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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527383/tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-exposure-promotes-in-vitro-adipogenic-differentiation-but-alters-the-adipocyte-phenotype-in-rainbow-trout
#1
Esmail Lutfi, Natàlia Riera-Heredia, Marlon Córdoba, Cinta Porte, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro
Numerous environmental pollutants have been identified as potential obesogenic compounds affecting endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis. Among them, well-known organotins such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), can be found in significant concentrations in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effects of TBT and TPT on the development and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) primary cultured adipocytes. Results showed that TBT and TPT induced lipid accumulation and slightly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) protein expression when compared to a control, both in the presence or absence of lipid mixture...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525936/heavy-metal-and-arsenic-concentrations-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-farmed-in-a-dam-reservoir-on-the-firat-euphrates-river-risk-based-consumption-advisories
#2
Memet Varol, Gülderen Kurt Kaya, Alper Alp
The concentrations of ten metals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Karakaya Dam Reservoir (Turkey) on the Firat River were determined. The metal concentrations in rainbow trout did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. Biomagnification factors (BMF) of ten metals were <1, indicating that these metals were not biomagnified. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of each metal was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake (TDI). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals were lower than 1, indicating no health risk for consumers due to the intake of either individual metal or combined metals...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525709/sensory-and-behavioral-responses-of-a-model-fish-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-with-and-without-treatment
#3
Megan Reichert, Brian Blunt, Tia Gabruch, Tanja Zerulla, Allison Ralph, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Bruce R Sutherland, Keith Tierney
If oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is to be returned to the environment, a desire is that it not adversely affect aquatic life. We investigated whether a relevant model fish (rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) could detect OSPW using its olfactory sense (smell), and whether exposure to it would result in behavioural changes. We also investigated whether ozonation of OSPW, which lowers the concentration of organic compounds attributed with toxicity (naphthenic acids), would ameliorate any observed adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524261/application-of-low-frequency-sonophoresis-and-reduction-of-antibiotics-in-the-aquatic-systems
#4
C Cobo Labarca, J Radinger, V Schöning, R Ariav, R Jung, K D Thompson, W Kloas, K Knopf
A major concern in aquaculture is the use of chemical therapeutics, such as antibiotics, because of their impact on the environment as well as on the fish product. As a potential tool for reducing antibiotic use, we tested the application of low-frequency ultrasound as a method for enhancing antibiotic uptake. Rainbow trout juveniles (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to two different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC), flumequine (FLU) and florfenicol (FLO), administered by bath after the application of ultrasound...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515781/evolutionary-restoration-potential-evaluated-through-the-use-of-a-trait-linked-genetic-marker
#5
Travis M Apgar, Devon E Pearse, Eric P Palkovacs
Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515779/higher-resource-level-promotes-virulence-in-an-environmentally-transmitted-bacterial-fish-pathogen
#6
Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Janne K Valkonen, Katja Pulkkinen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Diseases have become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture, but remarkably little attention has been paid to a broad class of pathogens: the opportunists. Opportunists often persist in the environment outside the host, and their pathogenic features are influenced by changes in the environment. To test how environmental nutrient levels influence virulence, we used strains of Flavobacterium columnare, an environmentally transmitted fish pathogen, to infect rainbow trout and zebra fish in two different nutrient concentrations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515376/carotenoids-of-red-brown-and-black-specimens-of-plectropomus-leopardus-the-coral-trout-suziara-in-japanese
#7
Takashi Maoka, Wataru Sato, Hidetada Nagai, Toshiyuki Takahashi
This study investigated the carotenoids occurring in the integument of Plectropomus leopardus, the coral trout. For a red specimen, the major carotenoids included astaxanthin diester and monoester, as well as α-cryptoxanthin ester, tunaxanthin diester, adonixanthin diester, adonirubin ester, and adonirubin; for brown and black specimens, tunaxanthin diester was the main carotenoid. (1)H-NMR and MS spectral analyses showed that docosahexaenoic acid was the sole fatty acid esterified with xanthophylls in the coral trout...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502831/a-12-week-randomized-clinical-trial-investigating-the-potential-for-sucralose-to-affect-glucose-homeostasis
#8
V Lee Grotz, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Daniel Porte, Ashley Roberts, J Richard Trout
The discovery of gut sweet taste receptors has led to speculations that non-nutritive sweeteners, including sucralose, may affect glucose control. A double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial, reported here and previously submitted to regulatory agencies, helps to clarify the role of sucralose in this regard. This was primarily an out-patient study, with 4-week screening, 12-week test, and 4-week follow-up phases. Normoglycemic male volunteers (47) consumed ∼333.3 mg encapsulated sucralose or placebo 3x/day at mealtimes...
