Read by QxMD icon Read

Mitotic gene

Michał Książkiewicz, Sandra Rychel, Matthew N Nelson, Katarzyna Wyrwa, Barbara Naganowska, Bogdan Wolko
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Pei Y Liu, Nicholas Sokolowski, Su T Guo, Faraz Siddiqi, Bernard Atmadibrata, Thomas J Telfer, Yuting Sun, Lihong Zhang, Denise Yu, Joshua Mccarroll, Bing Liu, Rui H Yang, Xiang Y Guo, Andrew E Tee, Ken Itoh, Jenny Wang, Maria Kavallaris, Michelle Haber, Murray D Norris, Belamy B Cheung, Jennifer A Byrne, David S Ziegler, Glenn M Marshall, Marcel E Dinger, Rachel Codd, Xu D Zhang, Tao Liu
BET bromodomain inhibitors are very promising novel anticancer agents, however, single therapy does not cause tumor regression in mice, suggesting the need for combination therapy. After screening a library of 2697 small molecule compounds, we found that two classes of compounds, the quinone-containing compounds such as nanaomycin and anti-microtubule drugs such as vincristine, exerted the best synergistic anticancer effects with the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in neuroblastoma cells. Mechanistically, the quinone-containing compound nanaomycin induced neuroblastoma cell death but also activated the Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathway, and the BET bromodomain proteins BRD3 and BRD4 formed a protein complex with Nrf2...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Mi-Sun Kwon, Jaewon Min, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Kwangwoo Hwang, Chuna Kim, Junho Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Woong-Yang Park, Hyunsook Lee
BRCA2 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in homologous recombination (HR), mitotic checkpoint regulation, and telomere homeostasis. Absence of Brca2 in mice results in progressive shortening of telomeres and senescence, yet cells are prone to neoplastic transformation with elongated telomeres, suggesting that BRCA2 has positive and negative effects on telomere length regulation along the path to tumorigenesis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we show here that depletion of BRC-2, an ortholog of BRCA2, paradoxically delays senescence in telomerase-deficient mutant worms...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Melania Ester Mercado-Pimentel, Craig Miller, Daniela N Rolph, Edrick F Villalobos, Allison M Dunn, Prithvi M Mohan, Suzu Igarashi, Xiangdang Liu, Macken Yrun-Duffy, Neal K Patel, Cecilia M Read, Ross H Francis, Adelina Isabella Lane, Swaroop Murugesh, Abraham Jacob
HYPOTHESIS: p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates signaling pathways that promote cell survival and proliferation; therefore, pharmacological inhibition of PAK will induce cell death in vestibular schwannomas (VS) and meningiomas. BACKGROUND: All VS and many meningiomas result from loss of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene product merlin, with ensuing PAK hyperactivation and increased cell proliferation/survival. METHODS: The novel small molecule PAK inhibitors PI-8 and PI-15-tested in schwannoma and meningioma cells-perturb molecular signaling and induce cell death...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Su-Yeon Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa Kim, Kyung-Ah Lee
Previously, we demonstrated that Bcl-2-like 10 (Bcl2l10) is associated with meiotic spindle assembly and that the gene that is most strongly down-regulated by Bcl2l10 RNAi is targeting protein for Xklp2 (Tpx2). Tpx2 is a well-known cofactor that controls the activity and localization of Aurora kinase A (Aurka) during mitotic spindle assembly. Therefore, this study was conducted (1) to identify the associations among Bcl2l10, Tpx2, and Aurka and (2) to understand how Bcl2l10 regulates meiotic spindle assembly in mouse oocytes...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Ruiling Wen, Yingying Xiao, Yuhua Zhang, Min Yang, Yongping Lin, Jun Tang
Tubulin tyrosine ligase like 12 (TTLL12), a member of the tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTLL) family, has not been completely characterized to date. It is reported that histone methylation, tubulin modifications, mitotic duration and chromosome ploidy play crucial roles in a variety of cancers, and are related to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A recent study showed that TTLL12 may be a pseudo-enzyme which has a SET-like domain and a TTL-like domain. In the present study, we first used 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) to amplify the transcripts of the TTLL12 gene from a human lung cancer cell line H1299, and unexpectedly discovered a new transcript isoform characterized with an additional 108-bp nucleotide sequence inserted at the location from 902 to 903 bases of the TTLL12 coding sequence (CDS), where it also locates between exons 5 and 6...
September 28, 2016: Oncology Reports
Mark McInturff, Anne Adamson, Chadwick Donaldson, Brenda L Nelson
A 19 year old female presents to the emergency room with right facial enlargement. Clinical examination revealed a soft tissue mass of the right buccal mucosa. Treated initially as infection, the patient later turned to clinic with now rapidly enlarging and intermittently painful mass. Computed tomography with contrast showed a low attenuated buccal mass with mild enhancement lateral to the right caudal maxilla and superior mandible. Biopsy was performed and microscopic examination showed cells with moderate pleomorphism with numerous atypical mitotic figures and occasional elongated "strap" cells with eccentric nuclei...
