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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352115/stil-balancing-primary-microcephaly-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Patwardhan Dhruti, Mani Shyamala, Passemard Sandrine, Gressens Pierre, El Ghouzzi Vincent
Cell division and differentiation are two fundamental physiological processes that need to be tightly balanced to achieve harmonious development of an organ or a tissue without jeopardizing its homeostasis. The role played by the centriolar protein STIL is highly illustrative of this balance at different stages of life as deregulation of the human STIL gene expression has been associated with either insufficient brain development (primary microcephaly) or cancer, two conditions resulting from perturbations in cell cycle and chromosomal segregation...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#2
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348326/symmetry-from-asymmetry-or-asymmetry-from-symmetry
#3
Elizabeth W Kahney, Rajesh Ranjan, Ryan J Gleason, Xin Chen
The processes of DNA replication and mitosis allow the genetic information of a cell to be copied and transferred reliably to its daughter cells. However, if DNA replication and cell division were always performed in a symmetric manner, the result would be a cluster of tumor cells instead of a multicellular organism. Therefore, gaining a complete understanding of any complex living organism depends on learning how cells become different while faithfully maintaining the same genetic material. It is well recognized that the distinct epigenetic information contained in each cell type defines its unique gene expression program...
January 18, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348325/low-level-global-transcription-during-mitosis-and-dynamic-gene-reactivation-during-mitotic-exit
#4
Katherine C Palozola, Hong Liu, Dario Nicetto, Kenneth S Zaret
Mitosis is thought to be a period of transcriptional silence due to the compact nature of mitotic chromosomes and the apparent exclusion of RNA Pol II and many transcription factors from mitotic chromatin. Yet accurate reactivation of a cell's specific gene expression program is needed to reestablish functional cell identity after mitosis. The majority of studies on protein regulation and localization during mitosis have relied extensively on antibodies and cross-linking-based approaches that are known to artifactually exclude proteins from mitotic chromatin...
January 18, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348144/a-crispr-tagging-based-screen-reveals-localized-players-in-wnt-directed-asymmetric-cell-division
#5
Jennifer K Heppert, Ariel M Pani, Allyson M Roberts, Daniel J Dickinson, Bob Goldstein
Oriented cell divisions are critical to establish and maintain cell fates and tissue organization. Diverse extracellular and intracellular cues have been shown to provide spatial information for mitotic spindle positioning, however, the molecular mechanisms by which extracellular signals communicate with cells to direct mitotic spindle positioning are largely unknown. In animal cells, oriented cell divisions are often achieved by the localization of force-generating, motor protein complexes to discrete cortical domains...
January 18, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343251/effects-of-the-isoflavone-genistein-in-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-role-of-the-survivin-and-proliferation-versus-apoptosis-pathways
#6
Carmen Sarasquete, María Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado
BACKGROUND: Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases)...
