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health economic

B M Popkin, T Reardon
The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains)...
April 24, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yasser S Amer, Hayfaa A Wahabi, Manal M Abou Elkheir, Ghada A Bawazeer, Shaikh M Iqbal, Maher A Titi, Aishah Ekhzaimy, Khalid A Alswat, Rasmieh A Alzeidan, Lubna A Al-Ansary
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are significant tools for evidence-based health care quality improvement. The CPG program at King Saud University was launched as a quality improvement program to fulfil the international accreditation standards. This program was a collaboration between the Research Chair for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation and the Quality Management Department. This study aims to develop a fast-track method for adaptation of evidence-based CPGs and describe results of the program...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Laurence M Djatche, Stefan Varga, Robert D Lieberthal
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to aspirin therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events is an important public health problem. Prior studies have demonstrated non-adherent patients are at higher risk of experiencing CV events. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes of aspirin non-adherence in patients with a prior primary CV event. METHODS: We developed a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of aspirin adherence from a generic US managed care payer perspective over a 5-year time horizon...
April 24, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Faizan Saleem, Atif Mustafa, Junaid Ahmed Kori, Muhammad Saad Hussain, M Kamran Azim
Supplying safe water to consumers is vital for protection of public health. With population of > 15 million, Karachi is the main economical hub of Pakistan. Lake Keenjhar serves as the main source of fresh water while Hub dam is the secondary water reservoir for Karachi. In this study, bacterial community of the drinking water supply system (DWSS) of Karachi was studied from source to tap using metagenomics approach. For this purpose, we collected 41 water samples from different areas of the city (n = 38) and water reservoirs (n = 3)...
April 24, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Allan Abbott, Karin Schröder, Paul Enthoven, Per Nilsen, Birgitta Öberg
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem commonly requiring healthcare. In Sweden, there is a call from healthcare practitioners (HCPs) for the development, implementation and evaluation of a best practice primary healthcare model for LBP. AIMS: (1) To improve and understand the mechanisms underlying changes in HCP confidence, attitudes and beliefs for providing best practice coherent primary healthcare for patients with LBP; (2) to improve and understand the mechanisms underlying illness beliefs, self-care enablement, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with LBP; and (3) to evaluate a multifaceted and sustained implementation strategy and the cost-effectiveness of the BetterBack☺ model of care (MOC) for LBP from the perspective of the Swedish primary healthcare context...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Wen Gu, Yan-Min Xu, Bao-Liang Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In China, psychosocial problems of patients with cancer are under-recognised and undertreated in medical oncology practice. This study examined the health-related quality of life (QOL) in inpatients with lung cancer treated in large general hospitals and explored the demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with QOL. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Altogether, 148 inpatients with lung cancer were consecutively recruited from two large general hospitals in Tianjin, China...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Gayan P Withanage, Sameera D Viswakula, Y I Nilmini Silva Gunawardena, Menaka D Hapugoda
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major health problems in Sri Lanka causing an enormous social and economic burden to the country. An accurate early warning system can enhance the efficiency of preventive measures. The aim of the study was to develop and validate a simple accurate forecasting model for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Three time-series regression models were developed using monthly rainfall, rainy days, temperature, humidity, wind speed and retrospective dengue incidences over the period January 2012 to November 2015 for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka...
April 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Natasha Lelijveld, Jeanette Bailey, Amy Mayberry, Lani Trenouth, Dieynaba S N'Diaye, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Chloe Puett
BACKGROUND: Acute malnutrition is currently divided into severe (SAM) and moderate (MAM) based on level of wasting. SAM and MAM currently have separate treatment protocols and products, managed by separate international agencies. For SAM, the dose of treatment is allocated by the child's weight. A combined and simplified protocol for SAM and MAM, with a standardised dose of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), is being trialled for non-inferior recovery rates and may be more cost-effective than the current standard protocols for treating SAM and MAM...
April 24, 2018: Trials
Faustina Frempong-Ainguah, Claire E Bailey, Allan G Hill
BACKGROUND: Global discourse on population, health and development have placed women's health issues at the top of development agenda. Women's reproductive health has received some attention in Ghana since the mid-1990s. However, studies on women's general health status, dimensions and the differentials in a rapidly growing urban setting is poorly understood and under-researched. This study sought to examine the various pathways in which individual socio-demographic factors, economic characteristics and endowment influence self-assessed health status among women living in the city of Accra, Ghana...
April 24, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Shervin Assari
Introduction. Long-term studies have shown that depressive symptoms predict the risk of mortality. However, it is unknown if this effect is present in shorter time intervals. In addition, recent research suggests that the salience of the negative affect on the risk of mortality is not similar across racial groups. The current study uses data from a national study of Black and White older adults to examine racial differences in the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on mortality risk over three years in the United States...
