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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#1
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133942/canine-parvovirus-ns1-gene-and-chicken-anemia-vp3-gene-induce-partial-oncolysis-of-canine-transmissible-venereal-tumor
#2
Aubid Hussain Bhat, Bhaskar Ganguly, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Arup Kumar Das
The oncolytic effect of Canine Parvovirus ns1 gene and Chicken Anemia vp3 gene in naturally occurring cases of Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT) is being reported. Dogs suffering from CTVT (N = 18) were systematically randomized into three groups viz. A, B, and C (n = 6). Animals of the groups A, B, and C received 100 µg of the ns1 gene, vp3 gene, and ns1  +  vp3 gene combination, respectively, for three weeks intratumorally at weekly intervals; results were normalized against base values before commencement of therapy and after complete remission that were taken as negative and positive controls, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133375/spatial-control-of-gene-expression-by-mir319-regulated-tcp-transcription-factors-in-leaf-development
#3
Edgardo G Bresso, Uciel Chorostecki, Ramiro E Rodriguez, Javier Fernando Palatnik, Carla Schommer
The characteristic leaf shapes we see in all plants are in good part outcome of the combined action of several transcription factor networks that translate into cell division activity during the early development of the organ. We show here that wild-type leaves have distinct transcriptomic profiles in center and marginal regions. Certain transcripts are enriched in margins, including those of CINCINNATA-like TCPs, and members of the NGATHA (NGA) and STYLISH (STY) gene families. We study in detail the contribution of miR319 regulated TCP (Teosinte branched, Cycloidea, PCF1/2) transcription factors to the development of the center and marginal regions of Arabidopsis leaves...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126329/effect-of-benzo-a-pyrene-on-spindle-mis-orientation-and-fidelity-of-chromosome-segregation-in-lung-epithelial-beas-2b-cells
#4
Jose Thaiparambil, Oula Mansour, Randa El-Zein
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an environmental carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. It leads to high levels of DNA adducts in the lungs of cigarette smokers contributing to genomic instability. Alterations in the mitotic spindle apparatus play a major role in the generation of genomic instability through promoting chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy. To date, the effect of B[a]P exposure on altering the mitotic apparatus in normal lung epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to B[a]P and spindle dynamics were evaluated...
November 6, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126117/dynamic-reorganization-of-open-chromatin-underlies-diverse-transcriptomes-during-spermatogenesis
#5
So Maezawa, Masashi Yukawa, Kris G Alavattam, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo massive cellular reconstruction and dynamic chromatin remodeling to facilitate highly diverse transcriptomes, which are required for the production of functional sperm. However, it remains unknown how germline chromatin is organized to promote the dynamic, complex transcriptomes of spermatogenesis. Here, using ATAC-seq, we establish the varied landscape of open chromatin during spermatogenesis. We identify the reorganization of accessible chromatin in intergenic and intronic regions during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125381/pleiotropy-in-drosophila-organogenesis-mechanistic-insights-from-combgap-and-the-retinal-determination-gene-network
#6
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
Master regulatory transcription factors cooperate in networks to shepherd cells through organogenesis. In the Drosophila eye, a collection of master control proteins known as the retinal determination gene network (RDGN) switches the direction and targets of its output to choreograph developmental transitions, but the molecular partners that enable such regulatory flexibility are not known. We recently showed that two RDGN members, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So), promote exit from the terminal cell cycle known as the second mitotic wave (SMW) to permit differentiation...
