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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236159/rapid-detection-of-sublethal-toxicity-using-locomotor-activity-of-rainbow-trout-juveniles
#1
Tomas Makaras, Gintaras Svecevičius, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Danguolė Montvydienė
This study examined changes in locomotor activity of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles exposed to sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) (as a single pollutant) and landfill leachate (as an complex mixture of mainly organic compounds, including trace amounts of metals). Fish were first examined for baseline behavior patterns for 3 h to determine the appropriate duration of acclimation and the control level. The average velocity of fish was found to be the most informative among other endpoints throughout the 3 h long acclimation...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235101/aquatic-food-web-dynamics-following-incorporation-of-nutrients-derived-from-atlantic-anadromous-fishes
#2
K M Samways, D X Soto, R A Cunjak
Changes in the isotopic composition (δ13 C and δ15 N) in biofilm, macro-invertebrates and resident salmonids were used to characterize temporal dynamics of marine derived nutrients (MDNs) incorporation between stream reaches with and without MDN inputs. Five Atlantic rivers were chosen to represent contrasting MDN subsidies: four rivers with considerable numbers of anadromous fishes; one river with little MDN input. Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, were the primary anadromous species for the sampled rivers...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230481/biological-responses-in-brook-trout-salvelinus-fontinalis-caged-downstream-from-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-the-credit-river-on-canada
#3
Stephen McGovarin, Tamanna Sultana, Chris Metcalfe
To determine whether discharges of contaminants from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may be contributing to the decline in populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the watershed of the Credit River in ON, Canada, we caged juvenile brook trout upstream and downstream of the WWTPs of the small communities of Acton and Orangeville. Levels of vitellogenin were significantly elevated in liver tissue of trout caged downstream of both WWTPs, indicating exposure to estrogenic substances. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances indicative of oxidation of lipids were elevated in the gill tissue of brook trout caged downstream of the Orangeville WWTP, and levels of total glutathione were significantly lower in the gills of brook trout caged downstream of the Acton WWTP...
December 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224194/establishment-and-evaluation-of-an-indirect-immunofluorescence-assay-for-the-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus
#4
S Gao, W Shi, Y T Wang, M T Guo, K X Duan, A C Song, G H Lian, Tong Ren, Y J Li, L J Tang, L Sun, M Liu
Salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) severely infects farmed salmonids and rainbow trout. Owing to the recent increase in fish import trade, several SAV-unreported countries, such as China, may face serious threat of this infection. Thus, it is necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, we selected a conserved segment of the SAV E1 protein as a target immunogen for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to SAV. A sensitive indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method was developed using 26E9C2 mAb that detected E1 protein and identified subtypes 1, 2 and 5 of SAV...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223611/individuals-exhibit-consistent-differences-in-their-metabolic-rates-across-changing-thermal-conditions
#6
Sonya K Auer, Karine Salin, Graeme J Anderson, Neil B Metcalfe
Metabolic rate has been linked to growth, reproduction, and survival at the individual level and is thought to have far reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of organisms. However, differences in metabolic rate among individuals must be consistent (i.e. repeatable) over at least some portion of their lifetime in order to predict their longer-term effects on population dynamics and how they will respond to selection. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable under constant conditions but potentially less so in more variable environments...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223178/relative-influence-of-dietary-protein-and-energy-contents-on-lysine-requirements-and-voluntary-feed-intake-of-rainbow-trout-fry
#7
Mélusine Van Larebeke, Guillaume Dockx, Yvan Larondelle, Xavier Rollin
The effect of dietary digestible protein (DP) and/or digestible energy (DE) levels on lysine (Lys) requirements, Lys utilisation efficiency and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were studied in rainbow trout fry when Lys was the first limiting indispensable amino acid or in excess in the diet. Two trials were conducted at 11·6°C with eighty-one experimental diets, containing 280 g DP/kg DM (low protein (LP), trial 1), 600 g DP/kg DM (high protein (HP), trial 1) or 440 g DP/kg DM (medium protein (MP), trial 2), 17 MJ DE/kg (low energy (LE)), 19·5 MJ DE/kg (medium energy (ME)) or 22 MJ DE/kg (high energy (HE)), and nine Lys levels from deeply deficient to large excess (2·3-36 g/kg DM)...
