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hematology Oncology emergencies

Christopher A Benner, Erika Mora, Emily Mueller, F Jacob Seagull, Kelly Walkovich, Kaleena Johnson, Schuyler Halverson, Ed Rothman, George Hucks, John G Younger, Michele M Nypaver
OBJECTIVES: Febrile neutropenic pediatric patients are at heightened risk for serious bacterial infections, and rapid antibiotic administration (in <60 minutes) improves survival. Our objectives were to reduce the time-to-antibiotic (TTA) administration and to evaluate the effect of overall emergency department (ED) busyness on TTA. METHODS: This study was a quality improvement initiative with retrospective chart review to reduce TTA in febrile children with underlying diagnosis of cancer or hematologic immunodeficiency who visited the pediatric ED...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
M Roskies, E Kay-Rivest, M A Mascarella, K Sultanem, A Mlynarek, M Hier
BACKGROUND: A commonly employed treatment for advanced staged oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is concurrent radiation and chemotherapy with cisplatin as the gold standard. Carboplatin is reported to have the same radiopotentiation properties and a superior side effect profile; however, its use in head and neck cancer has been limited due to the paucity of data and reported hematologic side effects. In this study, we describe our institution's experience with carboplatin, paclitaxel and radiation in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma over a 10 year period...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, K C Lakshmaiah, M C Suresh Babu, Linu A Jacob, Gita R Bhat, Harsha Vardhana, Mahua Sinha, B R Vijaykumar, B G Sumati, R S Jayshree
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Mattia Altini, Marna Bernabini, Paolo Marchetti, Laura Orlando, Barbara Rebesco, Valeria Sirna
PURPOSE: Medication errors in oncology may cause severe damage to patients, professionals, and the environment. The Italian Ministry of Health issued Raccomandazione 14 to provide guidelines for prevention of errors while using antineoplastic drugs. This work aimed at analyzing Raccomandazione 14 through the different viewpoints of the hospital pharmacist, the nurse, the oncologist, and the hospital director. METHODS: Twenty-seven Italian healthcare organizations participated in a self-assessment survey evaluating compliance with Raccomandazione 14 within the oncology, hematology, and pharmacy departments...
August 29, 2016: Tumori
Michael J Satlin, Nina Cohen, Kevin C Ma, Zivile Gedrimaite, Rosemary Soave, Gülce Askin, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Thomas J Walsh, Susan K Seo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in adult neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. METHODS: We reviewed all BSIs between 2008 and 2012 in this population at two New York City oncology centers. A case-control study was conducted to identify CRE BSI risk factors, using three controls of non-CRE BSIs per case. RESULTS: CRE caused 43 (2...
October 2016: Journal of Infection
David W Walsh, Molly C McVey, Abigal Gass, Jingwen Zhang, Patrick D Mauldin, Don C Rockey
In order to provide high quality, cost-efficient care, it is critical to understand drivers of the cost of care. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical variables associated with high utilization (cost) in patients admitted to medical services and to develop a robust model to identify high utilization patients. In this case-control analysis, cases were identified as the 200 most costly patients admitted to internal medicine/internal medicine subspecialty services using our institution's computerized clinical data warehouse over a 7-month time period (November 1, 2012-May 31, 2013)...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Masahiro Kurobe, Koji Kawai, Ken Tanaka, Daishi Ichioka, Takayuki Yoshino, Shuya Kandori, Takashi Kawahara, Natsui Waku, Ei-Ichirou Takaoka, Takahiro Kojima, Akira Joraku, Takahiro Suetomi, Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a major oncological emergency. TLS is common in patients with hematological malignancies, but it can occur across a spectrum of cancer types. Germ cell tumors (GCT) have rapid cancer cell turnover and often present with bulky metastasis. The international TLS expert consensus panel has recommended guidelines for a medical decision tree to assign low, intermediate and high risk to patients with cancer at risk for TLS. GCT is classified as intermediate risk for TLS, and the patients who have other TLS risks factors are classified to be at high risk for TLS...
May 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
C Pascual, V Trenchs, S Hernández-Bou, A Català, A F Valls, C Luaces
There are no unified protocols governing the management of healthy children with febrile neutropenia in the emergency department (ED). Conservative management is the norm, with admission and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed, although viral infections are considered the most frequent etiology. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes and identified etiologies of unsuspected neutropenia in febrile immunocompetent children assessed in the ED. This was a retrospective study: well-appearing healthy children <18 years old with febrile moderate [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 500-999 neutrophils ×10(9)/l] or severe (ANC <500 neutrophils ×10(9)/l) neutropenia diagnosed in ED between 2005 and 2013 were included...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ziad Solh, Anthony K C Chan, Nancy M Heddle
BACKGROUND: Although not supported by strong evidence, premedication (pretransfusion medication) is commonly prescribed to patients who have had a transfusion reaction. The research questions were: 1) What are Canadian pediatric practitioners' views and practices regarding premedication and 2) what are barriers to reducing premedication overuse in pediatrics? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An online survey targeted hematology/oncology, emergency medicine, general surgery, intensive care, and cardiac intensive care practitioners in all 16 Canadian pediatric tertiary hospitals...
