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"Cardiac output"

Attila Kiss, Huaqing Shu, Ouafa Hamza, David Santer, Eva Verena Tretter, Shanglong Yao, Klaus Markstaller, Seth Hallström, Bruno K Podesser, Klaus Ulrich Klein
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that preconditioning with argon gas provided a marked reduction in inflammation and apoptosis and increased myocardial contractility in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). There is substantial evidence that myocardial IR injury following cardioplegic arrest is associated with the enhancement of apoptosis and inflammation, which is considered to play a role in cardiac functional impairment. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify whether preconditioning with argon gas enhances recovery of cardiac function following cardioplegic arrest...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Eloisa Basile, Giulio Russo, Antonio M Leone
It is essential to understand the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock and the possible deterioration of contractile function during high-risk PCI in order to select those patients who could benefit from mechanical support thus choosing the most suitable device in every situation. Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices (pVAD) provide hemodynamic support by improving cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, but their specific features result in different hemodynamic effects and degrees of myocardial ischemic protection and LV unloading...
March 15, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Philipp Marx, Wojciech Kowalczyk, Aydin Demircioglu, Gary Neil Brault, Hermann Wendt, Sharaf-Eldin Shehada, Konstantinos Tsagakis, Mohamed El Gabry, Heinz Jakob, Daniel Wendt
The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of the fluid dynamical performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease depending on the prosthetic size (21, 23, and 25 mm) and the cardiac output (3.6-6.4 L/min). A self-constructed flow channel in combination with particle image velocimetry (PIV) enabled precise results with high reproducibility, focus on maximal and local peek velocities, strain, and velocity gradients. These flow parameters allow insights into the generation of forces that act on blood cells and the aortic wall...
2018: BioMed Research International
D J Murphy, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Non-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques play a crucial role in the assessment of the varied manifestations of vascular disease. Vascular imaging encompasses a wide variety of pathology. Designing vascular imaging protocols can be challenging owing to the non-uniform velocity of blood in the aorta, differences in cardiac output between patients, and the effect of different disease states on blood flow. In this review, we provide the rationale behind-and a practical guide to-designing and implementing straightforward vascular computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Jonathan S Howard, Cherilyn N McLester, Thomas W Evans, John R McLester, Jimmy P Calloway
The PhysioFlow™ is a piece of equipment that uses bioimpedance cardiography to measure central hemodynamics. The purpose of this research was to explore the novel approach of monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance exercise using bioimpedance cardiography throughout a 5 repetition maximum (5RM). Thirty participants ranging from beginner to advanced lifters (16 males and 14 females) completed a 5RM for back squat, seated push press, and bicep curl while connected to the PhysioFlow™ to assess the response of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), and ejection fraction (EF)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Maja I Hug, Hitendu Dave, Oskar Baenziger, Christoph Buerki, Dominique Bettex, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Christian Balmer
OBJECTIVES: Dobutamine and milrinone are commonly used after open-heart surgery to prevent or treat low cardiac output syndrome. We sought to compare efficacy and safety of these drugs in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, double-blinded, randomized clinical pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university children's hospital postoperative pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: After written consent, 50 consecutive patients (age, 0...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Masatoshi Hotta, Ryogo Minamimoto, Shuji Kubota, Toru Awaya, Yukio Hiroi
A 75-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis presenting with low cardiac output and complete right bundle-branch block underwent 4'-[methyl-C]-thiothymidine (4DST) PET/CT after cardiac MRI and FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of suspected cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) before treatment. Cardiac MRI revealed late gadolinium enhancement on the anterior-to-lateral and posterior wall, indicating CS. FDG uptake was shown on the anterior-to-lateral wall, but not on the posterior wall. In contrast, 4DST uptake was demonstrated on both anterior-to-lateral and posterior walls...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
David M Tehrani, Daniel Rodgers, Sirtaz Adatya, Nitasha Sarswat, Jayant Raikhelkar, Gene H Kim, Gabriel Sayer, Nir Uriel
We aim to evaluate the echocardiographic/hemodynamic effects of left ventricular assist devices in African American (AA) versus non-AA patients undergoing ramp speed optimization and its subsequent effect on readmissions. In 65 patients (26 AA), no differences in baseline echocardiographic/hemodynamic parameters were noted. During ramp testing, there was a significantly greater increase in cardiac output (slope: 0.29 ± 0.24 vs. 0.15 ± 0.12, p < 0.01) with more rapid decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (slope: -0...
March 13, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Giacomo Veronese, Enrico Ammirati, Manlio Cipriani, Maria Frigerio
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure. The course of patients with myocarditis is heterogeneous, varying from partial or full clinical recovery in few days to advanced low cardiac output syndrome requiring mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation. Fulminant myocarditis (FM) is a peculiar clinical condition and is an acute form of myocarditis, whose main characteristic is a rapidly progressive clinical course with the need for hemodynamic support...