December 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218398/enhanced-hemoglobin-oxygen-unloading-in-migratory-salmonids
#8
Jacelyn J Shu, Till S Harter, Phillip R Morrison, Colin J Brauner
Recent findings indicate that some teleost fishes may be able to greatly enhance hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) unloading at the tissues under conditions that result in catecholamine release. The putative mechanism relies on the high pH sensitivity of teleost hemoglobin (Hb), intracellular red blood cell (RBC) pH regulation via β-adrenergic Na+/H+ exchanger (β-NHE) activity, and plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase at the tissues that short-circuits RBC pH regulation. Previous studies have shown that in rainbow trout, this system may double Hb-O2 unloading to red muscle compared to a situation without short-circuiting...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212842/lean-mean-lipolytic-machines-lipid-mobilization-in-rainbow-trout-during-graded-swimming
#9
Eric D Turenne, Jean-Michel Weber
The mobilization of mammalian lipid reserves is strongly stimulated during exercise to reach a maximum at moderate intensities, but the effects of swimming speed on fish lipolysis have never been quantified. Continuous infusion of 2-[3H]glycerol was used to measure Ra glycerol (=rate of appearance of glycerol or lipolytic rate) in rainbow trout kept at rest, or during graded exercise in a swim tunnel up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit). Results show that Ra glycerol is 1.67±0.18 µmol kg-1min-1 in control animals, and remains at a steady level of 1...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208361/bifurcations-and-global-dynamics-in-a-toxin-dependent-aquatic-population-model
#10
Qihua Huang, Gunog Seo, Chunhua Shan
The study of effects of environmental toxins on ecosystems is of great interest from both environmental and conservation points of view. In this paper, we present a global stability and bifurcation analysis of a toxin-dependent aquatic population model. Our analytical and numerical results show that both the environmental toxin level and the depuration capability of the population significantly affect the population persistence. The model exhibits a multifarious array of dynamics. While low levels of external toxin allow population persistence and high levels of toxin lead to an extirpation, intermediate toxin concentrations can produce very rich dynamics, such as transient oscillations, hysteresis, heteroclinic orbits, and a codimension-two bifurcation...
December 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203905/rainbow-trout-exposed-to-benzo-a-pyrene-yields-conserved-microrna-binding-sites-in-dna-methyltransferases-across-500-million-years-of-evolution
#11
Christopher Kuc, Daniel J Richard, Samantha Johnson, Leslie Bragg, Mark R Servos, Andrew C Doxey, Paul M Craig
The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of DNA methylation following acute (24 h) and prolonged (14 d) exposure to low (1 ng/L) and high (10 ng/L) benzo[a]pyrene. However, with the recent release of the rainbow trout genome, we were able to conduct a more detailed analysis regarding the regulation of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify candidate microRNA (miRNA) that potentially bind to the DNMT1 and DNMT3a 3'UTR...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196919/the-combined-efficiency-of-dietary-isomaltooligosaccharides-and-bacillus-spp-on-the-growth-hemato-serological-and-intestinal-microbiota-indices-of-caspian-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-caspius-kessler-1877
#12
Maryam Aftabgard, Alireza Salarzadeh, Mahmoud Mohseni, Amir Houshang Bahri Shabanipour, Mohammad Ebrahim Jalil Zorriehzahra
The combined effects of a commercial probiotic, BetaPlus®, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOS) on the growth, survival rate, intestinal microbiota, and hemato-immunological parameters were evaluated in Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877). Caspian brown trout fingerlings (~ 9 g) were fed a control diet (basal diet) or a synbiotic diet (the basal diet + 2 g kg-1 IMOS + 1 g kg-1 BetaPlus®) for 7 weeks. At the end of this trial, fish fed the synbiotic diet showed significant improvements in body weight increase, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate compared with fish fed the control diet (P < 0...
