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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240830/a-low-fat-diet-ameliorates-pathology-but-retains-beneficial-effects-associated-with-cpt1b-knockout-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Shawna E Wicks, Jingying Zhang, Robert C Noland, Randall L Mynatt
Inhibiting fatty acid oxidation is one approach to lowering glucose levels in diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) comprise a model of impaired fat oxidation; and have decreased fat mass and enhanced glucose disposal and muscle oxidative capacity compared to controls. However, unfavorable effects occur relative to controls when Cpt1bm-/- mice are fed a 25% fat diet, including decreased activity and fat free mass and increased intramuscular lipid and serum myoglobin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239987/body-composition-of-women-s-ice-hockey-players-comparison-of-estimates-using-skinfolds-and-idxa
#2
Kajsa Gilenstam, Christina A Geithner
The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women's ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239888/eleven-year-incident-glucose-disorders-in-treated-hiv-infection-the-st-vincent-s-hiv-and-diabetes-study
#3
Chelsea N McMahon, Kathy Petoumenos, Karl Hesse, Andrew Carr, David A Cooper, Katherine Samaras
OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term incidence of glucose disorders in treated HIV-infection, associations with traditional and HIV-specific risk factors and whether glycemic status predicts mortality. METHODS: Observational cohort of 104 men with treated HIV-infection and without diabetes, aged 43 ± 8y at baseline, with (mean ± SD) 11 8 ± 3 5y follow-up, with ascertainment of glucose status by fasting glucose or, in a subset (n = 33), a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test by 10-12 years follow-up...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239827/factors-affecting-body-composition-in-preterm-infants-assessment-techniques-and-nutritional-interventions
#4
REVIEW
K Strydom, E Van Niekerk, M A Dhansay
Limited research has been conducted that elucidates the growth and body composition of preterm infants. It is known that these infants do not necessarily achieve extra-utero growth rates and body composition similar to those of their term counterparts. Preterm infants, who have difficulty in achieving these growth rates, could suffer from growth failure. These infants display an increased intra-abdominal adiposity and abnormal body composition when they achieve catch-up growth. These factors affect the quality of weight gain, as these infants are not only shorter and lighter than term infants, they also have more fat mass (FM) and less fat-free mass (FFM), resulting in a higher total fat percentage...
October 28, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239351/association-of-serum-uric-acid-levels-with-osteoporosis-and-bone-turnover-markers-in-a-chinese-population
#5
Dan-Dan Yan, Jie Wang, Xu-Hong Hou, Yu-Qian Bao, Zhen-Lin Zhang, Cheng Hu, Wei-Ping Jia
Recent evidence shows that uric acid is protective against some neurological diseases, but can be detrimental in many metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we examined the association between serum uric acid levels and bone metabolism in Chinese males and postmenopausal females. A total of 943 males and 4256 postmenopausal females were recruited in Shanghai. The levels of serum uric acid and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were detected along with other biochemical traits. In addition, the fat distribution was calculated through MRI and image analysis software, and bone mineral density (BMD) was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
December 14, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239129/association-of-prenatal-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-with-offspring-body-composition-and-regional-body-fat-distribution
#6
M Kearney, J Perron, I Marc, S J Weisnagel, A Tchernof, J Robitaille
The aim of this cohort study was to compare body composition and regional body fat distribution between children exposed (GDM+) or unexposed (GDM-) in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate the association with the glycaemic and the insulin profile. Data from 56 GDM+ and 30 GDM- were analysed. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Total and regional body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin, glucose and HbA1c were obtained from a fasting plasma sample, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238536/body-macronutrient-composition-is-predicted-by-lipid-and-not-protein-content-of-the-diet
#7
Joshua P Moatt, Catherine Hambly, Elizabeth Heap, Anna Kramer, Fiona Moon, John R Speakman, Craig A Walling
Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238244/influence-of-a-thermogenic-dietary-supplement-on-safety-markers-body-composition-energy-expenditure-muscular-performance-and-hormone-concentrations-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#8
