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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835787/pragmatic-development-explains-the-theory-of-mind-scale
#1
Evan Westra, Peter Carruthers
Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, "mindreading") abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are said to support a social-constructivist account of mindreading development instead...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785342/egender-from-e-learning-to-e-research-a-web-based-interactive-knowledge-sharing-platform-for-sex-and-gender-specific-medical-education
#2
EDITORIAL
Ute Seeland, Ahmad T Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650373/factors-influencing-students-receptivity-to-formative-feedback-emerging-from-different-assessment-cultures
#3
Christopher J Harrison, Karen D Könings, Elaine F Dannefer, Lambert W T Schuwirth, Valerie Wass, Cees P M van der Vleuten
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to explore factors which aid or hinder receptivity to feedback. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors conducted six focus groups in three medical schools, in three separate countries, with different institutional approaches to assessment, ranging from a traditional summative assessment structure to a fully implemented programmatic assessment system...
October 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613004/moral-learning-as-intuitive-theory-revision
#4
Marjorie Rhodes, Henry Wellman
We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583995/virtual-knowledge-brokering-describing-the-roles-and-strategies-used-by-knowledge-brokers-in-a-pediatric-physiotherapy-virtual-community-of-practice
#5
Karen Hurtubise, Lisa Rivard, Léa Héguy, Jade Berbari, Chantal Camden
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge transfer in pediatric rehabilitation is challenging and requires active, multifaceted strategies. The use of knowledge brokers (KBs) is one such strategy noted to promote clinician behavior change. The success of using KBs to transfer knowledge relies on their ability to adapt to ever-changing clinical contexts. In addition, with the rapid growth of online platforms as knowledge transfer forums, KBs must become effective in virtual environments. Although the role of KBs has been studied in various clinical contexts, their emerging role in specific online environments designed to support evidence-based behavior change has not yet been described...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563577/concept-maps-a-tool-for-knowledge-management-and-synthesis-in-web-based-conversational-learning
#6
Ankur Joshi, Satendra Singh, Shivani Jaswal, Dinesh Kumar Badyal, Tejinder Singh
Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543136/-perspectives-on-financing-population-based-health-care-towards-universal-health-coverage-among-employed-individuals-in-ghanzi-district-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#7
Barnabas Africanus Mbogo, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490885/clinical-growth-an-evolutionary-concept-analysis
#8
Jessica Barkimer
Clinical growth is an essential component of nursing education, although challenging to evaluate. Considering the paradigm shift toward constructivism and student-centered learning, clinical growth requires an examination within contemporary practices. A concept analysis of clinical growth in nursing education produced defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Attributes included higher-level thinking, socialization, skill development, self-reflection, self-investment, interpersonal communication, and linking theory to practice...
July 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435146/geographical-thinking-in-nursing-inquiry-part-one-locations-contents-meanings
#9
Gavin J Andrews
Spatial thought is undergoing somewhat of a renaissance in nursing. Building on a long disciplinary tradition of conceptualizing and studying 'nursing environment', the past twenty years has witnessing the establishment and refinement of explicitly geographical nursing research. This article - part one in a series of two - reviews the perspectives taken to date, ranging from historical precedent in classical nursing theory through to positivistic spatial science, political economy, and social constructivism in contemporary inquiry...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344115/constructivism-reflections-on-twenty-five-years-teaching-the-constructivist-approach-in-medical-education
#10
Reg Dennick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339891/research-philosophy-in-pharmacy-practice-necessity-and-relevance
#11
Win Winit-Watjana
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted...
December 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269269/relativism-in-feyerabend-s-later-writings
#12
Martin Kusch
This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism...
June 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176751/teaching-and-learning-medication-calculations-a-grounded-theory-of-conceptual-understanding
#13
Susan Mills
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the process of nursing students' attainment of conceptual understanding when learning medication dosage calculations. DESIGN: This study utilized a grounded theory research design with a blended theoretical framework of constructivism and symbolic interaction. RESULTS: A process of conceptual understanding began with the teaching and learning experiences in the classroom and progressed to students' reengagement with the course content outside of the classroom...
2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148086/what-is-constructionism-in-psychiatry-from-social-causes-to-psychiatric-classification
#14
REVIEW
Raphael van Riel
It is common to note that social environment and cultural formation shape mental disorders. The details of this claim are, however, not well understood. The paper takes a look at the claim that culture has an impact on psychiatry from the perspective of metaphysics and the philosophy of science. Its aim is to offer, in a general fashion, partial explications of some significant versions of the thesis that culture and social environment shape mental disorders and to highlight some of the consequences social constructionism about psychiatry has for psychiatric explanation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049544/the-two-stage-examination-a-method-to-assess-individual-competence-and-collaborative-problem-solving-in-medical-students
#15
Janet E Lindsley, David A Morton, Karly Pippitt, Sara Lamb, Jorie M Colbert-Getz
PROBLEM: Effectively solving problems as a team under stressful conditions is central to medical practice; however, because summative examinations in medical education must test individual competence, they are typically solitary assessments. APPROACH: Using two-stage examinations, in which students first answer questions individually (Stage 1) and then discuss them in teams prior to resubmitting their answers (Stage 2), is one method for rectifying this discordance...
April 5, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833596/the-nature-of-psychiatric-disorders
#16
Kenneth S Kendler
A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry...
February 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26638221/child-and-adolescent-mental-health-nursing-seen-through-a-social-constructionist-lens
#17
Philippa Rasmussen, Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Ann Henderson
AIM: To discuss the theoretical framework of social constructivism and justify it s appropriateness for and compatibility with an interpretive approach to child adolescent mental health (CAMH) nursing research. BACKGROUND: Recent changes to national nursing legislation in Australia have resulted in the removal of the separate register with regulatory authorities that existed for the specialty of mental health nursing. Aspects of mental health nursing age are not easily defined, with some being tacit...
November 2015: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26611988/reflecting-on-jens-rasmussen-s-legacy-2-behind-and-beyond-a-constructivist-turn
#18
Jean-Christophe Le Coze
This article is the second part of a study on the legacy of Jens Rasmussen. The first article, subtitled 'A Strong Program for a Hard Problem', looks back on his 30 years of scientific contribution, from 1969 to 2000. This second article explores and investigates some of the intellectual roots which influenced his thinking, using them as a basis to understand some limits and move forward. Indeed, historically oriented studies such as this one are not only tributes to researchers, but a way to differentiate and contrast our present situation with the past in order to integrate contemporary trends, be they theoretical or empirical, or oriented towards research and new models...
November 20, 2015: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394219/a-female-therapist-s-perspective-on-growing-older
#19
Iris Fodor
As an older woman therapist, I find that my life experience grounds me in my work with people of all ages and backgrounds as they deal with life crises, aging issues, and loss. People with whom I work in therapy appreciate the fact that I am older and have had varied life experiences. Gender issues are still central to my work with clients whether I am working with a man or a woman. I am an integrative therapist, with a background in cognitive-behavioral therapy and gestalt therapy. Therapists need to help clients to identify less with their aging bodies and our culture's view of attractiveness, shifting instead to a paradigm that values life experience and the cultivation of wisdom...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26337753/games-and-diabetes-a-review-investigating-theoretical-frameworks-evaluation-methodologies-and-opportunities-for-design-grounded-in-learning-theories
#20
REVIEW
Shaimaa Lazem, Mary Webster, Wayne Holmes, Motje Wolf
Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes...
March 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
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