November 10, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121865/temporally-distinct-transcriptional-regulation-of-myocyte-dedifferentiation-and-myofiber-growth-during-muscle-regeneration
#7
Ke'ale W Louie, Alfonso Saera-Vila, Phillip E Kish, Justin A Colacino, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. Temporal regulation of these steps lies at the heart of the regenerative process, yet its basis is not well understood. The ability of zebrafish to dedifferentiate mature "post-mitotic" myocytes into proliferating myoblasts that in turn regenerate lost muscle tissue provides an opportunity to probe the molecular mechanisms of regeneration...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118430/inter-individual-variation-in-genes-governing-human-hippocampal-progenitor-differentiation-in-vitro-is-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-adulthood
#8
Timothy R Powell, Tytus Murphy, Sang H Lee, Rodrigo R R Duarte, Hyun Ah Lee, Demelza Smeeth, Jack Price, Gerome Breen, Sandrine Thuret
Hippocampal volumes are smaller in psychiatric disorder patients and lower levels of hippocampal neurogenesis are the hypothesized cause. Understanding which molecular processes regulate hippocampal progenitor differentiation might aid in the identification of novel drug targets that can promote larger hippocampal volumes. Here we use a unique human cell line to assay genome-wide expression changes when hippocampal progenitor cells differentiate. RNA was extracted from proliferating cells versus differentiated neural cells and applied to Illumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#9
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104053/polyoma-small-t-upregulates-the-expression-of-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-mammalian-cells-during-mitosis
#10
Irfana Reshi, Zarka Sarwar, Sameer Ahmed Bhat, Syed Qaaifah Gillani, Misbah Shah, Khalid Majid Fazili, Shaida Andrabi
Mammalian cells expressing murine polyoma small T antigen are known to undergo prolonged mitotic arrest followed by extensive cell death. However, the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. While studying the mechanism related to small T induced mitotic arrest in mammalian cells, we observed the expression of various cytoskeletal proteins was unusually altered in polyoma small T expressing cell line. Since most of the cytoskeletal proteins are reoriented during mitosis and are involved in spindle formation, so it was pertinent to investigate the expression of these genes in PyST expressing cell line...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103984/olr1-scavenger-receptor-knockdown-affects-mitotic-gene-expression-but-is-dispensable-for-oxidized-phospholipid-mediated-stress-signaling-in-sz-95-sebocytes
#11
Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Masomeh Parvardeh, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Lucian Beer, Christopher Kremslehner, Ximena Maria Muresan, Johannes Grillari, Christos C Zouboulis, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Phospholipid oxidation products (OxPL) are versatile stress signaling mediators in the skin. These lipid signaling molecules can be generated non-enzymatically or enzymatically by ultraviolet light, the major extrinsic skin aging factor. OxPL regulate cytoprotective, immunological and metabolic adaptation of the skin to oxidant stress. We here investigated whether the scavenger receptor Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1, LOX-1) would have a function in cutaneous oxPL signaling. We found, that OLR1 is expressed in several cutaneous cell types, most prominently in cells of the sebaceous gland and in keratinocytes...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103092/stress-induced-oryza-sativa-ruvbl1a-is-dna-independent-atpase-and-unwinds-dna-duplex-in-3-to-5-direction
#12
Shabnam K Saifi, Nishat Passricha, Renu Tuteja, Narendra Tuteja
RuvB, a member of AAA+ (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) superfamily of proteins, is essential, highly conserved and multifunctional in nature as it is involved in DNA damage repair, mitotic assembly, switching of histone variants and assembly of telomerase core complex. RuvB family is widely studied in various systems such as Escherichia coli, yeast, human, Drosophila, Plasmodium falciparum and mouse, but not well studied in plants. We have studied the transcript level of rice homologue of RuvB gene (OsRuvBL1a) under various abiotic stress conditions, and the results suggest that it is upregulated under salinity, cold and heat stress...
