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"Body composition"

Simon Bissonnette, Nathalie Saint-Pierre, Valerie Lamantia, Catherine Leroux, Viviane Provost, Yannick Cyr, Remi Rabasa-Lhoret, May Faraj
Background: To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gregorio P Milani, Jaap W Groothoff, Federica A Vianello, Emilio F Fossali, Fabio Paglialonga, Sivia Consolo, Alberto Edefonti, Dario Consonni, Dewi van Harskamp, Johannes B van Goudoever, Henk Schierbeek, Carlo Agostoni, Michiel J S Oosterveld
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in body compositions are strongly associated with poor outcomes in end-stage renal disease patients. Hence, assessment of lean body mass is crucial for clinically monitoring these patients. The use of multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements have also been advocated, but their usefulness in children is questioned. We investigated whether their application is appropriate for lean body mass measurement in pediatric patients receiving chronic dialysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ismael San Mauro Martín, Víctor Paredes Barato, Sara López Oliva, Marta Rodríguez, Luis Collado Yurrita, Maria José Ciudad Cabañas, Sara Sanz Rojo, Licia de la Calle, Elena Ávila Díaz, Yaiza Quevedo Santos, Paloma Elortegui Pascual, Marta Villanueva Nieto, Elena Garicano Vilar
OBJECTIVES: Observe the association of foods habits, body composition, lifestyle habits, and loss of gustatory function with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: This comparative study enrolled 75 patients with AD (mean age 77.5 years) and 267 healthy volunteers (mean age 73 years). Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, visceral fat, muscle mass, and waist circumference were measured. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the Mediterranean-Diet-Adherence Screener...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Hiroki Hamamoto, Masashi Yamamoto, Shinsuke Masubuchi, Masatsugu Ishii, Wataru Osumi, Keitaro Tanaka, Junji Okuda, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Preoperative carbohydrate loading (CHO) is one element of the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol. No clinical trial has investigated the impact of preoperative CHO on intraoperative body temperature. METHODS: This study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial involving patients undergoing laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. The primary end point was the intraoperative core temperature during surgery, which was measured at 30-min intervals for 150 min after starting surgery...
June 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Ai Huey Tan, Yin Cheng Hew, Shen-Yang Lim, Norlisah Mohd Ramli, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman, Maw Pin Tan, Mathis Grossmann, Ban Hong Ang, Jiun Yan Tan, Mohamad Addin Azhan A Manap, Tun Khong Tay, Siang Lyn Tan, Ru Peng New, Farhana Fadzli, Eng Jui Yee, Foong Ming Moy, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Anthony E Lang
INTRODUCTION: Low body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is poorly understood despite the associated risks of malnutrition, fractures, and death. Sarcopenia (loss of muscle bulk and strength) and frailty are geriatric syndromes that are likewise associated with adverse health outcomes, yet have received scant attention in PD. We studied body composition, sarcopenia, frailty, and their clinico-biological correlates in PD. METHODS: 93 patients and 78 spousal/sibling controls underwent comprehensive assessment of diet, clinical status, muscle strength/performance, frailty, body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and serum levels of neurogastrointestinal hormones and inflammatory markers...
June 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Vincent Jen, Kim V E Braun, Leonidas G Karagounis, Anh N Nguyen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Josje D Schoufour, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Protein intake in infancy promotes growth, but excessive intake may lead to adiposity in children. However, whether this increased adiposity persists throughout childhood and is independent of diet in later life remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the associations of total protein intake and protein from different sources at age 1 year with repeatedly measured growth and body composition up to age 10 years. Additionally, we examined whether these associations are independent of protein intake and overall diet quality at age 8 years...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kemi E Wright, Bonnie J Furzer, Melissa K Licari, Ashleigh L Thornton, James A Dimmock, Louise H Naylor, Siobhan L Reid, Stephanie R Kwan, Ben Jackson
Children with low movement proficiency have been identified as having poorer physiological and psychosocial outcomes; however, the varied measurement approaches used to assess these outcomes have varied resulting in conflicting evidence regarding the presence and magnitude of differences compared to Typically Developing (TD) children. Additionally, there has been limited research into the role of parental support for physical activity (PA) in this group. We compared children with varying levels of movement proficiency on physiological characteristics and self-perceptions regarding PA...