March 13, 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Rebecca R Vanderpool, Robert Naeije
The diagnosis and evaluation of severity of pulmonary vascular disease rests on the invasive determination of a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). It is often overlooked that PVR is linearly related to the viscosity of the blood, which in turn is curvilinearly related to hematocrit. We propose a correction diagram for patients with anemia or with polycythemia. Based on a distensibility model of the pulmonary circulation, we show that magnitude of hematocrit correction of PVR is increased in proportion to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) and the measured levels of PVR or hematocrit, and decreased in case of preserved resistive vessel distensibility and absence of pulmonary hypertension...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Zbynĕk Straňák, Simona Feyereislová, Peter Korček, Eugene Dempsey
Postnatal adaptation in preterm newborn comprises complex physiological processes that involve significant changes in the circulatory and respiratory system. Increasing hemoglobin level and blood volume following placental transfusion may be of importance in enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. The European consensus on resuscitation of preterm infants recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) for at least 60 s to promote placenta-fetal transfusion in uncompromised neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mohamed Elgendi, Yongbo Liang, Rabab Ward
Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal's vast potential...
March 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Kristen M Brown, Shawna S Mudd, Elizabeth A Hunt, Julianne S Perretta, Nicole A Shilkofski, J Wesley Diddle, Gregory Yurasek, Melania Bembea, Jordan Duval-Arnould, Kristen Nelson McMillan
OBJECTIVES: Assess the effect of a simulation "boot camp" on the ability of pediatric nurse practitioners to identify and treat a low cardiac output state in postoperative patients with congenital heart disease. Additionally, assess the pediatric nurse practitioners' confidence and satisfaction with simulation training. DESIGN: Prospective pre/post interventional pilot study. SETTING: University simulation center. SUBJECTS: Thirty acute care pediatric nurse practitioners from 13 academic medical centers in North America...
March 10, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Thomas Uray, Andrew Lamade, Jonathan Elmer, Tomas Drabek, Jason P Stezoski, Amalea Missé, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Robert H Garman, Niel Chen, Patrick M Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest etiology may be an important source of between-patient heterogeneity, but the impact of etiology on organ injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that asphyxial cardiac arrest results in greater neurologic injury than cardiac etiology cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest), whereas ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest results in greater cardiovascular dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Prospective observational human and randomized animal study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Paolo Nardi, Calogera Pisano, Fabio Bertoldo, Sara R Vacirca, Guglielmo Saitto, Antonino Costantino, Emanuele Bovio, Antonio Pellegrino, Giovanni Ruvolo
We retrospectively analyzed early results of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery using two different types of cardioplegia for myocardial protection: antegrade intermittent warm blood or cold crystalloid cardioplegia. From January 2015 to October 2016, 330 consecutive patients underwent isolated on-pump CABG. Cardiac arrest was obtained with use of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC group, n  = 297) or cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCC group, n  = 33), according to the choice of the surgeon. Euroscore II and preoperative characteristics were similar in both groups, except for the creatinine clearance, slightly lower in WBC group (77...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Devin B Phillips, Craig D Steinback, Sophie É Collins, Desi P Fuhr, Tracey L Bryan, Eric Y L Wong, Vincent Tedjasaputra, Mohit Bhutani, Michael K Stickland
COPD patients have increased central arterial stiffness and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA), both of which contribute to cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction and increased CV risk. Previous work suggests that COPD patients have elevated carotid chemoreceptor (CC) activity/sensitivity, which may contribute to the elevated MSNA and arterial stiffness. Accordingly, the effect of CC inhibition on central arterial stiffness, MSNA and CV function at rest in COPD patients was examined in a randomized placebo-controlled study...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Cole S Bailey, Luke T Wooster, Mary Buswell, Sarvagna Patel, Paul P Pappagianopoulos, Kristian Bakken, Casey White, Melissa Tanguay, Jasmine B Blodgett, Aaron L Baggish, Rajeev Malhotra, Gregory D Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the functional and prognostic significance of oxygen uptake (VO2 ) kinetics following peak exercise in individuals with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent patterns of VO2 recovery following exercise reflect circulatory response during exercise in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We investigated patients (30 HFpEF, 20 HFrEF, and 22 control subjects) who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and a second distinct HF cohort (n = 106) who underwent noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing with assessment of long-term outcomes...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Gabriel Altit, Shazia Bhombal, Krisa Van Meurs, Theresa A Tacy
INTRODUCTION: Newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have varying degrees of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH), and there is limited evidence that cardiac dysfunction is present. We sought to study early neonatal biventricular function and performance in these patients by reviewing early post-natal echocardiography (ECHO) measurements and comparing them to normal term newborns. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study reviewing clinical and ECHO data on term newborns with CDH and normal controls born between 2009 and 2016...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Marcus Granegger, Martin Schweiger, Marianne Schmid Daners, Mirko Meboldt, Michael Hübler
PURPOSE: Rotary blood pumps are a promising treatment approach for patients with a total cavopulmonary connection and a failing cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of cavopulmonary support using a numerical model with closed-loop baroreflex and exercise mechanisms. METHODS: A numerical model of the univentricular cardiovascular system was developed, mimicking the hemodynamics during rest and exercise. Rotary blood pumps with different hydraulic pump characteristics (flat vs steep pressure-flow relationships) were investigated in the cavopulmonary position...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Elliot Long, Trevor Duke, Ed Oakley, Adam O'Brien, Bennett Sheridan, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: The intent of fluid bolus therapy (FBT) is to increase cardiac output and tissue perfusion, yet only 50% of septic children are fluid responsive. We evaluated respiratory variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter as a predictor of fluid responsiveness. METHODS: A prospective observational study in the ED of The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Patients were spontaneously ventilating children treated with FBT for sepsis-induced acute circulatory failure...
March 8, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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