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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#1
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215051/-pro-renin-receptor-atp6ap2-depletion-arrests-as4-1-cells-in-the-g0-g1-phase-thereby-increasing-formation-of-primary-cilia
#2
Heike Wanka, Philipp Lutze, Doreen Staar, Barbara Peters, Anica Morch, Lukas Vogel, Ravi Kumar Chilukoti, Georg Homuth, Jaroslaw Sczodrok, Inga Bäumgen, Jörg Peters
The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR, ATP6AP2] is a multifunctional transmembrane protein that activates local renin-angiotensin systems, but also interacts with Wnt pathways and vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) during organogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of ATP6AP2 in the cell cycle in more detail. ATP6AP2 down-regulation by siRNA in renal As4.1 cells resulted in a reduction in the rate of proliferation and a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. We identified a number of novel target genes downstream of ATP6AP2 knock-down that were related to the primary cilium (Bbs-1, Bbs-3, Bbs-7, Rabl5, Ttc26, Mks-11, Mks-5, Mks-2, Tctn2, Nme7) and the cell cycle (Pierce1, Clock, Ppif)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213356/otx2-activity-at-distal-regulatory-elements-shapes-the-chromatin-landscape-of-group-3-medulloblastoma
#3
Gaylor Boulay, Mary E Awad, Nicolo Riggi, Tenley C Archer, Sowmya Iyer, Wannaporn E Boonseng, Nikki E Rossetti, Beverly Naigles, Shruthi Rengarajan, Angela Volorio, James C Kim, Jill P Mesirov, Pablo Tamayo, Scott L Pomeroy, Martin J Aryee, Miguel N Rivera
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and is divided into at least four subgroups known as WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Here, we characterized gene regulation mechanisms in the most aggressive subtype, Group 3 tumors, through genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling. Our results show that most active distal sites in these tumors are occupied by the transcription factor OTX2. Highly active OTX2-bound enhancers are often arranged as clusters of adjacent peaks and are also bound by the transcription factor NEUROD1...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211871/expression-level-is-a-key-determinant-of-e2f1-mediated-cell-fate
#4
Igor Shats, Michael Deng, Adam Davidovich, Carolyn Zhang, Jungeun S Kwon, Dinesh Manandhar, Raluca Gordân, Guang Yao, Lingchong You
The Rb/E2F network has a critical role in regulating cell cycle progression and cell fate decisions. It is dysfunctional in virtually all human cancers, because of genetic lesions that cause overexpression of activators, inactivation of repressors, or both. Paradoxically, the downstream target of this network, E2F1, is rarely strongly overexpressed in cancer. E2F1 can induce both proliferation and apoptosis but the factors governing these critical cell fate decisions remain unclear. Previous studies have focused on qualitative mechanisms such as differential cofactors, posttranslational modification or state of other signaling pathways as modifiers of the cell fate decisions downstream of E2F1 activation...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#5
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208750/the-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-mitosis-and-meiosis
#6
REVIEW
Tamara Potapova, Gary J Gorbsky
Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207793/the-drosophila-speciation-factor-hmr-localizes-to-genomic-insulator-sites
#7
Thomas Andreas Gerland, Bo Sun, Pawel Smialowski, Andrea Lukacs, Andreas Walter Thomae, Axel Imhof
Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202034/transcriptomic-signatures-shaped-by-cell-proportions-shed-light-on-comparative-developmental-biology
#8
Sophie Pantalacci, Laurent Guéguen, Coraline Petit, Anne Lambert, Renata Peterkovà, Marie Sémon
BACKGROUND: Comparative transcriptomics can answer many questions in developmental and evolutionary developmental biology. Most transcriptomic studies start by showing global patterns of variation in transcriptomes that differ between species or organs through developmental time. However, little is known about the kinds of expression differences that shape these patterns. RESULTS: We compared transcriptomes during the development of two morphologically distinct serial organs, the upper and lower first molars of the mouse...
February 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197724/histological-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-undifferentiated-small-round-cell-sarcomas-associated-with-cic-dux4-and-bcor-ccnb3-fusion-genes
#9
Yuichi Yamada, Masaaki Kuda, Kenichi Kohashi, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Junkichi Takemoto, Takeaki Ishii, Kunio Iura, Akira Maekawa, Hirofumi Bekki, Takamichi Ito, Hiroshi Otsuka, Makoto Kuroda, Yumi Honda, Shinji Sumiyoshi, Takeshi Inoue, Naoe Kinoshita, Atsushi Nishida, Kyoko Yamashita, Ichiro Ito, Shizuo Komune, Tomoaki Taguchi, Yukihide Iwamoto, Yoshinao Oda
CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusion-gene-associated small round cell sarcomas account for a proportion of pediatric small round cell sarcomas, but their pathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. We reviewed a large number of soft tissue tumors registered at our institution, retrieved the cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component, and subjected them to histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene profile analysis. We reviewed 164 cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component and analyzed them by RT-PCR and FISH...