June 16, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
David Thivel, Julien Verney, Maud Miguet, Julie Masurier, Charlotte Cardenoux, C Lambert, Daniel Courteix, Lore Metz, Bruno Pereira
The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity of bio-impedance (BIA) in tracking body composition changes in adolescents with various degrees of obesity. We hypothesized that while BIA provides a reliable measure of body composition, its accuracy decreases with increasing obesity and its ability to track changes might be reduced with higher degree of body weight and body composition. Whole-body and segmental body composition were assessed by bio-impedance analysis (BIA-Tanita MC-780) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) among 196 obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14 ± 0...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Brett S Nickerson
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly utilized for total and segmental body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Group (i.e., constant error [CE]) and individual error (i.e., standard error of estimate [SEE] and 95% limits of agreement [LOAs]) of single-frequency BIA were determined in apparently healthy men and women (n = 28 and 45, respectively) when using DXA as a reference method. It was hypothesized that single-frequency BIA would provide lower error for the estimation of total and segmental FFM than FM and BF%...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Xi Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Jibin Li, Yongfu Yu, Yiqing Song
The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006)...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Eline N Kuipers, Andrea D van Dam, Ntsiki M Held, Isabel M Mol, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Patrick C N Rensen, Mariëtte R Boon
Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, lowers plasma triglycerides (TG) in human intervention studies, and its intake is associated with lower CVD risk. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which quercetin lowers plasma TG levels in diet-induced obesity. C57Bl/6J mice received a high-fat diet (45% of calories derived from fat) with or without quercetin (0.1% w / w ) for 12 weeks. Quercetin decreased plasma TG levels from nine weeks onwards (&minus;19%, p < 0...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christina Wei, Toby Candler, Elizabeth Crowne, Julian P Hamilton-Shield
We undertook a feasibility study to reassess metabolic outcomes in young people with early onset obesity who attended a hospital-based lifestyle weight-loss intervention during adolescence. Comparisons of metabolic assessments, including body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI⁻SDSs), blood pressure (BP), oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), lipid profile, and alanine transaminase (ALT), before and after treatment were made. Twenty-five subjects (10 males) with median ages (interquartile range, IQR) of 14...
June 15, 2018: Children
Martha G Cline, Angela L Witzel, Tamberlyn D Moyers, Claudia A Kirk
Objectives The objectives for this study were to compare the body composition of adult indoor neutered domestic cats with outdoor intact cats with an ideal body condition score using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to report the body composition findings of free-roaming cats, as this has not been previously reported. Most domestic house cats differ from free-roaming cats as they are confined indoors and neutered. Indoor neutered cats have reduced activity and hormonal alterations that may result in lower muscle mass and higher body fat percentages vs outdoor intact cats, despite similar body condition scores...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Rubina Mandlik, Neha Kajale, Veena Ekbote, Vivek Patwardhan, Vaman Khadilkar, Shashi Chiplonkar, Anuradha Khadilkar
Introduction: Due to the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in spite of abundant sunshine and scarcity of studies investigating Vitamin D status in Indian children from rural and semirural areas, the objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: (1) assess the Vitamin D status of school-children in a semi-rural setting and (2) identify the determinants of Vitamin D status in these children. Materials and Methods: Data collected included anthropometric measurements (height and weight), body composition, three-one-day dietary recall method, demographic data, and sunlight exposure...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Meha Sharma, Urmila Dhakad, Anupam Wakhlu, Danveer Bhadu, Deep Dutta, Siddharth K Das
Background and Objectives: Factors determining bone mineral (BM) loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not well known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of BM loss in the young premenopausal women with RA. Methods: Ninety-six females with RA and 90 matched controls underwent clinical, biochemical, BM density (BMD), and body composition assessments. RA disease activity was assessed using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) and hand X-ray...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Persephone R Greco-Otto, Renaud Léguillette
Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) instantly assesses body composition to monitor the effects of diet, competition, and illness, though it requires a body proportion factor (Kb). This study aimed to validate a draft horse-specific Kb. The calculated Kb was 1.42, resulting in significantly lower body composition values, with the exception of fat mass.
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Alba Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta Camacho-Cardenosa, Adrián González-Custodio, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Rafael Timón, Guillermo Olcina, Javier Brazo-Sayavera
BACKGROUND: The relative age effect is essential throughout all of the talent selection processes in sports, especially during adolescence, which leaves fewer athletes within each cohort that are born late in the selected year. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of relative age in anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of youth handball players by gender. METHODS: The sample that was selected included 47 participants (male n = 23, female n = 24)...
May 23, 2018: Sports
Peter Hofmann
There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors...
January 31, 2018: Sports
Daniel A Hackett, Theban Amirthalingam, Lachlan Mitchell, Yorgi Mavros, Guy C Wilson, Mark Halaki
This study investigated the effect of a 12-week modified German Volume Training intervention, or the 10 sets method, on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twelve healthy males were randomly assigned to either a 5-SET or 10-SET group and performed 5 or 10 sets, respectively, of 10 repetitions at 60⁻80% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Muscle strength and body composition measures were taken at baseline, six weeks, and after 12 weeks of training. No significant changes in total, trunk, and arm lean mass were found within and between groups at any time point...
January 29, 2018: Sports
Wesley C Kephart, Coree D Pledge, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Kevin W Huggins, Michael D Roberts
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80...
January 9, 2018: Sports (Basel)
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