October 14, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Yan Sun, Ping Ji, Tao Chen, Xinhui Zhou, Da Yang, Yuhong Guo, Yuexin Liu, Limei Hu, Dianren Xia, Yanxue Liu, Asha S Multani, Ilya Shmulevich, Raju Kucherlapati, Scott Kopetz, Anil K Sood, Stanley R Hamilton, Baocun Sun, Wei Zhang
The gene encoding Migration and Invasion Inhibitory Protein (MIIP), located on 1p36.22, is a potential tumour suppressor gene in glioma. In this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanism of action of MIIP in colorectal cancer (CRC). MIIP protein expression gradually decreased along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and was negatively correlated with lymph node and distant metastasis in 526 colorectal tissue samples (P<0.05 for all). Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data showed that decreased MIIP expression was significantly associated with MIIP hemizygous deletion (P=0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Yunhui Li, Minhui Zhang, Shaojun Li, Rongrong Lv, Pan Chen, Ran Liu, Geyu Liang, Lihong Yin
There is increasing evidence that epoxiconazole exposure can affect reproductive function, but few studies have investigated adverse effects on spermatogenesis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used in our study to assess effects of epoxiconazole on spermatogenesis in male nematodes after 48 h of exposure to concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 μg/L. The results demonstrated that epoxiconazole exposure affected spermatogenesis, decreasing the number of total germ cells, mitotic cells, meiotic cells and spermatids, spermatid diameter, and cross-sectional area, and inducing mitotic germ cell proliferation arrest, premature entry into meiosis, and sperm activation inhibition; however, sperm transfer showed no abnormal changes...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S F Lax
The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of uterine tumors revealed simplification of the classification by fusion of several entities and the introduction of novel entities. Among the multitude of alterations, the following are named: a simplified classification for precursor lesions of endometrial carcinoma now distinguishes between hyperplasia without atypia and atypical hyperplasia, the latter also known as endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). For endometrial carcinoma a differentiation is made between type 1 (endometrioid carcinoma with variants and mucinous carcinoma) and type 2 (serous and clear cell carcinoma)...
October 13, 2016: Der Pathologe
B Roche, B Arcangioli, R A Martienssen
Quiescent cells play a predominant role in most organisms. Here, we identify RNA interference (RNAi) as a major requirement for quiescence (G0) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNAi mutants lose viability at G0-entry and are unable to maintain long-term quiescence. We obtained dcr1Δ G0 suppressors, which mapped to genes involved in chromosome segregation, RNA polymerase-associated factors, and heterochromatin formation. We propose a model in which RNAi promotes RNA polymerase release in cycling and quiescent cells: (i) RNA pol II release mediates heterochromatin formation at centromeres allowing proper chromosome segregation during mitotic growth and G0-entry, and (ii) RNA pol I release prevents heterochromatin formation at rDNA during quiescence maintenance...
October 13, 2016: Science
Jessica Woodward, Gillian C Taylor, Dinesh C Soares, Shelagh Boyle, Daoud Sie, David Read, Keerthi Chathoth, Milica Vukovic, Nuria Tarrats, David Jamieson, Kirsteen J Campbell, Karen Blyth, Juan Carlos Acosta, Bauke Ylstra, Mark J Arends, Kamil R Kranc, Andrew P Jackson, Wendy A Bickmore, Andrew J Wood
Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer, but mitotic regulators are rarely mutated in tumors. Mutations in the condensin complexes, which restructure chromosomes to facilitate segregation during mitosis, are significantly enriched in cancer genomes, but experimental evidence implicating condensin dysfunction in tumorigenesis is lacking. We report that mice inheriting missense mutations in a condensin II subunit (Caph2(nes)) develop T-cell lymphoma. Before tumors develop, we found that the same Caph2 mutation impairs ploidy maintenance to a different extent in different hematopoietic cell types, with ploidy most severely perturbed at the CD4(+)CD8(+) T-cell stage from which tumors initiate...
October 13, 2016: Genes & Development
Carol-Anne Martin, Jennie E Murray, Paula Carroll, Andrea Leitch, Karen J Mackenzie, Mihail Halachev, Ahmed E Fetit, Charlotte Keith, Louise S Bicknell, Adeline Fluteau, Philippe Gautier, Emma A Hall, Shelagh Joss, Gabriela Soares, João Silva, Michael B Bober, Angela Duker, Carol A Wise, Alan J Quigley, Shubha R Phadke, Andrew J Wood, Paola Vagnarelli, Andrew P Jackson
Compaction of chromosomes is essential for accurate segregation of the genome during mitosis. In vertebrates, two condensin complexes ensure timely chromosome condensation, sister chromatid disentanglement, and maintenance of mitotic chromosome structure. Here, we report that biallelic mutations in NCAPD2, NCAPH, or NCAPD3, encoding subunits of these complexes, cause microcephaly. In addition, hypomorphic Ncaph2 mice have significantly reduced brain size, with frequent anaphase chromatin bridge formation observed in apical neural progenitors during neurogenesis...