December 1, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194613/comparison-of-vegetable-shortening-and-cocoa-butter-as-vehicles-for-cortisol-manipulation-in-salmo-trutta
#13
K Birnie-Gauvin, K S Peiman, M H Larsen, K Aarestrup, K M Gilmour, S J Cooke
This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193243/dioxin-like-contaminants-are-no-longer-a-risk-to-the-american-eel-anguilla-rostrata-in-lake-ontario
#14
Sharilyn J Hoobin, Jonathan D Byer, Mehran Alaee, R Stephen Brown, Peter V Hodson
The embryotoxicity of extracts of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) was measured to determine whether maternally-derived contaminants contribute to the declining recruitment of eels to Lake Ontario. Sexually maturing, large yellow and silver eels were sampled in 2007 and 2008 from five locations in eastern Canada, including Lake Ontario; positive controls included eels from the Hudson River, United States, and Canal Dessel-Schoten, Belgium (European eel, Anguilla anguilla). Japanese medaka eggs were injected immediately after fertilization with 1 or 10 nL of eel extract, and after 12 days scored for signs of toxicity...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190806/size-conditional-smolting-and-the-response-of-carmel-river-steelhead-to-two-decades-of-conservation-efforts
#15
Juan Lopez Arriaza, David A Boughton, Kevan Urquhart, Marc Mangel
Threshold effects are common in ecosystems and can generate counterintuitive outcomes in management interventions. A threshold effect proposed for steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is size-conditional smolting and marine survival. Steelhead are anadromous, maturing in the ocean but migrating to freshwater to spawn, where their offspring reside for one or more years before smolting-physiologically transforming to a saltwater form-and migrating to the ocean. In conditional smolting, juveniles transform only if growth exceeds a threshold body size prior to migration season, and subsequent marine survival correlates with size at ocean entry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188048/effects-of-cooking-techniques-on-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-content-of-farmed-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180105/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-b-expression-in-the-rainbow-trout-ovary-prior-to-sex-differentiation
#17
Claudio Pérez, Cristian Araneda, Francisco Estay, Nelson F Díaz, Denise Vizziano-Cantonnet
Salmonids have two sex hormone-binding globulin (Shbg) paralogs. Shbga is mainly expressed in the liver, while Shbgb is secreted by the granulosa cells of the rainbow trout ovary. Coexpression of shbgb and the gonadal aromatase cyp19a1a mRNAs been observed in granulosa cells, suggesting a physiological coordination between Shbgb expression and estrogen synthesis. As estrogens are essential for female sex determination in the fish ovary, we propose that Shbgb participates in early ovarian differentiation, either by binding with estrogen or through another mechanism that remains to be discovered...
November 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167943/penetrating-crohn-disease-does-it-occur-in-the-absence-of-stricturing-disease
#18
Emily S Orscheln, Jonathan R Dillman, Alexander J Towbin, Lee A Denson, Andrew T Trout
PURPOSE: To establish the relationship between penetrating complications and bowel luminal narrowing/stricturing disease in pediatric Crohn disease (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was IRB-approved and HIPAA compliant with waiver of informed consent. CT and MRI examinations describing intra-abdominal penetrating complications in CD patients ≤ 18 years old between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2016 were reviewed to document: type of complication, affected bowel segment, minimum bowel luminal diameter, maximum upstream diameter, location of penetrating complication relative to luminal narrowing, length of narrowed bowel segment, and the presence of active bowel wall inflammation...
November 22, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163446/more-than-gliding-involvement-of-gldd-and-gldg-in-the-virulence-of-flavobacterium-psychrophilum
#19
David Pérez-Pascual, Tatiana Rochat, Brigitte Kerouault, Esther Gómez, Fabienne Neulat-Ripoll, Celine Henry, Edwige Quillet, Jose A Guijarro, Jean F Bernardet, Eric Duchaud
A fascinating characteristic of most members of the genus Flavobacterium is their ability to move over surfaces by gliding motility. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, an important pathogen of farmed salmonids worldwide, contains in its genome the 19 gld and spr genes shown to be required for gliding or spreading in Flavobacterium johnsoniae; however, their relative role in its lifestyle remains unknown. In order to address this issue, two spreading deficient mutants were produced as part of a Tn4351 mutant library in F...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162706/vaccine-effects-on-heterogeneity-in-susceptibility-and-implications-for-population-health-management
#20
Kate E Langwig, Andrew R Wargo, Darbi R Jones, Jessie R Viss, Barbara J Rutan, Nicholas A Egan, Pedro Sá-Guimarães, Min Sun Kim, Gael Kurath, M Gabriela M Gomes, Marc Lipsitch
Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion...
November 21, 2017: MBio
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