April 23, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephen Wade, Marianne Weber, Michael Caruana, Yoon-Jung Kang, Henry Marshall, Renee Manser, Shalini Vinod, Nicole Rankin, Kwun Fong, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluations of lung cancer screening with low dose computerised tomography (LDCT) that are underpinned by clinical outcomes are few. METHODS: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of LDCT lung screening in Australia by applying Australian cost and survival data to the outcomes observed in the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), in which a 20% lung cancer mortality benefit was demonstrated for three rounds of annual screening among high-risk smokers aged 55-74 years...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
John Tianci Li
This study investigates the progress of highly cited research in China from 2001 to 2016 through the analysis of the Highly Cited database. The Highly Cited database, compiled by Clarivate Analytics, is comprised of the world's most influential researchers in the 22 Essential Science Indicator fields as catalogued by the Web of Science. The database is considered an international standard for the measurement of national and institutional highly cited research output. Overall, we found a consistent and substantial increase in Highly Cited Researchers from China during the timespan...
2018: PloS One
Delelegn Yilma Gebremichael, Kokeb Tesfamariam Hadush, Ermiyas Mulu Kebede, Robel Tezera Zegeye
BACKGROUND: Though HIV/AIDS has multidimensional consequences on quality of life, there is a gap in measuring and monitoring health related quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Hence, this study intended to measure health related quality of life domains and associated determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS in western Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 520 HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy in public health facilities in West Shoa Zone, Western Ethiopia from April to May, 2016...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lan-Bi Nie, Qin-Li Liang, Yang Zou, Yun-Hang Gao, Quan Zhao, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
Chlamydia is Gram-negative obligate bacterium, which can cause human diseases worldwide and has huge economic impact on animals. It is yet to know whether farmed wild boars are infected with Chlamydia in China. To assess risk factors of Chlamydia infection in farmed wild boars in China, from April 2015 to February 2016, a total of 837 serum samples of farmed wild boars were collected in Jilin province, northeastern China, and antibodies against Chlamydia were examined by the indirect hemagglutination assay...
April 24, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Zhangjun Zhou, Ashton M Verdery, Rachel Margolis
Objectives: China's recent demographic and social changes might undermine the sustainability of family-oriented system for elder care. We investigate kin availability among adults aged 45+ in contemporary China, with an emphasis on child gender. Method: Using nationally representative survey data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011), we examine the prevalence and correlates of lacking different kin types and combinations, and we test associations between kin availability and received economic support...
April 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Duduzile Ndwandwe, Olalekan A Uthman, Abdu Adamu, Evanson Z Sambala, Alison B Wiyeh, Tawa Olukade, Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya, Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele, Charles S Wiysonge
Understanding the gaps in missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) between poor and non-poor in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) would enable an understanding of factors associated with interventions for improving immunisation coverage to achieving universal childhood immunisation. We aimed to conduct a multicountry analyses to decompose the gap in MOV between poor and non-poor in SSA. We used cross-sectional data from 35 Demographic and Health Surveys in SSA conducted between 2007 and 2016. Descriptive statistics used to understand the gap in MOV between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates...
April 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Karen Throsby
Sugar is increasingly supplanting fat as public enemy number one in public health campaigns, and calls for significant reductions in consumption have provided fertile ground for the proliferation of popular texts and services advocating sugar abstention. This article explores three modes of popular sugar abstention (evangelical, experimental and charitable). These vary in chronology, philosophy and the intensity of abstention, but all serve as sites of identity production and self-entrepreneurship for those able to advocate for, and engage with, them...
April 16, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Stephanie G Mejias, Kamleshun Ramphul
Background Bronchial asthma is an important health problem worldwide. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of bronchial asthma among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of asthma and its related risk factors among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study using a modified questionnaire was conducted in Santo Domingo among 600 children aged three to 11 eleven years...
February 20, 2018: Curēus
Sunil K Dixit, Murali Sambasivan
This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries' healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Corrine Hanson, Marina Verdi Schumacher, Elizabeth Lyden, Dejun Su, Jeremy Furtado, Rex Cammack, Bradley Bereitschaft, Matthew Van Ormer, Howard Needelman, Elizabeth McGinn, Katherine Rilett, Caleb Cave, Rebecca Johnson, Kara Weishaar, Ann Anderson-Berry
The objective of the present study was to evaluate intakes and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, and related compounds in a cohort of maternal-infant pairs in the Midwestern USA in relation to measures of health disparities. Concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in maternal serum were measured using HPLC and measures of socio-economic status, including food security and food desert residence, were obtained in 180 mothers upon admission to a Midwestern Academic Medical Center labour and delivery unit...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
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