October 13, 2016: Genes & Development
Katharina Müller, Philipp M Klein, Philipp Heissig, Andreas Roidl, Ernst Wagner
Antitumoral siRNA and miRNA delivery was demonstrated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted oligoaminoamide polyplexes. For this purpose, the T-shaped lipo-oligomer 454 was used to complex RNA into a core polyplex, which was subsequently functionalized with the targeting peptide ligand GE11 via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. To this end, free cysteines on the surface of 454 polyplex were coupled with a maleimide-PEG-GE11 reagent (Mal-GE11). Resulting particles with sizes of 120-150 nm showed receptor-mediated uptake into EGFR-positive T24 bladder cancer cells, MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells and Huh7 liver cancer cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanotechnology
Shuai Hou, Na Li, Qian Zhang, Hui Li, Xinyue Wei, Tian Hao, Yue Li, Sikandar Azam, Caigang Liu, Wei Cheng, Bilian Jin, Quentin Liu, Man Li, Haixin Lei
Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA)-binding protein 2 (XAB2) is a multi-functional protein that plays critical role in processes including transcription, transcription-coupled DNA repair, pre-mRNA splicing, homologous recombination and mRNA export. Microarray analysis on gene expression in XAB2 knockdown cells reveals that many genes with significant change in expression function in mitotic cell cycle regulation. Fluorescence-activated cell scanner analysis confirmed XAB2 depletion led to cell arrest in G2/M phase, mostly at prophase or prometaphase...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Lu Yu, Jun Li, Sanpeng Xu, Mariajose Navia Miranda, Guoping Wang, Yaqi Duan
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
Younguk Sun, Huimin Zhang, Majid Kazemian, Joseph M Troy, Christopher Seward, Xiaochen Lu, Lisa Stubbs
Mammalian genomes contain hundreds of genes transcribed by RNA Polymerase III (Pol III), encoding noncoding RNAs and especially the tRNAs specialized to carry specific amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis. In addition to this well-known function, tRNAs and their genes (tDNAs) serve a variety of other critical cellular functions. For example, tRNAs and other Pol III transcripts can be cleaved to yield small RNAs with potent regulatory activities. Furthermore, from yeast to mammals, active tDNAs and related "extra-TFIIIC" (ETC) loci provide the DNA scaffolds for the most ancient known mechanism of three-dimensional chromatin architecture...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Grasiella Angelina Andriani, Vinnycius Pereira Almeida, Francesca Faggioli, Maurizio Mauro, Wanxia Li Tsai, Laura Santambrogio, Alexander Maslov, Massimo Gadina, Judith Campisi, Jan Vijg, Cristina Montagna
Age-related accumulation of ploidy changes is associated with decreased expression of genes controlling chromosome segregation and cohesin functions. To determine the consequences of whole chromosome instability (W-CIN) we down-regulated the spindle assembly checkpoint component BUB1 and the mitotic cohesin SMC1A, and used four-color-interphase-FISH coupled with BrdU incorporation and analyses of senescence features to reveal the fate of W-CIN cells. We observed significant correlations between levels of not-diploid cells and senescence-associated features (SAFs)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adeline Feri, Raphaël Loll-Krippleber, Pierre-Henri Commere, Corinne Maufrais, Natacha Sertour, Katja Schwartz, Gavin Sherlock, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Christophe d'Enfert, Mélanie Legrand
: The diploid genome of the yeast Candida albicans is highly plastic, exhibiting frequent loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events. To provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to LOH, we investigated the repair of a unique DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the laboratory C. albicans SC5314 strain using the I-SceI meganuclease. Upon I-SceI induction, we detected a strong increase in the frequency of LOH events at an I-SceI target locus positioned on chromosome 4 (Chr4), including events spreading from this locus to the proximal telomere...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Wu Ren, Jian Zhang, Wei Li, Zongcheng Li, Shuofeng Hu, Jian Suo, Xiaomin Ying
BACKGROUND Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is associated with prognosis of gastric cancer, some of which could be further evaluated as potential biomarkers. In this study, we attempted to identify a specific lncRNA signature to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS The genome-wide lncRNA expression in the high-throughput RNA-sequencing data was retrieved from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential expression of lncRNAs was identified using the Limma package...
October 11, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"