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Alejandro Villasante, Carolina Ramirez, Natalia Catalán, Jaime Romero
The aim of the present study was to identify major bacteria associated with the swim bladder in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We extracted DNA from the swim bladder and gut contents in order to perform a temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons for bacterial identification to further compare both profiles. Arthrobacter and Cellulosimicrobium were the major genera observed in the swim bladder in fish, but were not present in fish gut contents; Mycoplasma were instead observed in these samples...
October 14, 2017: Microbes and Environments
Célia Lopes, Fernanda Malhão, Cláudia Guimarães, Ivone Pinheiro, José F Gonçalves, L Filipe C Castro, Eduardo Rocha, Tânia V Madureira
Disruption of androgenic signaling has been linked to possible cross-modulation with other hormone-mediated pathways. Therefore, our objective was to explore effects caused by testosterone - T (1, 10 and 50μM) in peroxisomal signaling of brown trout hepatocytes. To study the underlying paths involved, several co-exposure conditions were tested, with flutamide - F (anti-androgen) and ICI 182,780 - ICI (anti-estrogen). Molecular and morphological approaches were both evaluated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), catalase and urate oxidase were the selected targets for gene expression analysis...
September 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hyoeun Kim, Roktaek Lim, Young-Il Seo, Dongwoo Sheen
Fish growth models are widely used in fisheries as well in aquacultures and ecology. Water temperature is one of the most important factors determining the growth of fish. In the present study, we propose a growth model that includes the effect of water temperature on the growth in the von Bertalanffy growth model. Our model was applied to fit the growth data of bullhead (Cottus gobio), brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), juvenile salmon (Salmo salar), and Araucanian herring (Strangomera bentincki). The model reproduces the growth patterns of each species and fits a set of appropriate parameter values for each species...
October 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Michael S Middleton, Mark L Van Natta, Elhamy R Heba, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Prakash Masand, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, Gavin Hamilton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
We assessed the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children to stratify hepatic steatosis grade before and after treatment in the Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children (CyNCh) trial, using centrally-scored histology as reference. Participants had multi-echo 1.5T or 3T MRI on scanners from three manufacturers. Of 169 enrolled children, 110 (65%) and 83 (49%) had MRI and liver biopsy at baseline and at end-of-treatment (EOT; 52-weeks), respectively...
October 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Luke R Iwanowicz, Deborah D Iwanowicz, Cynthia R Adams, Heather Galbraith, Aaron Aunins, Robert S Cornman
Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
Parind M Desai, Vibha Puri, David Brancazio, Bhakti S Halkude, Jeremy E Hartman, Aniket V Wahane, Alexander R Martinez, Keith D Jensen, Eranda Harinath, Richard D Braatz, Jung-Hoon Chun, Bernhardt L Trout
We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing...
October 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Charles Perrier, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Pascal Sirois, Isabel Thibault, Louis Bernatchez
Understanding genomic signatures of divergent selection underlying long-term adaptation in populations located in heterogeneous environments is a key goal in evolutionary biology. In this study, we investigated neutral, adaptive and deleterious genetic variation using 7,192 SNPs in 31 Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations (n = 673) from Québec, Canada. Average genetic diversity was low, weakly shared among lakes, and positively correlated to lake size, indicating a major role for genetic drift subsequent to lake isolation...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
C Musseau, S Vincenzi, D Jesenšek, A J Crivelli
Introduced and allopatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were sampled in Slovenia for stable isotope analysis to assess dietary niche shifts through ontogeny and estimate the propensity for cannibalism. Both S. trutta and O. mykiss are cannibals, with higher average relative contribution of conspecific assimilated energy for S. trutta (27·9%) compared with O. mykiss (7·7%). The smallest cannibal was 166 mm in the S. trutta population and 247 mm in the O. mykiss population...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Molly Scott, Michelle Heupel, Andrew Tobin, Morgan Pratchett
Climate-driven increases in ocean temperatures are expected to affect the metabolic requirements of marine species substantially. To mitigate the impacts of increasing temperatures in the short-term, it may be necessary for ectothermic organisms to alter their foraging behaviour and activity. Herein, we investigate seasonal variation in foraging behaviour and activity of latitudinally distinct populations of a large coral reef predator, the common coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Reza Saeidi Asl, Milad Adel, Christopher Marlowe A Caipang, Mahmoud A O Dawood
The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Hematological responses including: hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte and neutrophil populations enhanced significantly in fish fed 3% of stinging nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P < 0...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
R Hoare, S-J Jung, T P H Ngo, K Bartie, J Bailey, K D Thompson, A Adams
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome which has had a major impact on global salmonid aquaculture. Recent outbreaks in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and Chile have added to the need for a vaccine to protect both salmon and trout. At present no licensed vaccines are available in Europe, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to contain disease outbreaks. Outbreaks generally occur in fry at temperatures between 10 and 15 °C. Recently outbreaks in larger fish have given added impetus to the development of a vaccine which can provide long term protection from this highly heterogeneous pathogen...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi-Shuai Hou, Hai-Shen Wen, Ji-Fang Li, Feng He, Yun Li, Ya-Xiong Tao
To study the expression of four estrogen receptor genes (erα1, erα2, erβ1, erβ2) of female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during first ovarian development, trouts were sampled from different ovarian stages. Serum E2 (estradiol) was measured by ELISA and estrogen receptors mRNA expression were examined by qRT-PCR. Our results showed a close association between increased erα1 and vitellogenin mRNA expression during ovarian maturation and increased erα2 mRNA expression in mature ovarian stages. Correlation analysis revealed that a negative relationship between serum E2 and ovarian erβ1 (or hepatic erβ2), but ovarian erβ2 mRNA expression was relatively unchanged during first ovarian development...
