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Yi-Chuan Chen, Gert Westermann
To account for infants' perceptual and cognitive development, the constructivist model proposes that learning a new object depends on the capability of processing simpler lower-level units, and then integrating these units into more complex higher-level units based on their relationships, such as regular co-occurrence. Here, we demonstrate that the process of associating visual and auditory attributes to build a new multisensory object representation is not only observed in the course of development, but also in the course of infants' in-the-moment information processing...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jane Bickford, John Coveney, Janet Baker, Deborah Hersh
OBJECTIVE: To explore how individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL) from diverse backgrounds make meaning and adjust to the physical and functional changes from a total laryngectomy (TL). To examine the extent primary supporters (PS) and health professionals (HP) are able to support IWL with the psychosocial and existential challenges rendered by a surgery that significantly impacts a person's talking, breathing, swallowing and appearance. METHODS: A constructivist grounded theory approach and symbolic interactionism were used to guide data collection and analysis...
June 21, 2018: Psycho-oncology
J Lewney, R D Holmes, J Rankin, C Exley
Background: Inequalities in dental decay in young children persist, resulting in high admission rates for general anaesthetics for tooth extractions. Health visitors have the potential to improve dental attendance and oral health in families least likely to engage with dental services. There is little evidence on health visitor views on this. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 17 health visitors working in both affluent and deprived areas in a single UK city...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Sara L Buckingham, M Cecilia Suarez-Pedraza
The wellbeing of Latinx immigrants in the United States varies widely. Immigrants' changes and maintenance of their cultures, a process known as acculturation, has been postulated to explain differences in wellbeing. However, the mechanisms by which acculturation impacts wellbeing are not fully understood. This study sought to understand the relation between acculturation and wellbeing through a person-environment fit lens, with the hypothesis that the better immigrants can acculturate in ways they prefer (e...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Peter H Kahn, Thea Weiss, Kit Harrington
This article provides a proof of concept for an approach to modeling child-nature interaction based on the idea of interaction patterns : characterizations of essential features of interaction between humans and nature, specified abstractly enough such that countless different instantiations of each one can occur - in more domestic or wild forms - given different types of nature, people, and purposes. The model draws from constructivist psychology, ecological psychology, and evolutionary psychology, and is grounded in observational data collected through a time-sampling methodology at a nature preschool...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Miriam Ryan, Mathew McCauley, Davina Walsh
Sexual offenses evoke strong emotional responses and frequently elicit demands from society that offenders be indefinitely incarcerated or treated until they are deemed safe, which may impact the provision of therapeutic treatment for offenders. However, in recent years, there has been a proposal to move toward a positive, strengths-based treatment approach, namely the Good Lives Model (GLM). The present study used semi-structured interviews and a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the experience of 13 men who were voluntarily engaging in or had completed a GLM community-based treatment program...
June 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Francisco M Olmos-Vega, Diana Hjm Dolmans, Carlos Guzmán-Quintero, Renée E Stalmeijer, Pim W Teunissen
CONTEXT: Successful engagement between residents and supervisors lies at the core of workplace learning, a process that is not exempt from challenge. Clinical encounters have unique learning potential as they offer opportunities to achieve a shared understanding between the resident and supervisor of how to accomplish a common goal. How residents and supervisors develop such a mutual understanding is an issue that has received limited attention in the literature. We used the 'intersubjectivity' concept as a novel conceptual framework to analyse this issue...
July 2018: Medical Education
John A Johnson
Psychologists often argue that sex roles direct different types of socializing behaviors toward males and females and that this differential treatment, in turn, leads to sex differences in personality. Widely cited in support of this thesis has been the Fels longitudinal study finding that dependency and passivity are stable from childhood to adulthood for females only and aggressiveness and sexuality for males only. The present article explains why the type of sex differences in personality stability cited by Fels researchers actually contradicts the view that sex role expectations cause these differences...
June 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Kyoko Wada, Marilyn K Evans, Barbra de Vrijer, Jeff Nisker
Limited clinical research with pregnant women has resulted in insufficient data to promote evidence-informed prenatal care. Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to explore how research with pregnant women would be determined ethically acceptable from the perspectives of pregnant women, health care providers, and researchers in reproductive sciences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 pregnant women, 10 health care providers, and nine reproductive science researchers...
June 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Alyssa Howren, Susan M Cox, Kam Shojania, Sharan K Rai, Hyon K Choi, Mary A De Vera
BACKGROUND: Prior qualitative research on gout has focused primarily on barriers to disease management. Our objective was to use patients' perspectives to construct an explanatory framework to understand how patients become engaged in the management of their gout. METHODS: We recruited a sample of individuals with gout who were participating in a proof-of-concept study of an eHealth-supported collaborative care model for gout involving rheumatology, pharmacy, and dietetics...