November 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101098/regulation-of-cortical-stability-by-rhogef3-in-mitotic-sensory-organ-precursor-cells-in-drosophila
#13
Lydie Couturier, Khalil Mazouni, Fred Bernard, Charlotte Besson, Elodie Reynaud, François Schweisguth
In epithelia, mitotic cells round up and push against their neighbors to divide. Mitotic rounding results from increased assembly of F-actin and cortical recruitment of Myosin II, leading to increased cortical stability. Whether this process is developmentally regulated is not well known. Here, we examined the regulation of cortical stability in Sensory Organ precursor cells (SOPs) in the Drosophila pupal notum. SOPs differed in apical shape and actomyosin dynamics from their epidermal neighbors prior to division and appeared to have a more rigid cortex at mitosis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097687/genome-scale-single-cell-mechanical-phenotyping-reveals-disease-related-genes-involved-in-mitotic-rounding
#14
Yusuke Toyoda, Cedric J Cattin, Martin P Stewart, Ina Poser, Mirko Theis, Teymuras V Kurzchalia, Frank Buchholz, Anthony A Hyman, Daniel J Müller
To divide, most animal cells drastically change shape and round up against extracellular confinement. Mitotic cells facilitate this process by generating intracellular pressure, which the contractile actomyosin cortex directs into shape. Here, we introduce a genome-scale microcantilever- and RNAi-based approach to phenotype the contribution of > 1000 genes to the rounding of single mitotic cells against confinement. Our screen analyzes the rounding force, pressure and volume of mitotic cells and localizes selected proteins...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092660/identification-of-dise-inducing-shrnas-by-monitoring-cellular-responses
#15
Monal Patel, Marcus E Peter
Off-target effects (OTE) are an undesired side effect of RNA interference (RNAi) caused by partial complementarity between the targeting siRNA and mRNAs other than the gene to be silenced. The death receptor CD95 and its ligand CD95L contain multiple sequences that when expressed as either si- or shRNAs kill cancer cells through a defined OTE that targets critical survival genes. Death induced by survival gene elimination (DISE) is characterized by specific morphological changes such as elongated cell shapes, senescence-like enlarged cells, appearance of large intracellular vesicles, release of mitochondrial ROS followed by activation of caspase-2, and induction of a necrotic form of mitotic catastrophe...
November 1, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090430/hybrid-incompatibilities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-its-wild-diploid-relative-aegilops-umbellulata
#16
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081179/-transplantation-of-cardiac-stem-cells-overexpressing-integrin-linked-kinase-improves-cardiac-function-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
J J Li, Y Liu, J Zhao, A Y Li, D M Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of cardiac stem cells (CSC) overexpressing integrin-linked kinase (ILK-CSC) transplantation on cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) and related mechanism. Methods: CSCs were isolated from the hearts of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and ILK-CSC were established by transfecting recombinant adenoviral vector harboring human wild-type ILK cDNA. Forty 8-week-old rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each group): sham group, MI plus saline injection group(saline group), MI plus CSC transfected with null vector injection group (Ad-null-CSC group), and MI plus ILK-CSC injection group(ILK-CSC group)...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077092/paxx-and-xlf-interplay-revealed-by-impaired-cns-development-and-immunodeficiency-of-double-ko-mice
#18
Vincent Abramowski, Olivier Etienne, Ramy Elsaid, Junjie Yang, Aurélie Berland, Laetitia Kermasson, Benoit Roch, Stefania Musilli, Jean-Paul Moussu, Karelia Lipson-Ruffert, Patrick Revy, Ana Cumano, François D Boussin, Jean-Pierre de Villartay
The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DNAdsb) through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a prerequisite for the proper development of the central nervous system and the adaptive immune system. Yet, mice with Xlf or PAXX loss of function are viable and present with very mild immune phenotypes, although their lymphoid cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation attesting for the role of these factors in NHEJ. In contrast, we show here that mice defective for both Xlf and PAXX are embryonically lethal owing to a massive apoptosis of post-mitotic neurons, a situation reminiscent to XRCC4 or DNA Ligase IV KO conditions...
October 27, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075299/efficient-and-fast-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-for-cell-therapy
#19
Xinxin Han, Liming Yu, Jie Ren, Min Wang, Zhongliang Liu, Xinyu Hu, Daiyu Hu, Yihong Chen, Li Chen, Ying Zhang, Yuehua Liu, Xiaoqing Zhang, Hua He, Zhengliang Gao
Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs) for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072296/embryonic-epigenetic-reprogramming-by-a-pioneer-transcription-factor-in-plants
#20
Zeng Tao, Lisha Shen, Xiaofeng Gu, Yizhong Wang, Hao Yu, Yuehui He
Epigenetic modifications, including chromatin modifications and DNA methylation, have a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plants and animals. The transmission of epigenetic marks is crucial for certain genes to retain cell lineage-specific expression patterns and maintain cell fate. However, the marks that have accumulated at regulatory loci during growth and development or in response to environmental stimuli need to be deleted in gametes or embryos, particularly in organisms such as plants that do not set aside a germ line, to ensure the proper development of offspring...
November 2, 2017: Nature
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