October 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Anne Le Goff, Badr Kaoui, Gaetan Kurzawa, Boglárka Haszon, Anne-Virginie Salsac
We study experimentally the deformation and break-up of liquid-filled capsules trapped at an axisymmetric step constriction, and subjected to increasing pressure drops. We considered biological (trout fish eggs) and bioartificial (made of ovalbumin and alginate) ones, with the objective to characterize the transition to break-up. We find that both capsule populations behave as a brittle material. They do not exhibit any plastic deformation prior to break-up. Moreover critical pressure drop exhibits a stochastic behavior as known for the fracture of disordered media...
October 9, 2017: Soft Matter
Aitor G Granja, Carolina Tafalla
In teleost fish, IgM(+) B cells are one of the main responders against inflammatory stimuli in the peritoneal cavity, as IgM(+) B cells dominate the peritoneum after intraperitoneal stimulation, also increasing the levels of secreted IgM. BAFF, a cytokine known to play a major role in B cell biology, has been shown to be up-regulated along with its receptors in the peritoneum of rainbow trout upon antigenic exposure, however, the regulatory mechanisms underneath this response remain unclear. In this study, we have identified two different IgM(+) B cell types residing in the peritoneal cavity of previously vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): IgD(+)IgM(hi)MHCII(hi) cells, resembling naïve B cells, and IgD(-)IgM(lo)MHCII(lo) cells, resembling antibody-secreting cells...
October 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anne Crémazy, Chris M Wood, Tania Y-T Ng, D Scott Smith, M Jasim Chowdhury
We evaluated the effects of varying water chemistry ([Ca(2+)]=0.2-3mM, [Mg(2+)]=0.05-3mM, dissolved organic matter (DOM, natural, from maple leaves)=0.3-10mg of CL(-1), pH=5.0-8.5) on the acute (96-h, unfed fish) and chronic (30-d, fed fish) toxicity of waterborne Cu to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in flow-through conditions. Acute and chronic Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) were developed from the obtained toxicity data-sets, using the Visual MINTEQ software. Our results indicate that Cu is predominantly an acute toxicant to rainbow trout, as there were no observable growth effects and the 96-h and 30-d LC50 values were similar, with mortality mostly occurring within the first few days of exposure...
July 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Sophia V Hansson, Jeroen Sonke, Didier Galop, Gilles Bareille, Séverine Jean, Gaël Le Roux
Stocking is a worldwide activity on geographical and historical scales. The rate of non-native fish introductions have more than doubled over the last decades yet the effect on natural ecosystems, in the scope of biologically mediated transport and biomagnification of Hg and Hg-isotopes, is unknown. Using geochemistry (THg) and stable isotopes (N, Sr and Hg), we evaluate natal origin and trophic position of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), as well as mercury biomagnification trends and potential pollution sources to three high-altitude lakes...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
I Meriç Turgut, E Keskin
Amitraz, a formamidine pesticide, and their metabolites have the potential to disrupt endocrine homeostasis in a variety of organisms, nevertheless there is a lack of information concerning such effects and underlying mechanisms in any fish species.To evaluate the potential impacts of Trasil (EC; active constituent 200 g amitraz/L), a commercial product of amitraz, on thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), TRα and TRβ, were determined by RT-PCR soon after sub-lethal administration in a static bio-assay system...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Ingjerd Sunde Krogseth, Emma Maria Undeman, Anita Evenset, Guttorm N Christensen, Mick J Whelan, Knut Breivik, Nicholas A Warner
Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used in personal care products and emitted to aquatic environments through wastewater effluents, and their bioaccumulation potential is debated. Here, a new bentho-pelagic version of the ACC-HUMAN model was evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and applied to cVMS in combination with measurements to explore their bioaccumulation behavior in a subarctic lake. Predictions agreed better with measured PCB concentrations in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) when the benthic link was included than in the pelagic-only model...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Clemencia Chaves López, Annalisa Serio, Costanza Montalvo, Cristina Ramirez, José Angel Peréz Álvarez, Antonello Paparella, Dino Mastrocola, Maria Martuscelli
Nisin is a lantibiotic exhibiting antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, or some Gram-negative bacteria when used in combination with other preservative agents. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of nisin treatment on biogenic amines occurrence and shelf life of refrigerated (4 °C) vacuum packaged rainbow trout samples. For this purpose samples were divided in two batches: the experimental batch (CB-N), consisting of samples immersed in sterilized broth formulated with soy milk 1...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Charles H Wigington, Derek Sonderegger, Corina P D Brussaard, Alison Buchan, Jan F Finke, Jed A Fuhrman, Jay T Lennon, Mathias Middelboe, Curtis A Suttle, Charles Stock, William H Wilson, K Eric Wommack, Steven W Wilhelm, Joshua S Weitz
The original publication of this Article included analysis of virus and microbial cell abundances and virus-to-microbial cell ratios. Data in the Article came from 25 studies intended to be exclusively from marine sites. However, 3 of the studies included in the original unified dataset were erroneously classified as marine sites during compilation. The records with mis-recorded longitude and latitude values were, in fact, taken from inland, freshwater sources. The three inland, freshwater datasets are ELA, TROUT and SWAT...
October 3, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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