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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785087/transcriptomic-impacts-of-rumen-epithelium-induced-by-butyrate-infusion-in-dairy-cattle-in-dry-period
#1
Ransom L Baldwin, Robert W Li, Yankai Jia, Cong-Jun Li
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of butyrate infusion on rumen epithelial transcriptome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics are used to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion at the level of the whole transcriptome. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methylation, and plays a prominent role in regulating genomic activities influencing rumen nutrition utilization and function...
2018: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781781/gene-expression-microarray-analysis-reveals-prognostic-markers-of-survival-in-high-grade-astrocytomas
#2
Jun Yang, Ziming Hou, Changjiang Wang, Hao Wang, Hongbing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: High grade astrocytoma (HGA) as an aggressive brain tumor, is always correlated with poor prognosis. In this paper, we aimed to explore the genetic prognostic biomarkers for HGA. METHODS: The genome-wide expression profile of 26 brain tumor samples obtained from 26 patients with HGA was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The risk genes for prognosis of HGA were identified and verified by the data in TCGA database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of risk factor genes was constructed and significant module was screened...
May 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779756/biliary-cystadenoma-associated-with-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-in-a-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#3
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Saralee Srivorakul, Varangpicha Khochakul, Kidsadagon Pringproa
A 12-year-old, female, domestic cat (Felis catus) presented with dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was unresponsive to medical treatment and euthanized; the carcass was submitted for pathological diagnosis. Necropsy revealed icteric mucous membranes. The liver was enlarged, with multinodular, cystic, white masses, 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter, scattered throughout. Microscopically, the biliary epithelium presented with a proliferation of multifocal cystic masses, occasionally with periodic acid-Schiff-positive fluid within the cysts...
May 5, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777364/cell-division-and-turgor-mediate-enhanced-plant-growth-in-arabidopsis-plants-treated-with-the-bacterial-signalling-molecule-lumichrome
#4
Motlalepula Pholo, Beatrix Coetzee, Hans J Maree, Philip R Young, James R Lloyd, Jens Kossmann, Paul N Hills
Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the bacterial signalling molecule lumichrome enhances plant growth through a combination of enhanced cell division and cell enlargement, and possibly enhances photosynthesis. Lumichrome (7,8 dimethylalloxazine), a novel multitrophic signal molecule produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria, has previously been shown to elicit growth promotion in different plant species (Phillips et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:12275-12280, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.22.12275 , 1999)...
May 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773558/genetic-analyses-of-elys-mutations-in-drosophila-show-maternal-effect-lethality-and-interactions-with-nucleoporin-genes
#5
Kazuyuki Hirai, Zhuo Wang, Kohei Miura, Takaaki Hayashi, Takeshi Awasaki, Moe Wada, Yoko Keira, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa, Kyoichi Sawamura
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771690/heavily-pigmented-epithelioid-melanoma-with-loss-of-protein-kinase-a-regulatory-subunit-%C3%AE-expression
#6
Jarish N Cohen, Jessica A Spies, Fawn Ross, Angela Bohlke, Timothy H McCalmont
Heavily pigmented melanocytic neoplasms are genotypically and phenotypically diverse. Recently, a subset of this histopathologic spectrum was shown to harbor recurrent genetic alterations in the gene-encoding protein kinase A regulatory subunit-α (PRKAR1A). To date, no histopathologic descriptions of melanomas arising from this pathway have been described. We present a case of a darkly pigmented papule arising on the posterior neck of a 28-year-old man. Microscopically, the heavily pigmented compound melanocytic proliferation was centered in the dermis with permeation into the superficial subcutis...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770538/integral-bhlh-factor-regulation-of-cell-cycle-exit-and-rgc-differentiation
#7
Kate A Maurer, Angelica Kowalchuk, Farnaz Shoja-Taheri, Nadean L Brown
BACKGROUND: In the developing mouse embryo, the bHLH transcription factor Neurog2 is transiently expressed by retinal progenitor cells and required for the initial wave of neurogenesis. Remarkably, another bHLH factor, Ascl1, normally not present in the embryonic Neurog2 retinal lineage, can rescue the temporal phenotypes of Neurog2 mutants. RESULTS: Here we show that Neurog2 simultaneously promotes terminal cell cycle exit and retinal ganglion cell differentiation, using mitotic window labeling and integrating these results with retinal marker quantifications...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758293/tle1-a-key-player-in-neurogenesis-a-new-candidate-gene-for-autosomal-recessive-postnatal-microcephaly