January 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343207/genome-wide-analysis-identified-a-number-of-dysregulated-long-noncoding-rna-lncrna-in-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Sijie Hao, Lie Yao, Jiaxin Huang, Hang He, Feng Yang, Yang Di, Chen Jin, Deliang Fu
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in cancer biology, while the long noncoding RNA landscapes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have not been completely characterized. We aimed to determine whether long noncoding RNA could serve as early diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHOD: We conducted a genome-wide microarray analysis on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their adjacent noncancerous tissues from 8 Chinese patients...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337989/differentially-dimensioned-furrow-formation-by-zygotic-gene-expression-and-the-mbt
#8
Yi Xie, J Todd Blankenship
Despite extensive work on the mechanisms that generate plasma membrane furrows, understanding how cells are able to dynamically regulate furrow dimensions is an unresolved question. Here, we present an in-depth characterization of furrow behaviors and their regulation in vivo during early Drosophila morphogenesis. We show that the deepening in furrow dimensions with successive nuclear cycles is largely due to the introduction of a new, rapid ingression phase (Ingression II). Blocking the midblastula transition (MBT) by suppressing zygotic transcription through pharmacological or genetic means causes the absence of Ingression II, and consequently reduces furrow dimensions...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333101/variations-in-the-aurka-gene-biomarkers-for-the-development-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Bin Wang, Chin-Jung Hsu, Chia-Hsuan Chou, Hsiang-Lin Lee, Whei-Ling Chiang, Chen-Ming Su, Hsiao-Chi Tsai, Shun-Fa Yang, Chih-Hsin Tang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a liver malignancy and a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. AURKA (aurora kinase A) is a mitotic serine/threonine kinase that functions as an oncogene and plays a critical role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We report on the association between 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the AURKA gene (rs1047972, rs2273535, rs2064836, and rs6024836) and HCC susceptibility as well as clinical outcomes in 312 patients with HCC and in 624 cancer-free controls. We found that carriers of the TT allele of the variant rs1047972 were at greater risk of HCC compared with wild-type (CC) carriers...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331019/cis-regulator-runaway-and-divergence-in-asexuals
#10
Frédéric Fyon, Thomas Lenormand
With the advent of new sequencing technologies, the evolution of gene expression is becoming a subject of intensive genomic research, with sparking debates upon the role played by these kinds of changes in adaptive evolution and speciation. In this paper, we model expression evolution in species differing by their reproductive systems. We consider different rates of sexual versus asexual reproduction and the different type of parthenogenesis (apomixis and the various modes of automixis). We show that competition for expression leads to two selective processes on cis-regulatory regions that act independently to organism-level adaptation...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329728/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-human-placental-trophoblast-differentiation
#11
Shi-Wen Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jianhao Wang, Lauren M Little, Lynn Leaphart, Jacob Jay, Eseosaserea Igbinigie, Haibin Chen, Jinping Li
Cell fusion is a hallmark of placental trophoblast cell differentiation and the mature syncytiotrophoblasts play essential roles for fetal-maternal exchange and production of pregnancy-related hormones. Using a well-established in vitro trophoblast differentiation model, we performed a microarray analysis on mRNA expression in trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cell cultures. Dramatic changes in gene expression patterns were detected during trophoblast differentiation. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the reliability of the microarray data...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318445/functions-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-protein-dependent-and-independent-of-canonical-wnt-signaling-implications-for-therapeutic-targeting
#12
REVIEW
William Hankey, Wendy L Frankel, Joanna Groden
The acquisition of biallelic mutations in the APC gene is a rate-limiting step in the development of most colorectal cancers and occurs in the earliest lesions. APC encodes a 312-kDa protein that localizes to multiple subcellular compartments and performs diverse functions. APC participates in a cytoplasmic complex that promotes the destruction of the transcriptional licensing factor β-catenin; APC mutations that abolish this function trigger constitutive activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway, a characteristic found in almost all colorectal cancers...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316663/modulation-of-protein-quality-control-and-proteasome-to-autophagy-switch-in-immortalized-myoblasts-from-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#13
Marion Wattin, Loïc Gaweda, Pascale Muller, Mathieu Baritaud, Charlotte Scholtes, Chloé Lozano, Kathrin Gieseler, Carole Kretz-Remy