May 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500613/functional-diets-modulate-lncrna-coding-rnas-and-gene-interactions-in-the-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Camille Détrée, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
The advent of functional genomics has sparked the interest in inferring the function of non-coding regions from the transcriptome in non-model species. However, numerous biological processes remain understudied from this perspective, including intestinal immunity in farmed fish. The aim of this study was to infer long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) expression profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed for 30 days with functional diets based on pre- and probiotics. For this, whole transcriptome sequencing was conducted through Illumina technology, and lncRNAs were mined to evaluate transcriptional activity in conjunction with known protein sequences...
May 12, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#10
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497045/high-rate-of-deformed-larvae-among-gynogenetic-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-m-fario-doubled-haploids
#11
Krzysztof Jagiełło, Tomasz Zalewski, Stefan Dobosz, Oliwia Michalik, Konrad Ocalewicz
Mitotic gynogenesis results in the production of fully homozygous individuals in a single generation. Since inbred fish were found to exhibit an increased frequency of body deformations that may affect their survival, the main focus of this research was to evaluate the ratio of individuals with spinal deformities among gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs) brown trout as compared to nonmanipulated heterozygous individuals. Gynogenetic development was induced by the activation of brown trout eggs by UV-irradiated homologous and heterologous (rainbow trout) spermatozoa...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495868/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulates-collagen-synthesis-in-cultured-rainbow-trout-cardiac-fibroblasts
#12
Elizabeth F Johnston, Todd E Gillis
Cold acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, causes collagen to increase within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the myocardium, while warm acclimation has the opposite effect. The mechanism responsible for this remodeling response is not known. In mammals, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) stimulates collagen deposition within the myocardial ECM. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 regulates trout myocardial ECM turnover and predicted that TGF-β1 would induce collagen deposition in cultured rainbow trout cardiac fibroblasts...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495865/ceramide-counteracts-the-effects-of-ghrelin-on-the-metabolic-control-of-food-intake-in-rainbow-trout
#13
Cristina Velasco, Guillermo Moreiras, Marta Conde-Sieira, José M Leao, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
In mammals ceramides are involved in the modulation of the orexigenic effects of ghrelin (GHRL). We previously demonstrated in rainbow trout that intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with ceramide (2.5 µg/100g fish) resulted in an anorexigenic response, i.e. a response opposed to that described in mammals where ceramide treatment is orexigenic. Therefore, we hypothesize that the putative interaction between GHRL and ceramide must be different in fish. Accordingly, in a first experiment we observed that ceramide levels in hypothalamus of rainbow trout did not change after ICV treatment with GHRL...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495271/the-melanocortin-2-receptor-of-the-rainbow-trout-identifying-a-role-for-critical-positions-in-transmembrane-domain-4-extracellular-loop-2-and-transmembrane-domain-5-in-the-activation-of-rainbow-trout-mc2r
#14
Liang Liang, Perry V Davis, Michael R Dores, Robert M Dores
The activation of either teleost or tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs requires interaction between the HFRW motif and R/KKRRP motif in the primary sequence of ACTH, and two corresponding sites on the melanocortin 2 receptor. While the HFRW contact site on MC2R appears to involve residues in TM2, TM3, and TM6, several studies on human MC2R point to the EC2/TM5 region of MC2R as a possible location for the R/KKRRP contact site. In this study nineteen single-alanine mutants of rainbow trout (rt) MC2R were made beginning at V(153) in TM4, at all positions in EC2 (extracellular loop 2), to F(175) in TM5...
