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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163801/evolutionary-biosemiotics-and-multilevel-construction-networks
#1
Alexei A Sharov
In contrast to the traditional relational semiotics, biosemiotics decisively deviates towards dynamical aspects of signs at the evolutionary and developmental time scales. The analysis of sign dynamics requires constructivism (in a broad sense) to explain how new components such as subagents, sensors, effectors, and interpretation networks are produced by developing and evolving organisms. Semiotic networks that include signs, tools, and subagents are multilevel, and this feature supports the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of organisms...
December 2016: Biosemiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139174/essentialism-and-islamic-theology-of-homosexuality-a-critical-reflection-on-an-essentialist-epistemology-toward-same-sex-desires-and-acts-in-islam
#2
M Alipour
Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars argue that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by Qur'an/Islam...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019061/students-perceptions-of-a-blended-learning-experience-in-dental-education
#3
S Varthis, O R Anderson
INTRODUCTION: "Flipped" instructional sequencing is a new instructional method where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking during the in-person class session; a novel approach studied in this research. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document dental students' perceptions of flipped-based blended learning and to apply a new method of displaying their perceptions based on Likert-scale data analysis using a network diagramming method known as an item correlation network diagram (ICND)...
December 25, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939811/integrating-knowledge-exchange-and-the-assessment-of-dryland-management-alternatives-a-learning-centered-participatory-approach
#4
Susana Bautista, Joan Llovet, Anahí Ocampo-Melgar, Alberto Vilagrosa, Ángeles G Mayor, Cristina Murias, V Ramón Vallejo, Barron J Orr
The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835787/pragmatic-development-explains-the-theory-of-mind-scale
#5
Evan Westra, Peter Carruthers
Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, "mindreading") abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are said to support a social-constructivist account of mindreading development instead...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785342/egender-from-e-learning-to-e-research-a-web-based-interactive-knowledge-sharing-platform-for-sex-and-gender-specific-medical-education
#6
EDITORIAL
Ute Seeland, Ahmad T Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650373/factors-influencing-students-receptivity-to-formative-feedback-emerging-from-different-assessment-cultures
#7
Christopher J Harrison, Karen D Könings, Elaine F Dannefer, Lambert W T Schuwirth, Valerie Wass, Cees P M van der Vleuten
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to explore factors which aid or hinder receptivity to feedback. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors conducted six focus groups in three medical schools, in three separate countries, with different institutional approaches to assessment, ranging from a traditional summative assessment structure to a fully implemented programmatic assessment system...
October 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613004/moral-learning-as-intuitive-theory-revision
#8
Marjorie Rhodes, Henry Wellman
We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583995/virtual-knowledge-brokering-describing-the-roles-and-strategies-used-by-knowledge-brokers-in-a-pediatric-physiotherapy-virtual-community-of-practice
#9
Karen Hurtubise, Lisa Rivard, Léa Héguy, Jade Berbari, Chantal Camden
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge transfer in pediatric rehabilitation is challenging and requires active, multifaceted strategies. The use of knowledge brokers (KBs) is one such strategy noted to promote clinician behavior change. The success of using KBs to transfer knowledge relies on their ability to adapt to ever-changing clinical contexts. In addition, with the rapid growth of online platforms as knowledge transfer forums, KBs must become effective in virtual environments. Although the role of KBs has been studied in various clinical contexts, their emerging role in specific online environments designed to support evidence-based behavior change has not yet been described...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563577/concept-maps-a-tool-for-knowledge-management-and-synthesis-in-web-based-conversational-learning
#10
Ankur Joshi, Satendra Singh, Shivani Jaswal, Dinesh Kumar Badyal, Tejinder Singh
Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543136/-perspectives-on-financing-population-based-health-care-towards-universal-health-coverage-among-employed-individuals-in-ghanzi-district-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#11
Barnabas Africanus Mbogo, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490885/clinical-growth-an-evolutionary-concept-analysis
#12
Jessica Barkimer
Clinical growth is an essential component of nursing education, although challenging to evaluate. Considering the paradigm shift toward constructivism and student-centered learning, clinical growth requires an examination within contemporary practices. A concept analysis of clinical growth in nursing education produced defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Attributes included higher-level thinking, socialization, skill development, self-reflection, self-investment, interpersonal communication, and linking theory to practice...
July 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435146/geographical-thinking-in-nursing-inquiry-part-one-locations-contents-meanings
#13
Gavin J Andrews
Spatial thought is undergoing somewhat of a renaissance in nursing. Building on a long disciplinary tradition of conceptualizing and studying 'nursing environment', the past twenty years has witnessing the establishment and refinement of explicitly geographical nursing research. This article - part one in a series of two - reviews the perspectives taken to date, ranging from historical precedent in classical nursing theory through to positivistic spatial science, political economy, and social constructivism in contemporary inquiry...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344115/constructivism-reflections-on-twenty-five-years-teaching-the-constructivist-approach-in-medical-education
#14
Reg Dennick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339891/research-philosophy-in-pharmacy-practice-necessity-and-relevance
#15
Win Winit-Watjana
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted...
December 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269269/relativism-in-feyerabend-s-later-writings
#16
Martin Kusch
This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism...
June 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176751/teaching-and-learning-medication-calculations-a-grounded-theory-of-conceptual-understanding
#17
Susan Mills
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the process of nursing students' attainment of conceptual understanding when learning medication dosage calculations. DESIGN: This study utilized a grounded theory research design with a blended theoretical framework of constructivism and symbolic interaction. RESULTS: A process of conceptual understanding began with the teaching and learning experiences in the classroom and progressed to students' reengagement with the course content outside of the classroom...
May 13, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148086/what-is-constructionism-in-psychiatry-from-social-causes-to-psychiatric-classification
#18
REVIEW
Raphael van Riel
It is common to note that social environment and cultural formation shape mental disorders. The details of this claim are, however, not well understood. The paper takes a look at the claim that culture has an impact on psychiatry from the perspective of metaphysics and the philosophy of science. Its aim is to offer, in a general fashion, partial explications of some significant versions of the thesis that culture and social environment shape mental disorders and to highlight some of the consequences social constructionism about psychiatry has for psychiatric explanation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049544/the-two-stage-examination-a-method-to-assess-individual-competence-and-collaborative-problem-solving-in-medical-students
#19
Janet E Lindsley, David A Morton, Karly Pippitt, Sara Lamb, Jorie M Colbert-Getz
PROBLEM: Effectively solving problems as a team under stressful conditions is central to medical practice; however, because summative examinations in medical education must test individual competence, they are typically solitary assessments. APPROACH: Using two-stage examinations, in which students first answer questions individually (Stage 1) and then discuss them in teams prior to resubmitting their answers (Stage 2), is one method for rectifying this discordance...
April 5, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833596/the-nature-of-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Kenneth S Kendler
A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry...
February 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
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