Grant M Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238187/hand-grip-endurance-test-relates-to-clinical-state-and-prognosis-in-copd-patients-better-than-6-minute-walk-test-distance
#9
Miroslav Kovarik, Vera Joskova, Anna Patkova, Vladimir Koblizek, Zdenek Zadak, Miloslav Hronek
Purpose: Patients with COPD present peripheral muscle dysfunction and atrophy, expressed as muscle strength and endurance reduction. The goal of this study was direct dynamometric assessment of hand grip endurance and strength in relation to the stage of disease, multidimensional predictors of mortality, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study determining these parameters. Patients and methods: In this observational study, 58 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD and 25 volunteers without respiratory problems were compared...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238037/the-association-of-sarcopenia-telomere-length-and-mortality-data-from-the-nhanes-1999-2002
#10
Peter L Rippberger, Rebecca T Emeny, Todd A Mackenzie, Stephen J Bartels, John A Batsis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass or function with aging and is associated with adverse outcomes. Telomere shortening is associated with mortality, yet its relationship with sarcopenia is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Adults ≥60 years from the 1999-2002 NHANES with body composition measures were identified. Sarcopenia was defined using the two Foundation for the National Institute of Health definitions: appendicular lean mass (ALM) (men <19...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237763/bisphenol-a-phthalate-metabolites-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-healthy-normal-weight-children
#11
Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, Anders Juul
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry, and fasting blood samples...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237437/the-impact-of-a-community-led-program-promoting-weight-loss-and-healthy-living-in-aboriginal-communities-the-new-south-wales-knockout-health-challenge
#12
Erin Passmore, Brooke Shepherd, Andrew Milat, Louise Maher, Kiel Hennessey, Rachael Havrlant, Michelle Maxwell, Wendy Hodge, Fiona Christian, Justin Richards, Jo Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal people in Australia experience significant health burden from chronic disease. There has been limited research to identify effective healthy lifestyle programs to address risk factors for chronic disease among Aboriginal people. METHODS: The Knockout Health Challenge is a community-led healthy lifestyle program for Aboriginal communities across New South Wales, Australia. An evaluation of the 2013 Knockout Health Challenge was undertaken. Participants' self-reported physical activity and diet were measured at four time points - at the start and end of the Challenge (via paper form), and 5 and 9 months after the Challenge (via telephone survey)...
December 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236911/assessment-of-the-quality-of-life-muscle-strength-and-dynamic-balance-of-elderly-kendo-players
#13
Dário Lucas Costa de Mendonça, Angelica Castilho Alonso, Júlia Maria D'Andrea Greve, Luiz Eugênio Garcez-Leme
OBJECTIVE: To compare Kendo players with active elderly adults in terms of quality of life, functional aspects (muscle strength, postural balance) and body composition. METHODS: This was a controlled cross-sectional study. Twenty elderly individuals were divided into two groups: the Kendo group, with an average age of 71.8 (5.4) years, and the Control group, with an average age of 73.1 (4.8) years. Quality of life was evaluated using a questionnaire (WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-old); body composition was evaluated with a bioimpedance scale (InBody230); hand-grip strength was assessed with a portable manual dynamometer (Jamar SH 5001); flexor and extensor muscle strength of the knees was evaluated with an isokinetic device (Biode® System 3 model Biodex Multi Joint System, BIODEX); and dynamic balance was assessed using a force platform (Balance Master System, Neurocom International, Inc...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236162/bisphosphonates-prevent-age-related-weight-loss-in-japanese-postmenopausal-women
#14
Tomohiko Urano, Masataka Shiraki, Tatsuhiko Kuroda, Shiro Tanaka, Fumihiko Urano, Kazuhiro Uenishi, Satoshi Inoue
Decline of body weight with aging is a major risk factor for frailty, osteoporosis and fracture, suggesting that treatment for osteoporosis may affect body composition. Recently, we have shown that 5-year treatment with raloxifene prevented age-related weight loss, suggesting some other drugs for osteoporosis may also prevent a decrease in body weight with aging. The present study aimed to identify the relationship between bisphosphonate treatment and body composition markers. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and bone remodeling markers in 551 Japanese postmenopausal women with bisphosphonate treatment, which included risedronate or alendronate treatment (BP-treatment group; N = 193) and without treatment by any osteoporosis drug (no-treatment group; N = 358) for 4-7 years (mean observation periods; 5...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235565/anthropometric-measurements-and-survival-after-a-prostate-cancer-diagnosis