The maintenance of proteome integrity is of primary importance in post-mitotic tissues such as muscle cells; thus, protein quality control mechanisms must be carefully regulated to ensure their optimal efficiency, a failure of these processes being associated with various muscular disorders. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common and severe forms of muscular dystrophies and is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Protein quality control modulations have been diversely observed in degenerating muscles of patients suffering from DMD or in animal models of the disease...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305004/translational-control-of-the-myogenic-program-in-developing-regenerating-and-diseased-skeletal-muscle
#14
Ryo Fujita, Colin Crist
Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to committed myogenic progenitors that ultimately fuse into slow- or fast-type myofibers that make up skeletal muscle...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299364/characterization-of-malignant-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-a-single-center-experience
#15
Matteo Mandrioli, Laura Mastrangelo, Michele Masetti, Nicola Zanini, Stefania Lega, Margherita Nannini, Elisa Gruppioni, Annalisa Altimari, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Carlo Fabbri, Elio Jovine
Background: The recurrence rate, related to the unpredictable behavior of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), continues to be a major topic of investigation, since no actual risk evaluation scales have proven to be exceedingly effective in predicting prognosis. We therefore focus in this study on investigating the predictive variables of disease recurrence. Methods: Between September 2004 and January 2011, 34 patients, 18 males and 16 females with a median age of 62 (range, 27-87) years, underwent operations for primary, localized and advanced GISTs...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298683/global-accumulation-of-circrnas-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Mariela Cortés-López, Matthew R Gruner, Daphne A Cooper, Hannah N Gruner, Alexandru-Ioan Voda, Alexander M van der Linden, Pedro Miura
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs that lack free 5' and 3' ends, are expressed by the thousands in diverse forms of life, and are mostly of enigmatic function. Ostensibly due to their resistance to exonucleases, circRNAs are known to be exceptionally stable. Previous work in Drosophila and mice have shown that circRNAs increase during aging in neural tissues. RESULTS: Here, we examined the global profile of circRNAs in C...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297284/automated-classification-and-characterization-of-the-mitotic-spindle-following-knockdown-of-a-mitosis-related-protein
#17
Matloob Khushi, Imraan M Dean, Erdahl T Teber, Megan Chircop, Jonathan W Arthur, Neftali Flores-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Cell division (mitosis) results in the equal segregation of chromosomes between two daughter cells. The mitotic spindle plays a pivotal role in chromosome alignment and segregation during metaphase and anaphase. Structural or functional errors of this spindle can cause aneuploidy, a hallmark of many cancers. To investigate if a given protein associates with the mitotic spindle and regulates its assembly, stability, or function, fluorescence microscopy can be performed to determine if disruption of that protein induces phenotypes indicative of spindle dysfunction...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296896/maintenance-of-telomere-length-in-aml
#18
REVIEW
Peter M Lansdorp
The importance of telomere length to human health, aging, and cancer continues to be underappreciated. This review examines some basics of telomere biology and relates how telomere function, telomerase activity, and mutations in TERC or TERT are involved in bone marrow failure, leukemias, and other cancers. Given the challenge to obtain accurate data on telomerase activity and telomere length in specific cell types, the situation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains puzzling. In most cancers, telomerase levels are increased after cells have encountered a "telomere crisis," which is typically associated with poor prognosis...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288727/characterization-of-the-es-ddx52-involved-in-the-spermatogonial-mitosis-and-spermatid-differentiation-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#19
Qing Li, Hongdan Yang, Lin He, Qun Wang
Spermatogenesis involves a series of process including exiting from the mitotic cell cycle, entry into meiosis, completion of complex differentiation programs, and producing spermatozoa. Expression of various genes in an ordered manner, and interactions between various genes and their protein products, primarily controlled at the post-transcriptional level with DEAD-box RNA helicases playing a crucial role in germ cell development, are required for production of fertile sperm. Many members of this family have been deeply studied in spermatogenesis, such as DDX3X, DDX25 and DDX4, but few data are available on DDX52...
December 27, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288530/pka-binding-domain-of-akap8-is-essential-for-direct-interaction-with-dpy30-protein
#20
Anna Bieluszewska, Martyna Weglewska, Tomasz Bieluszewski, Krzysztof Lesniewicz, Elzbieta Poreba
The main function of the A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is to target the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) to its cellular substrates through the interaction with its regulatory subunits. Besides anchoring of PKA, AKAP8 participates in regulating the H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. It is also involved in DNA replication, apoptosis, transcriptional silencing of rRNA genes, alternative splicing, and chromatin condensation during mitosis. In this study, we focused on the interaction between AKAP8 and the core subunit of all known H3K4 HMT complexes-DPY30 protein...
December 30, 2017: FEBS Journal
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