#8
Mara Cavallin, Camille Maillard, Marie Hully, Marion Philbert, Nathalie Boddaert, Madeline Louise Reilly, Patrick Nitschké, Amandine Bery, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Postnatal microcephaly comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders of varying severity, characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by a postnatal deceleration in head circumference of greater than 3 standard deviations (SD) below the mean. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes known to be important for the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain. We studied a consanguineous Pakistani family with postnatal microcephaly, orofacial dyskinesia, spastic quadriplegia and, on MRI, cortical atrophy with myelination delay, suggestive of a FOXG1-like presentation...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758043/isthmin-1-ism1-is-required-for-normal-hematopoiesis-in-developing-zebrafish
#9
Arturo Berrun, Elena Harris, David L Stachura
Hematopoiesis is an essential and highly regulated biological process that begins with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In healthy organisms, HSCs are responsible for generating a multitude of mature blood cells every day, yet the molecular pathways that instruct HSCs to self-renew and differentiate into post-mitotic blood cells are not fully known. To understand these molecular pathways, we investigated novel genes expressed in hematopoietic-supportive cell lines from the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model system increasingly utilized to uncover molecular pathways important in the development of other vertebrate species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754899/dynamic-fluctuations-in-subcellular-localization-of-the-hippo-pathway-effector-yorkie-in-vivo
#10
Samuel A Manning, Lucas G Dent, Shu Kondo, Ziqing W Zhao, Nicolas Plachta, Kieran F Harvey
The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling network that integrates diverse cues to control organ size and cell fate. The central downstream pathway protein in Drosophila is the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (YAP and TAZ in humans), which regulates gene expression with the Scalloped/TEA domain family member (TEAD) transcription factors [1-8]. A central regulatory step in the Hippo pathway is phosphorylation of Yorkie by the NDR family kinase Warts, which promotes Yorkie cytoplasmic localization by stimulating association with 14-3-3 proteins [9-12]...
April 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750601/allelic-heterogeneity-of-lamin-a-c-phenotypes-and-molecular-mechanism-behind-it
#11
Jelena Perovanovic, Eric P Hoffman
Mutations in the LMNA gene cause a broad range of clinical syndromes that show tissue-restricted abnormalities of post mitotic tissues, such as muscle, nerve, heart, and adipose tissue. Mutations in other nuclear envelope proteins cause clinically overlapping disorders. The majority of mutations are dominant single amino acid changes (toxic protein produced by the single mutant gene), and patients are heterozygous with both normal and abnormal proteins. Experimental support has been provided for different models of cellular pathogenesis in nuclear envelope diseases, including changes in heterochromatin formation at the nuclear membrane (epigenomics), changes in the timing of steps during terminal differentiation of cells, and structural abnormalities of the nuclear membrane...
May 11, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749513/bioinformatics-analysis-of-key-differentially-expressed-genes-in-well-and-poorly-differentiated-endometrial-carcinoma
#12
Yuqin Zang, Mengting Dong, Kai Zhang, Wenyan Tian, Yingmei Wang, Fengxia Xue
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies. The malignant degree increases between grade (G)1 and G3, and EC of G3 usually presents a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the principal genes associated with the degree of differentiation in EC. The microarrays GSE17025, GSE24537 and GSE35784, representing data of Type I EC samples of G1 and G3, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed micro (mi)RNAs (DEMs) were identified, followed by functional enrichment analyses and interaction network construction...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747250/-rare-primary-proximal-epithelioid-sarcoma-in-skull-base-clinical-analysis-of-four-cases
#13
Z J Duan, K Yao, Y M Qu, M Ren, Y L Zhang, X L Qi
Objective: To report the clinical and pathological features of primary proximal epithelioid sarcoma (PES) in skull base. Methods: The clinical and pathological features of four cases of PES in skull base from Sanbo Brain Institute of Capital Medical University and Kunming Sanbo Brain Institute were analysed retrospectively. Results: Three cases was female, and one male, the age ranged from 46 to 52 years.All cases occurred in skull base, and sellar region was the main site of involvement.Under the microscope, the tumor cells characterized by epithelioid cell changes, with or without rhabdoid tumor cells...
