdm mouse exhibits a small deletion in the titin gene resulting in dystrophic mutants and phenotypically normal heterozygotes. We examined the effects of this mutation on locomotion to assess how, and if, changes to muscle phenotype explain observed locomotor differences. Mutant mice are much smaller in size than their siblings and gait abnormalities may be driven by differences in limb proportions and/or by changes to muscle phenotype caused by the titin mutation...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Mélanie A Frelat, Michael Coquerelle, Erik Trinkaus
OBJECTIVES: Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans. METHODS: We compared results from four different approaches to study cross-sectional skeletal samples of Africans (n = 43), Amerindians (n = 69) and Europeans (n = 40) from 0 to 14 years of age...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Eli Amson, Christian Kolb
How skeletal elements scale to size is a fundamental question in biology. While the external shape of long bones was intensively studied, an important component of their organization is also found in their less accessible inner structure. Here, we studied mid-diaphyseal properties of limb long bones, characterizing notably the thickness of their cortices (bone walls), in order to test whether body size directly influences bone inner organization. Previous examinations of scaling in long bones used broad samplings to encompass a wide range of body sizes...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Susan Cheng Shelmerdine, Helen Brittain, Owen J Arthurs, Alistair D Calder
Achondroplasia is the most common form of short limb dwarfism in humans. The shortening of the limb lengths in achondroplasia is widely described as "rhizomelic." While this appearance may be convincing clinically, the description is not necessarily true or helpful radiologically. The aims of this study, were therefore, to determine whether rhizomelic shortening is a true feature of achondroplasia at diagnosis in infancy. Humeral, radial, femoral, and tibial diaphyseal lengths were recorded by two independent observers from 22 skeletal surveys of infants with achondroplasia and compared with 150 normal age-matched control subjects...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Shuo Wang, Shukang Zhang, Corwin Sullivan, Xing Xu
BACKGROUND: Oviraptorids, like many other dinosaurs, clearly had a complex pattern of skeletal growth involving numerous morphological changes. However, many ontogenetic skeletal changes in oviraptorids were previously unclear due to the lack of well preserved specimens that represent very young developmental stages. RESULTS: Here we report three elongatoolithid dinosaur eggs from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Nankang District, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, China that contain in ovo embryonic skeletons...
March 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Miranda N Cosman, Leah M Sparrow, Campbell Rolian
Limb bone size and shape in terrestrial mammals scales predictably with body mass. Weight-bearing limb bones in these species have geometries that enable them to withstand deformations due to loading, both within and between species. Departures from the expected scaling of bone size and shape to body mass occur in mammals that have become specialized for different types of locomotion. For example, mammals adapted for frequent running and jumping behaviors have hind limb bones that are long in relation to body mass, but with narrower cross-sections than predicted for their length...
2016: Journal of Anatomy
Brandon M Kilbourne, Emanuel Andrada, Martin S Fischer, John A Nyakatura
Differing limb proportions in terms of length and mass, as well as differences in mass being concentrated proximally or distally, influence the limb's moment of inertia (MOI), which represents its resistance to being swung. Limb morphology - including limb segment proportions - thus probably has direct relevance for the metabolic cost of swinging the limb during locomotion. However, it remains largely unexplored how differences in limb proportions influence limb kinematics during swing phase. To test whether differences in limb proportions are associated with differences in swing phase kinematics, we collected hindlimb kinematic data from three species of charadriiform birds differing widely in their hindlimb proportions: lapwings, oystercatchers and avocets...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Alison A Macintosh, Ron Pinhasi, Jay T Stock
Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change...
2016: PloS One
W Scott Persons Iv, Philip J Currie
From an initial dataset of 53 theropod species, the general relationship between theropod lower-leg length and body mass is identified. After factoring out this allometric relationship, theropod hindlimb proportions are assessed irrespective of body mass. Cursorial-limb-proportion (CLP) scores derived for each of the considered theropod taxa offer a measure of the extent to which a particular species deviates in favour of higher or lower running speeds. Within the same theropod species, these CLP scores are found to be consistent across multiple adult specimens and across disparate ontogenetic stages...
January 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Charlotte A Brassey, Thomas G O'Mahoney, Andrew C Kitchener, Phillip L Manning, William I Sellers
The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted...
2016: PeerJ
Talia Y Moore, Chris L Organ, Scott V Edwards, Andrew A Biewener, Clifford J Tabin, Farish A Jenkins, Kimberly L Cooper
Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure...
November 2, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Peggy Motsch, Guillaume Le Flohic, Carole Dilger, Alexia Delahaye, Carmela Chateau-Smith, Sebastien Couette
We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C...
October 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Lia Betti, Stephen J Lycett, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel, Osbjorn M Pearson
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, several studies have shown that populations from cold, high-latitude regions tend to have relatively shorter limbs than populations from tropical regions, with most of the difference due to the relative length of the zeugopods (i.e., radius, ulna, tibia, fibula). This pattern has been explained either as the consequence of long-term climatic selection or of phenotypic plasticity, with temperature having a direct effect on bone growth during development. The aims of this study were to test whether this pattern of intra-limb proportions extended to the bones of the hands and feet, and to determine whether the pattern remained significant after taking into account the effects of neutral evolutionary processes related to population history...
September 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Isabelle Rogowski, Thomas Creveaux, Cyril Genevois, Shahnaz Klouche, Michel Rahme, Philippe Hardy
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the upper limb anthropometric dimensions and a history of dominant upper limb injury in tennis players. Dominant and non-dominant wrist, forearm, elbow and arm circumferences, along with a history of dominant upper limb injuries, were assessed in 147 male and female players, assigned to four groups based on location of injury: wrist (n = 9), elbow (n = 25), shoulder (n = 14) and healthy players (n = 99). From anthropometric dimensions, bilateral differences in circumferences and in proportions were calculated...
2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Sandy Reinhard, Sandra Renner, Alexander Kupfer
We analysed sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for two Mediterranean species of the "true" salamander clade possessing distinct life histories (Salamandra algira and Mertensiella caucasica) and equilibrated the morphometric approach to individual age by using skeletochronology. For species that have a short breeding season and live at high altitudes, such as Mediterranean amphibians, the fecundity advantage hypothesis predicts female-biased SSD to maximise reproductive success. Our results showed no SSD in either species; however, morphometric data indicated a male-biased dimorphism in limb (arm and leg) dimensions in both species when compared to body size...
February 2015: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Brandon P Hedrick, Phillip L Manning, Eric R Lynch, Samantha A Cordero, Peter Dodson
Theropoda was one of the most successful dinosaurian clades during the Mesozoic and has remained a dominant component of faunas throughout the Cenozoic, with nearly 10,000 extant representatives. The discovery of Archaeopteryx provides evidence that avian theropods evolved at least 155 million years ago and that more than half of the tenure of avian theropods on Earth was during the Mesozoic. Considering the major changes in niche occupation for theropods resulting from the evolution of arboreal and flight capabilities, we have analyzed forelimb and hindlimb proportions among nonmaniraptoriform theropods, nonavian maniraptoriforms, and basal avialans using reduced major axis regressions, principal components analysis, canonical variates analysis, and discriminant function analysis...
February 2015: Journal of Morphology
Emma Pomeroy, Jay T Stock, Tim J Cole, Michael O'Callaghan, Jonathan C K Wells
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia)...
2014: PloS One
Alejandra Isabel Echeverría, Federico Becerra, Aldo Iván Vassallo
Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed...
August 2014: Journal of Morphology
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