September 2016: Transfusion
Brenda K Shelton, Julie Stanik-Hutt, Joyce Kane, Richard J Jones
BACKGROUND: Infectious complications can occur in patients receiving cancer treatment and are the most common cause of death not directly related to malignancy. Established international best practices for recognition and management of early sepsis with bundled interventions reduce sepsis-related morbidity and mortality in many patient populations. Integration of these practices is common in emergency departments but has not been documented in ambulatory oncology clinics, where many patients with cancer present for evaluation of infectious symptoms...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
A Nedret Koç, M Altay Atalay, Demet Timur, Gonca Demir, Leylagül Kaynar
BACKGROUND: Saprochaete capitata isolates have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens, among immunosuppressed or neutropenic patients, and a rare cause of nosocomial infection in the hematology-bone marrow unit (HBMU) and the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of S. capitata (Blastoschizomyces capitatus) isolates causing nosocomial infection at Kayseri in Turkey. METHODS: During a period from 2012 to 2015, a total of 20 S...
August 2016: Infectious Diseases
C Sonigo, C Simon, M Boubaya, A Benoit, C Sifer, N Sermondade, M Grynberg
STUDY QUESTION: What threshold values of ultrasonographic antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels should be considered for ensuring the cryopreservation of sufficient number of in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, in cancer patients seeking fertility preservation (FP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: AFC and serum AMH values >20 follicles and 3.7 ng/ml, respectively, are required for obtaining at least 10 IVM oocytes for cryopreservation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IVM of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) followed by oocyte cryopreservation has emerged recently as an option for urgent FP...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
Ali Alkan, Tuğçe Kütük, Ebru Karcı, Arzu Yaşar, Ayşe Hiçsönmez, Güngör Utkan
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an important oncological emergency that is usually observed with hematological malignancies and rarely with solid tumors. It can be induced either by therapy or spontaneously. Radiotherapy-induced TLS has been rarely reported in the literature. Here we present a patient with a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia complicated with TLS during palliative radiotherapy.
September 5, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
T V Latysheva, E A Latysheva, I A Martynova
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) were initially designed to treat patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Due to the multidirectional effect of IVIGs on the immune system, a range of nosological entities, in which these agents are successfully administered, is steadily expanding. As of now, IVIGs are successfully used in neurology, rheumatology, hematology, and oncology and they are essential drugs for many patients. In spite of the long experience with IVIGs, their mechanism of action remains unclear, numerous investigations for their clinical introduction are being continued...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Simona Soverini, Caterina De Benedittis, Manuela Mancini, Giovanni Martinelli
UNLABELLED: : Optimal use of current therapeutic opportunities for chronic myeloid leukemia patients requires integration of clinical and laboratory monitoring. Assessment of molecular response (MR) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive way to monitor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment efficacy. Besides major molecular response, which has emerged as a safe haven for survival since the initial studies of first-line imatinib treatment, two additional MR milestones have recently been defined: early molecular response and deep molecular response...
May 2016: Oncologist
Mathieu Blot, Fanny Lanternier, Olivier Lortholary
Invasive fungal infections are severe infections and constantly rising in developed countries. Indeed, advances in hematology, oncology, transplantation and intensive care medicine, are responsible for a longer and deeper immunodepression, in patients which are increasingly older. Only HIV-associated cryptococcosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are decreasing, in countries where HAART are available and have been able to restore immunity. An increase in the antifungal therapies exposure lead to the emergence of less susceptible species/isolates to usual treatments, and other fungi (Mucorales, Scedosporium, Fusarium)...
December 2015: La Revue du Praticien
Kathryn H Pade, Leighanne Johnson, Alan L Nager
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric emergency departments (PED) are overcrowded and at times inefficient with malaligned resources, especially regarding the use of intravenous (IV) catheters which are placed frequently, yet may be underused. This study seeks to determine which pediatric patients are more likely to need IV access in a PED. METHODS: This retrospective study examined patients 3 days to 21 years seen in a tertiary PED from January 1, 2013, to February 28, 2013, who were triaged using the Emergency Severity Index, levels 1 to 3...
March 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Michael F Jarvis, Michael Williams
Concerns regarding the reliability of biomedical research outcomes were precipitated by two independent reports from the pharmaceutical industry that documented a lack of reproducibility in preclinical research in the areas of oncology, endocrinology, and hematology. Given their potential impact on public health, these concerns have been extensively covered in the media. Assessing the magnitude and scope of irreproducibility is limited by the anecdotal nature of the initial reports and a lack of quantitative data on specific failures to reproduce published research...
April 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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