February 14, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192639/a-deep-learning-based-strategy-for-identifying-and-associating-mitotic-activity-with-gene-expression-derived-risk-categories-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancers
#10
David Romo-Bucheli, Andrew Janowczyk, Hannah Gilmore, Eduardo Romero, Anant Madabhushi
The treatment and management of early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is hindered by the difficulty in identifying patients who require adjuvant chemotherapy in contrast to those that will respond to hormonal therapy. To distinguish between the more and less aggressive breast tumors, which is a fundamental criterion for the selection of an appropriate treatment plan, Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests are typically employed. While informative, these gene expression tests are expensive, tissue destructive, and require specialized facilities...
February 13, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191840/se-ru-decorated-porous-metal-organic-framework-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-pooled-sirnas-to-reversing-multidrug-resistance-in-taxol-resistant-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Qingchang Chen, Meng Xu, Wenjing Zheng, Taoyuan Xu, Hong Deng, Jie Liu
We report here a novel and personalized strategy of selenium/ruthenium nanoparticles modified metal organic frameworks MIL-101(Fe) for delivering pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to enhance therapy efficacy by silencing multidrug resistance (MDR) genes and interfere with microtubule (MT) dynamics in MCF-7/T (Taxol-resistance) cell. The existence of coordinatively unsaturated metal sites in MIL-101(Fe) can strongly interact with the electron-rich functional groups of cysteine, which can be regarded as the linkage between selenium/ruthenium nanoparticles and MIL-101(Fe)...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191039/elevated-transcriptional-levels-of-aldolase-a-aldoa-associates-with-cell-cycle-related-genes-in-patients-with-nsclc-and-several-solid-tumors
#12
Fan Zhang, Jie-Diao Lin, Xiao-Yu Zuo, Yi-Xuan Zhuang, Chao-Qun Hong, Guo-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Jiang Cui, Yu-Kun Cui
BACKGROUND: Aldolase A (ALDOA) is one of the glycolytic enzymes primarily found in the developing embryo and adult muscle. Recently, a new role of ALDOA in several cancers has been proposed. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure and inconsistent. In this study, we tried to investigate ALDOA-associated (AA) genes using available microarray datasets to help elucidating the role of ALDOA in cancer. RESULTS: In the dataset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, E-GEOD-19188), 3448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including ALDOA were identified, in which 710 AA genes were found to be positively associated with ALDOA...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190795/progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-functions-of-ddx3y-dby-in-male-germ-cell-development-and-maintenance
#13
Alexei A Kotov, Oxana M Olenkina, Baira K Godneeva, Vladimir E Adashev, Ludmila V Olenina
Human DDX3 paralogs are housed on the X chromosome (DDX3X) as well as in the non- recombining region Yq11 of the Y-chromosome (DDX3Y or DBY). A gene encoding RNA helicase DDX3Y is located in the AZoospermia Factor a (AZFa) region of the Y-chromosome and expressed only in male germ cells. Deletions encompassing the DDX3Y gene lead to azoospermia and cause Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome (SCOS) in humans. SCOS is characterized by a complete germ cell lack with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. This review summarizes current advances in the study of DDX3Y functions in maintenance and development of early male germ cells...
February 12, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190776/regulators-of-alternative-polyadenylation-operate-at-the-transition-from-mitosis-to-meiosis
#14
Lingjuan Shan, Chan Wu, Di Chen, Lei Hou, Xin Li, Lixia Wang, Xiao Chu, Yifeng Hou, Zhaohui Wang
In the sexually reproductive organisms, gametes are produced by meiosis following a limited mitotic amplification. However, the intrinsic program switching cells from mitotic to meiotic cycle is unclear. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a highly conserved means of gene regulation and is achieved by the RNA 3'-processing machinery to generate diverse 3'UTR profiles. In Drosophila spermatogenesis, we observed distinct profiles of transcriptome-wide 3'UTR between mitotic and meiotic cells. In mutant germ cells stuck in mitosis, 3'UTRs of hundreds of genes were consistently shifted...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187949/long-term-alterations-to-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-from-mouse-models-to-human-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin I Laufer, Eric J Chater-Diehl, Joachim Kapalanga, Shiva M Singh
Rodent models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in differential DNA cytosine methylation in the developing brain. The resulting genome-wide methylation changes are enriched in genes with neurodevelopmental functions. The profile of differential methylation is dynamic and present in some form for life. The methylation changes are transmitted across subsequent mitotic divisions, where they are maintained and further modified over time. More recent follow up has identified a profile of the differential methylation in the buccal swabs of young children born with FASD...
