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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327217/realism-and-constructivism-in-social-perception
#1
John F Kihlstrom
Jussim's critique of social psychology's embrace of error and bias is needed and often persuasive. In opting for perceptual realism over social constructivism, however, he seems to ignore a third choice - a cognitive constructivism which has a long and distinguished history in the study of nonsocial perception, and which enables us to understand both accuracy and error.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281588/culture-and-its-influences-on-dental-education
#2
(no author information available yet)
Students from European countries favour learning grounded in constructivism and humanist principles, in contrast to those from Asian countries who are more comfortable with passive learning styles.
March 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247835/-demonstrating-patient-safety-requires-acceptance-of-a-broader-scientific-palette
#3
I Leistikow
It is high time the medical community recognised that patient-safety research can be assessed using other scientific methods than the traditional medical ones. There is often a fundamental mismatch between the methodology of patient-safety research and the methodology used to assess the quality of this research. One example is research into the reliability and validity of record review as a method for detecting adverse events. This type of research is based on logical positivism, while record review itself is based on social constructivism...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226036/development-of-a-booklet-on-insulin-therapy-for-children-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-1
#4
Denizielle de Jesus Moreira Moura, Nádya Dos Santos Moura, Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes, Ariane Alves Barros, Maria Vilani Cavalcante Guedes
Objective: to describe the process of developing of an educational booklet on insulin therapy for children with diabetes mellitus type 1. Method: methodological approach, in which the following steps were carried out: selecting of the content and type of technology to be developed (for this step, an integrative review, an analysis of the comments of blogs about Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and interviews with the children were performed), creation of images, formatting and layout composition...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163801/evolutionary-biosemiotics-and-multilevel-construction-networks
#5
Alexei A Sharov
In contrast to the traditional relational semiotics, biosemiotics decisively deviates towards dynamical aspects of signs at the evolutionary and developmental time scales. The analysis of sign dynamics requires constructivism (in a broad sense) to explain how new components such as subagents, sensors, effectors, and interpretation networks are produced by developing and evolving organisms. Semiotic networks that include signs, tools, and subagents are multilevel, and this feature supports the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of organisms...
December 2016: Biosemiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139174/essentialism-and-islamic-theology-of-homosexuality-a-critical-reflection-on-an-essentialist-epistemology-toward-same-sex-desires-and-acts-in-islam
#6
M Alipour
Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars argue that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by Qur'an/Islam...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019061/students-perceptions-of-a-blended-learning-experience-in-dental-education
#7
S Varthis, O R Anderson
INTRODUCTION: "Flipped" instructional sequencing is a new instructional method where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking during the in-person class session; a novel approach studied in this research. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document dental students' perceptions of flipped-based blended learning and to apply a new method of displaying their perceptions based on Likert-scale data analysis using a network diagramming method known as an item correlation network diagram (ICND)...
December 25, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939811/integrating-knowledge-exchange-and-the-assessment-of-dryland-management-alternatives-a-learning-centered-participatory-approach
#8
Susana Bautista, Joan Llovet, Anahí Ocampo-Melgar, Alberto Vilagrosa, Ángeles G Mayor, Cristina Murias, V Ramón Vallejo, Barron J Orr
The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835787/pragmatic-development-explains-the-theory-of-mind-scale
#9
Evan Westra, Peter Carruthers
Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, "mindreading") abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are said to support a social-constructivist account of mindreading development instead...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785342/egender-from-e-learning-to-e-research-a-web-based-interactive-knowledge-sharing-platform-for-sex-and-gender-specific-medical-education
#10
EDITORIAL
Ute Seeland, Ahmad T Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650373/factors-influencing-students-receptivity-to-formative-feedback-emerging-from-different-assessment-cultures
#11
Christopher J Harrison, Karen D Könings, Elaine F Dannefer, Lambert W T Schuwirth, Valerie Wass, Cees P M van der Vleuten
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to explore factors which aid or hinder receptivity to feedback. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors conducted six focus groups in three medical schools, in three separate countries, with different institutional approaches to assessment, ranging from a traditional summative assessment structure to a fully implemented programmatic assessment system...
October 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613004/moral-learning-as-intuitive-theory-revision
#12
Marjorie Rhodes, Henry Wellman
We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583995/virtual-knowledge-brokering-describing-the-roles-and-strategies-used-by-knowledge-brokers-in-a-pediatric-physiotherapy-virtual-community-of-practice
#13
Karen Hurtubise, Lisa Rivard, Léa Héguy, Jade Berbari, Chantal Camden
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge transfer in pediatric rehabilitation is challenging and requires active, multifaceted strategies. The use of knowledge brokers (KBs) is one such strategy noted to promote clinician behavior change. The success of using KBs to transfer knowledge relies on their ability to adapt to ever-changing clinical contexts. In addition, with the rapid growth of online platforms as knowledge transfer forums, KBs must become effective in virtual environments. Although the role of KBs has been studied in various clinical contexts, their emerging role in specific online environments designed to support evidence-based behavior change has not yet been described...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563577/concept-maps-a-tool-for-knowledge-management-and-synthesis-in-web-based-conversational-learning
#14
Ankur Joshi, Satendra Singh, Shivani Jaswal, Dinesh Kumar Badyal, Tejinder Singh
Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543136/-perspectives-on-financing-population-based-health-care-towards-universal-health-coverage-among-employed-individuals-in-ghanzi-district-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#15
Barnabas Africanus Mbogo, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490885/clinical-growth-an-evolutionary-concept-analysis
#16
Jessica Barkimer
Clinical growth is an essential component of nursing education, although challenging to evaluate. Considering the paradigm shift toward constructivism and student-centered learning, clinical growth requires an examination within contemporary practices. A concept analysis of clinical growth in nursing education produced defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Attributes included higher-level thinking, socialization, skill development, self-reflection, self-investment, interpersonal communication, and linking theory to practice...
July 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435146/geographical-thinking-in-nursing-inquiry-part-one-locations-contents-meanings
#17
Gavin J Andrews
Spatial thought is undergoing somewhat of a renaissance in nursing. Building on a long disciplinary tradition of conceptualizing and studying 'nursing environment', the past twenty years has witnessing the establishment and refinement of explicitly geographical nursing research. This article - part one in a series of two - reviews the perspectives taken to date, ranging from historical precedent in classical nursing theory through to positivistic spatial science, political economy, and social constructivism in contemporary inquiry...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344115/constructivism-reflections-on-twenty-five-years-teaching-the-constructivist-approach-in-medical-education
#18
Reg Dennick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339891/research-philosophy-in-pharmacy-practice-necessity-and-relevance
#19
REVIEW
Win Winit-Watjana
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted...
December 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269269/relativism-in-feyerabend-s-later-writings
#20
Martin Kusch
This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism...
June 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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