June 1, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Callista K Kahonde, Judith McKenzie, Nathan J Wilson
Although most people with intellectual disability remain under the lifelong care and support of their families, there is a hiatus in research that explores the sexuality of people with intellectual disability within the family setting. Little is known about how the responses of family caregivers align with a human rights approach to the sexuality of people with intellectual disability, particularly in the South African context. This study used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore how 25 South African family caregivers responded to the sexuality of their young adults with intellectual disability...
May 30, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Scott Brunero, Lucie M Ramjan, Yenna Salamonson, Daniel Nicholls
Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Jane Bickford, John Coveney, Janet Baker, Deborah Hersh
BACKGROUND: A total laryngectomy often prolongs life but results in long-term disablement, disfigurement, and complex care needs. Current clinical practice addresses the surgical options, procedures, and immediate recovery. Less support is available longer-term despite significant changes to aspects of personhood and ongoing medical needs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of living with and/or supporting individuals with a laryngectomy at least 1 year after surgery...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Debra Carroll-Beight, Markus Larsson
Purpose: Transgender persons experience a disproportionate representation in adverse mental health conditions globally. In Sweden, there are tangible efforts to improve mental healthcare overall, but transgender persons still struggle with meeting their mental healthcare needs and there is an absence of understanding the role of mental healthcare for this population and how services are being utilized. Thus, the aim of this study was to gain knowledge from transgender individuals in Sweden concerning their mental healthcare, their needs, expectations, and realities, regardless of transition status...
2018: Transgender Health
Luther Elliott, Alexander S Bennett, Kelly Szott, Andrew Golub
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands as a form of psychopathology that straddles moral and psychiatric domains. Grounded in discrete instances of trauma, PTSD represents an etiological outlier in an era of increased attention to the genetics of mental illness and a prime location for social constructivist analyses of mental illness. This examination of PTSD narratives-as voiced in qualitative interviews and focus groups with 50 veterans of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars living in New York City-attends to the processes through which veterans conceive and navigate PTSD symptoms and diagnoses...
May 23, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Kori A LaDonna, Shiphra Ginsburg, Christopher Watling
PURPOSE: Medical practice is uncertain and complex. Consequently, even outstanding performers will inevitably experience moments of underperformance and failure. Coping relies on insight and resilience. However, how physicians develop and use these skills to navigate struggle remains underexplored. A better understanding may reveal strategies to support both struggling learners and stressed practitioners. METHOD: In 2015, 28 academic physicians were interviewed about their experiences with underperformance or failure...
May 22, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Carolin Sehlbach, Marjan J B Govaerts, Sharon Mitchell, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank W J M Smeenk, Erik W Driessen
PURPOSE: National physician validation systems aim to ensure lifelong learning through periodic appraisals of physicians' competence. Their effectiveness is determined by physicians' acceptance of and commitment to the system. This study, therefore, sought to explore physicians' perceptions and self-reported acceptance of validation across three different physician validation systems in Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded-theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 respiratory specialists from three countries with markedly different validation systems: Germany, which has a mandatory, credit-based system oriented to continuing professional development; Denmark, with mandatory annual dialogs and ensuing, non-compulsory activities; and the UK, with a mandatory, portfolio-based revalidation system...
May 24, 2018: Medical Teacher
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
John W Scott, Yihan Lin, Georges Ntakiyiruta, Zeta Mutabazi, William A Davis, Megan A Morris, Douglas S Smink, Robert Riviello, Steven Yule
OBJECTIVE: To identify the critical nontechnical skills (NTS) required for high performance in variable-resource contexts (VRC). BACKGROUND: As surgical training and capacity increase in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), new strategies for improving surgical education and care in these settings are required. NTS are critical for high performance in surgery around the world. However, the essential NTS used by surgeons operating in LMICs to overcome the challenges specific to their contexts have never been described...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Steve M Redpath, Aidan Keane, Henrik Andrén, Zachary Baynham-Herd, Nils Bunnefeld, A Bradley Duthie, Jens Frank, Claude A Garcia, Johan Månsson, Lovisa Nilsson, Chris R J Pollard, O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Carl F Salk, Henry Travers
Conservation conflicts represent complex multilayered problems that are challenging to study. We explore the utility of theoretical, experimental, and constructivist approaches to games to help to understand and manage these challenges. We show how these approaches can help to develop theory, understand patterns in conflict, and highlight potentially effective management solutions. The choice of approach should be guided by the research question and by whether the focus is on testing hypotheses, predicting behaviour, or engaging stakeholders...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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