November 22, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187452/pign-gene-expression-aberration-is-associated-with-genomic-instability-and-leukemic-progression-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-myelodysplastic-features
#16
Emmanuel K Teye, Abigail Sido, Ping Xin, Niklas K Finnberg, Prashanth Gokare, Yuka I Kawasawa, Anna C Salzberg, Sara Shimko, Michael Bayerl, W Christopher Ehmann, David F Claxton, Witold B Rybka, Joseph J Drabick, Hong-Gang Wang, Thomas Abraham, Wafik S El-Deiry, Robert A Brodsky, Raymond J Hohl, Jeffrey J Pu
Previous studies have linked increased frequency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor protein (GPI-AP) deficiency with genomic instability and the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. A randomForest analysis of the gene expression array data from 55 MDS patients (GSE4619) demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0007) correlation (Pearson r =-0.4068) between GPI-anchor biosynthesis gene expression and genomic instability, in which PIGN, a gene participating in GPI-AP biosynthesis, was ranked as the third most important in predicting risk of MDS progression...
7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183333/erratum-to-genome-co-amplification-upregulates-a-mitotic-gene-network-activity-that-predicts-outcome-and-response-to-mitotic-protein-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#17
Zhi Hu, Jian-Hua Mao, Christina Curtis, Ge Huang, Shenda Gu, Laura Heiser, Marc E Lenburg, James E Korkola, Nora Bayani, Shamith Samarajiwa, Jose A Seoane, Mark A Dane, Amanda Esch, Heidi S Feiler, Nicholas J Wang, Mary Ann Hardwicke, Sylvie Laquerre, Jeff Jackson, Kenneth W Wood, Barbara Weber, Paul T Spellman, Samuel Aparicio, Richard Wooster, Carlos Caldas, Joe W Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181567/the-mitotic-checkpoint-regulator-rae1-induces-aggressive-breast-cancer-cell-phenotypes-by-mediating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Ji Hoon Oh, Ho Hur, Ji-Yeon Lee, Yeejeong Kim, Younsoo Seo, Myoung Hee Kim
The gene RAE1 encodes ribonucleic acid export 1 (RAE1), which is involved in mRNA export and is known to serve as a mitotic checkpoint regulator. In addition, RAE1 haplo-insufficiency leads to chromosome missegregation and early aging-associated phenotypes. In humans, a positive correlation has been found between RAE1 copy number abnormalities and gene amplification in breast cancer cells. However, the precise functional role of RAE1 in breast cancer remains to be determined. An in silico analysis of data retrieved from GENT and cBio-Portal identified RAE1 upregulation in breast cancer tissues relative to normal breast cells...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177753/histone-h3-3-regulates-mitotic-progression-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#19
Aysegul Ors, Christophe Papin, Bertrand Favier, Yohan Roulland, Defne Dalkara, Mehmet Ozturk, ALi Hamiche, Stefan Dimitrov, Kiran Padmanabhan
H3.3 is a histone variant, which marks transcription start sites as well as telomeres and heterochromatic sites on the genome. H3.3 presence is thought to positively correlate with transcriptional status of its target genes. Using a conditional genetic strategy against H3.3B combined with short hairpin RNAs against H3.3A, we essentially depleted all H3.3 gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Following nearly complete loss of H3.3 in cells, our transcriptomic analyses show very little impact on global gene expression as well as on histone variant H2A...
February 1, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177524/in-vivo-expression-of-nurr1-nr4a2a-in-developing-retinal-amacrine-subtypes-in-zebrafish-tg-nr4a2a-egfp-transgenics
#20
Liana Goodings, Jie He, Alasdair Wood, William A Harris, Peter D Currie, Patricia R Jusuf
The Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nr4a2) is crucial for the formation or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system including the retina, where dopaminergic amacrine cells contribute to visual function. Little is known about which cells express Nr4a2 at which developmental stage. Furthermore, whether Nr4a2 functions in combination with other genes is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel transgenic to visualise Nr4a2 expression in vivo during zebrafish retinogenesis...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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