April 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735745/control-of-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-by-the-fission-yeast-transcription-factor-zas1
#14
Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Marc Kschonsak, Markus Hassler, Carlo Klein, Toby J Gibson, Christian H Haering
Although the formation of rod-shaped chromosomes is vital for the correct segregation of eukaryotic genomes during cell divisions, the molecular mechanisms that control the chromosome condensation process have remained largely unknown. Here, we identify the C2 H2 zinc-finger transcription factor Zas1 as a key regulator of mitotic condensation dynamics in a quantitative live-cell microscopy screen of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe By binding to specific DNA target sequences in their promoter regions, Zas1 controls expression of the Cnd1 subunit of the condensin protein complex and several other target genes, whose combined misregulation in zas1 mutants results in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731852/identification-of-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-based-on-microarray-data
#15
Ru Huang, Lei Gao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of lung cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. However, NSCLC is typically diagnosed at a late stage of disease due to a lack of effective diagnostic methods. In the present study, the GSE19804 dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and a number of differentially expressed genes were identified between NSCLC and adjacent normal tissues. Based on functional and pathway enrichment analyses, five hub genes (cell-division cycle 20, centromere protein F, kinesin family member 2C, BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase and ZW10 interacting kinetochore protein) were selected...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730323/agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-as-an-efficient-tool-for-insertional-mutagenesis-of-kabatiella-zeae
#16
Jiaying Sun, Ruidi Xu, Shuqin Xiao, Yuanyuan Lu, Qifeng Zhang, Chunsheng Xue
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) has been widely used in filamentous fungi. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach was developed for the plant pathogenic fungus, Kabatiella zeae, the causative pathogen of eyespot in maize. Five parameters were selected to optimize efficiencies of transformation. A. tumefaciens concentration, conidia concentration of K. zeae and mixing ratio of A. tumefaciens and K. zeae were found to exert a significant influence on all parameters...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724770/making-epidermal-bladder-cells-bigger-developmental-and-salinity-induced-endopolyploidy-in-a-model-halophyte
#17
Bronwyn J Barkla, Timothy Rhodes, Kieu-Nga T Tran, Chathura Wijesinghege, John C Larkin, Maheshi Dassanayake
Endopolyploidy occurs when DNA replication takes place without subsequent mitotic nuclear division, resulting in cell-specific ploidy levels within tissues. In plants, endopolyploidy plays an important role in sustaining growth and development, but only a few studies have demonstrated a role in abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the function of ploidy level and nuclear and cell size in leaf expansion throughout development and tracked cell-type specific ploidy in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum...
May 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719262/augmentation-of-myc-dependent-mitotic-gene-expression-by-the-pygopus2-chromatin-effector
#18
Phillip G P Andrews, Catherine Popadiuk, Thomas J Belbin, Kenneth R Kao
Mitotic segregation of chromosomes requires precise coordination of many factors, yet evidence is lacking as to how genes encoding these elements are transcriptionally controlled. Here, we found that the Pygopus (Pygo)2 chromatin effector is indispensable for expression of the MYC-dependent genes that regulate cancer cell division. Depletion of Pygo2 arrested SKOV-3 cells at metaphase, which resulted from the failure of chromosomes to capture spindle microtubules, a critical step for chromosomal biorientation and segregation...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706624/kif4a-facilitates-cell-proliferation-via-induction-of-p21-mediated-cell-cycle-progression-and-promotes-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Ping-Fu Hou, Tao Jiang, Fang Chen, Pei-Cong Shi, Hai-Qing Li, Jin Bai, Jun Song
Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) was found to be implicated in the regulation of chromosome condensation and segregation during mitotic cell division, which is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of KIF4A in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study explored the biological function of KIF4A in CRC progression and investigated the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we found that KIF4A was remarkably upregulated in primary CRC tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium...
April 30, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705656/humanization-of-bone-and-bone-marrow-in-an-orthotopic-site-reveals-new-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-osteosarcoma
#20
Ferdinand Wagner, Boris M Holzapfel, Jacqui A McGovern, Abbas Shafiee, Jeremy G Baldwin, Laure C Martine, Christoph A Lahr, Felix M Wunner, Thor Friis, Onur Bas, Melanie Boxberg, Peter M Prodinger, Ali Shokoohmand, Davide Moi, Roberta Mazzieri, Daniela Loessner, Dietmar W Hutmacher
BACKGROUND: Existing preclinical murine models often fail to predict effects of anti-cancer drugs. In order to minimize interspecies-differences between murine hosts and human bone tumors of in vivo xenograft platforms, we tissue-engineered a novel orthotopic humanized bone model. METHODS: Orthotopic humanized tissue engineered bone constructs (ohTEBC) were fabricated by 3D printing of medical-grade polycaprolactone scaffolds, which were seeded with human osteoblasts and embedded within polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels containing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
April 16, 2018: Biomaterials
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