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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614190/the-value-of-peer-mentorship-as-an-educational-strategy-in-nursing
#1
Tannis Andersen, Kathy Watkins
BACKGROUND: The emphasis of this article is to provide nursing instructors with a valuable educational strategy grounded in andragogical principles for reflection and implementation in their educational practice. METHOD: An expository review of the value of peer mentorship as an educational strategy that fits within the humanistic adult education philosophy and social constructivism theory was conducted. RESULTS: The value in peer mentorship is greatest for nursing students as mentors and mentees, predominantly in encouraging self-directed learning, building relationships, providing emotional and educational support, and developing collaboration and leadership skills...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546968/core-story-creation-analysing-narratives-to-construct-stories-for-learning
#2
Julia Petty, Joy Jarvis, Rebecca Thomas
BACKGROUND: Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. AIM: To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546961/the-search-for-understanding-the-role-of-paradigms
#3
Marcella Kelly, Maura Dowling, Michelle Millar
BACKGROUND: Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. AIM: An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525978/mental-footnotes-knowledge-constructivism-from-logical-thinking-and-personal-beliefs-to-social-rationality-and-spiritual-freedom
#4
Jose Luis Vilchez
Cognition is an efficient but limited system that deals with mundane tasks. Daily life demands the system to save energy in order to be able to solve other more relevant tasks. Reasoning out every single problem would immeasurably increase our mental load and fatigue. Our minds avoid this waste of resources by taking shortcuts when reasoning. Outputs from previous episodes of reasoning turn into pieces of implicit information. These outputs go on to constitute the meanings that we give to things or circumstances, which in turn become the general framework where other reasonings occur...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483351/functionality-versus-dimensionality-in-psychological-taxonomies-and-a-puzzle-of-emotional-valence
#5
REVIEW
Irina Trofimova
This paper applies evolutionary and functional constructivism approaches to the discussion of psychological taxonomies, as implemented in the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). FET asserts that neurochemical systems developed in evolution to regulate functional-dynamical aspects of construction of actions: orientation, selection (integration), energetic maintenance, and management of automatic behavioural elements. As an example, the paper reviews the neurochemical mechanisms of interlocking between emotional dispositions and performance capacities...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376515/experiences-of-social-support-among-chinese-women-with-breast-cancer-a-qualitative-analysis-using-a-framework-approach
#6
Hailing Zhang, Ling Xiao, Guosheng Ren
BACKGROUND Breast cancer and its treatment provoke a series of emotional changes in patients during their breast cancer journeys. Social support is critical in helping women cope with their negative emotional responses. However, few studies have described the experiences of women with breast cancer within the Chinese context. This qualitative study explored the experiences of Chinese women with breast cancer regarding social support. MATERIAL AND METHODS This qualitative study was based on constructivism epistemology...
January 29, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298573/hermeneutic-constructivism-an-ontology-for-qualitative-research
#7
Blake Peck, Jane Mummery
Qualitative research is entirely an operation with language, in language, and occasionally on language. This article suggests a tension between theoretical recognition of a multiplicity of human experience on one hand and a reliance upon practices of thematic representation that prioritize the common or the general over individualized experience. The fulcrum of this tension is the nature of language itself and its role in human experience and meaning-making. This article sets out the theoretical foundations of Hermeneutic Constructivism as one proposed approach to redress this problematic within many qualitative frameworks and open up an opportunity for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of human being...
February 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218071/composite-agency-semiotics-of-modularity-and-guiding-interactions
#8
Alexei A Sharov
Principles of constructivism are used here to explore how organisms develop tools, subagents, scaffolds, signs, and adaptations. Here I discuss reasons why organisms have composite nature and include diverse subagents that interact in partially cooperating and partially conflicting ways. Such modularity is necessary for efficient and robust functionality, including mutual construction and adaptability at various time scales. Subagents interact via material and semiotic relations, some of which force or prescribe actions of partners...
July 2017: Biosemiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200511/what-is-the-extension-of-the-extended-mind
#9
Hajo Greif
Two aspects of cognitive coupling, as brought forward in the Extended Mind Hypothesis, are discussed in this paper: (1) how shall the functional coupling between the organism and some entity in his environment be spelled out in detail? (2) What are the paradigmatic external entities to enter into that coupling? These two related questions are best answered in the light of an aetiological variety of functionalist argument that adds historical depth to the "active externalism" promoted by Clark and Chalmers and helps to counter some of the core criticisms levelled against this view...