May 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494297/episodic-acidification-of-5-rivers-in-canada-s-oil-sands-during-snowmelt-a-25-year-record
#15
A C Alexander, P A Chambers, D S Jeffries
Episodic acidification during snowmelt is a natural phenomenon that can be intensified by acidic deposition from heavy industry. In Canada's oil sands region, acid deposition is estimated to be as much as 5% of the Canadian total and large tracks of northeastern Alberta are considered acid-sensitive because of extensive peatland habitats with poorly weathered soils. To identify the frequency, duration and severity of acidification episodes during snowmelt (the predominant hydrological period for delivery of priority pollutants from atmospheric oil sands emissions to surface waters), a 25-year record (1989 to 2014) of automated water quality data (pH, temperature, conductivity) was assembled for 3 rivers along with a shorter record (2012-2014) for another 2 rivers...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493929/selecting-the-best-stable-isotope-mixing-model-to-estimate-grizzly-bear-diets-in-the-greater-yellowstone-ecosystem
#16
John B Hopkins, Jake M Ferguson, Daniel B Tyers, Carolyn M Kurle
Past research indicates that whitebark pine seeds are a critical food source for Threatened grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). In recent decades, whitebark pine forests have declined markedly due to pine beetle infestation, invasive blister rust, and landscape-level fires. To date, no study has reliably estimated the contribution of whitebark pine seeds to the diets of grizzlies through time. We used stable isotope ratios (expressed as δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values) measured in grizzly bear hair and their major food sources to estimate the diets of grizzlies sampled in Cooke City Basin, Montana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493804/hereditary-renal-cystic-disorders-imaging-of-the-kidneys-and-beyond
#17
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Ethan A Smith, Alexander J Towbin
The purpose of this article is to review the hereditary renal cystic diseases that can manifest in children and adults, with specific attention to pathogenesis and imaging features. Various common and uncommon hereditary renal cystic diseases are reviewed in terms of their underlying etiology, including the involved genetic mutations and the affected proteins and cellular structures. Focus is placed on the morphologic findings in each condition and the features that distinguish one disorder from another. The two most common categories of hereditary renal cystic disease are (a) the ciliopathic disorders, which are related to mutations affecting the primary cilia (called "ciliopathies"), and (b) the phakomatoses...
May 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491036/pharmacological-activity-and-clinical-use-of-pdrn
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Squadrito, Alessandra Bitto, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Domenica Altavilla
PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490148/characterisation-of-aroma-active-and-off-odour-compounds-in-german-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-part-ii-case-of-fish-meat-and-skin-from-earthen-ponds-farming
#19
Mohamed Ahmed Abbas Mahmoud, Andrea Buettner
Odorous molecules in earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture farming in Germany were investigated with a special focus on musty-earthy off-odorants. To this aim, fish meat and skin were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and were mildly concentrated; extracts were subsequently analysed by means of one- and two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and olfactometry (GC-MS/O and 2D-HRGC-MS/O). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extracts revealed the presence of 76 odorants of which 75 were successfully identified...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488290/can-solid-phase-microextraction-replace-solvent-extraction-for-water-analysis-in-fish-bioconcentration-studies-with-highly-hydrophobic-organic-chemicals
#20
Leonard Böhm, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Christian Schlechtriem
With regard to a refinement of water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies, automated solidy-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as alternative approach to conventional solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, LLE) for the extraction of 3 hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log KOW 5.5-7.8) from flow-through studies with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results proved that total concentrations extracted by SPME combined with internal standards and LLE are equal. Results further verify the possibility for a simultaneous extraction of total and freely dissolved HOC concentrations by SPME...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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