#15
Megan S Farris, Kerry S Courneya, Karen A Kopciuk, S Elizabeth McGregor, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the role of anthropometrics in prostate cancer survival is inconsistent. We examined the associations between anthropometric measures and survival outcomes. METHODS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer (n=987) were recruited into a population-based case-control study between 1997 and 2000 then a prospective cohort study between 2000 and 2002 where anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio) were taken and participants were followed up to 19 years for survival outcomes...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235113/postnatal-effects-of-intrauterine-treatment-of-the-growth-restricted-ovine-fetus-with-intra-amniotic-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#16
A M Spiroski, M H Oliver, A L Jaquiery, T C R Prickett, E A Espiner, J E Harding, F H Bloomfield
Placental insufficiency-mediated fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with altered postnatal growth and metabolism, which are, in turn, associated with increased risk of adult disease. Intra-amniotic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) treatment of ovine FGR increases growth rate in late gestation, but the effects on postnatal growth and metabolism are unknown. We investigated the effects of intra-amniotic IGF1 administration to ovine fetuses with uteroplacental embolisation-induced FGR on phenotypic and physiologic characteristics in the two weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234560/collegiate-male-soccer-players-exhibit-between-limb-symmetry-in-body-composition-muscle-strength-and-range-of-motion
#17
Matthew D DeLang, Melodie Kondratek, Lorenzo J DiPace, Tamara Hew-Butler
Background: Functional and structural asymmetries attributed to limb dominance are equivocal in soccer players. Previous authors hypothesize the existence of between-limb asymmetry secondary to the repetitive unilateral nature of kicking. However, symmetry is often present, particularly in measures of muscle strength. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine if lateral dominance is accompanied by corresponding between-limb asymmetries in a comprehensive assessment of body composition, muscle strength, and range of motion in healthy soccer players...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233934/chronic-infusion-of-taurolithocholate-into-the-brain-increases-fat-oxidation-in-mice
#18
Hannah M Eggink, Lauren L Tambyrajah, Rosa van den Berg, Isabel Mol, Jose K van den Heuvel, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Johannes A Romijn, Patrick C N Rensen, Sander Kooijman, Maarten R Soeters
Bile acids can function in the postprandial state as circulating signaling molecules in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism via the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR. Both receptors are present in the central nervous system, but their function in the brain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of taurolithocholate (tLCA), a strong TGR5 agonist, and GW4064, a synthetic FXR agonist, on energy metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic icv infusion of tLCA, GW4064, or vehicle on energy expenditure, body weight and composition as well as tissue specific fatty acid uptake in mice equipped with osmotic minipumps...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231963/body-composition-in-long-term-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-diagnosed-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-focus-on-sarcopenic-obesity
#19
Christopher J C Marriott, Lesley F Beaumont, Troy H Farncombe, Amy N Cranston, Uma H Athale, Valerie N Yakemchuk, Colin E Webber, Ronald D Barr
BACKGROUND: The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230967/the-obesity-factor-how-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-estimated-more-accurately-in-people-with-obesity
#20
Karsten Königstein, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Benjamin Hafner, Timo Hinrichs, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is clinically used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The relation to total body mass (TBM) leads to an underestimation of CRF in people with obesity and to inappropriate prognostic and therapeutic decisions. This study aimed to determine body composition-derived bias in the estimation of CRF in people with obesity. METHODS: Two hundred eleven participants (58.8% women; mean BMI 35.7 kg/m2 [± 6.94; 20.7-58...
December 12, 2017: Obesity
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