2017: Synthese
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987896/using-reusable-learning-objects-rlos-in-wound-care-education-undergraduate-student-nurse-s-evaluation-of-their-learning-gain
#10
Catherine Redmond, Carmel Davies, Deirdre Cornally, Ewa Adam, Orla Daly, Marianne Fegan, Margaret O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Both nationally and internationally concerns have been expressed over the adequacy of preparation of undergraduate nurses for the clinical skill of wound care. This project describes the educational evaluation of a series of Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs) as a blended learning approach to facilitate undergraduate nursing students learning of wound care for competence development. Constructivism Learning Theory and Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning informed the design of the RLOs, promoting active learner approaches...
January 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923156/functional-constructivism-in-search-of-formal-descriptors
#11
Irina Trofimova
The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843619/pilot-investigation-into-the-use-of-an-anthropomorphic-breast-sonography-phantom-as-a-training-and-assessment-tool
#12
Jacinta E Browne, Louise M Cannon, Ronan McDermott, Max Ryan, Andrew J Fagan
A device for the training and quantitative assessment of the competency of trainee radiologists in the technically challenging area of breast sonography was developed and evaluated. Currently, suitable commercially available devices are lacking, and there is a growing realization that the reliance on direct exposure to patients for learning may not represent best practice from either the trainees' or patients' perspective. Three devices (PI, PII and PIII) were designed to produce very realistic sonographic images of breast morphology with a range of embedded pathologies...
August 23, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806304/perceptions-of-support-groups-among-older-breast-cancer-survivors-i-ve-heard-of-them-but-i-ve-never-felt-the-need-to-go
#13
Emily K Green, Amelework Wodajo, Yajuan Yang, Miriam Sleven, Huibrie C Pieters
BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors transitioning from active treatment to posttreatment may lack critical support and information about their posttreatment care. Support groups have the potential to address this gap. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe how breast cancer survivors 65 years and older perceived professionally led, in-person support groups. METHODS: Individual interviews with 54 women were analyzed using grounded theory informed by constructivism...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#14
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
November 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498034/assessment-of-resident-physicians-communicator-and-collaborator-competencies-by-interprofessional-clinicians-a-mixed-methods-study
#15
Lyn K Sonnenberg, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Carol S Hodgson, YongQiang Yu, Sharla King
Phenomenon: As we move toward competency-based medical education, greater emphasis is being placed on assessing a more comprehensive skill set, including the ability to communicate and collaborate effectively in the workplace. Nonphysician members on interprofessional (IP) teams have valuable perspectives on actual resident performance and are often not adequately engaged in the provision of feedback to residents. Based on the educational theories of collaborative evaluation and social constructivism, this research examined the ability of IP clinicians to provide feedback to residents...
October 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453117/-learning-about-social-determinants-of-health-through-chronicles-using-a-virtual-learning-environment
#16
Sonia Restrepo-Palacio, Jairo Amaya-Guio
Objective: To describe the contributions of a pedagogical strategy based on the construction of chronicles, using a Virtual Learning Environment for training medical students from Universidad de La Sabana on social determinants of health. Methodology: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Design and implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment based on the ADDIE instructional model. Results: A Virtual Learning Environment was implemented with an instructional design based on the five phases of the ADDIE model, on the grounds of meaningful learning and social constructivism, and through the narration of chronicles or life stories as a pedagogical strategy...
September 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327217/realism-and-constructivism-in-social-perception
#17
John F Kihlstrom
Jussim's critique of social psychology's embrace of error and bias is needed and often persuasive. In opting for perceptual realism over social constructivism, however, he seems to ignore a third choice - a cognitive constructivism which has a long and distinguished history in the study of nonsocial perception, and which enables us to understand both accuracy and error.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281588/culture-and-its-influences-on-dental-education
#18
(no author information available yet)
Students from European countries favour learning grounded in constructivism and humanist principles, in contrast to those from Asian countries who are more comfortable with passive learning styles.
March 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247835/-demonstrating-patient-safety-requires-acceptance-of-a-broader-scientific-palette
#19
I Leistikow
It is high time the medical community recognised that patient-safety research can be assessed using other scientific methods than the traditional medical ones. There is often a fundamental mismatch between the methodology of patient-safety research and the methodology used to assess the quality of this research. One example is research into the reliability and validity of record review as a method for detecting adverse events. This type of research is based on logical positivism, while record review itself is based on social constructivism...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226036/development-of-a-booklet-on-insulin-therapy-for-children-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-1
#20
Denizielle de Jesus Moreira Moura, Nádya Dos Santos Moura, Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes, Ariane Alves Barros, Maria Vilani Cavalcante Guedes
Objective: to describe the process of developing of an educational booklet on insulin therapy for children with diabetes mellitus type 1. Method: methodological approach, in which the following steps were carried out: selecting of the content and type of technology to be developed (for this step, an integrative review, an analysis of the comments of blogs about Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and interviews with the children were performed), creation of images, formatting and layout composition...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
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