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LEAN quality

Shalender Bhasin, Caroline M Apovian, Thomas G Travison, Karol Pencina, Lynn L Moore, Grace Huang, Wayne W Campbell, Zhuoying Li, Andrew S Howland, Ruo Chen, Philip E Knapp, Martha R Singer, Mitali Shah, Kristina Secinaro, Richard V Eder, Kathleen Hally, Haley Schram, Richelle Bearup, Yusnie M Beleva, Ashley C McCarthy, Erin Woodbury, Jennifer McKinnon, Geeta Fleck, Thomas W Storer, Shehzad Basaria
Importance: The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Anna Bereta, Kacper Żukowski, Mirosław Tyra, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Grzegorz Żak, Maria Oczkowicz
Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants based on RNA-seq data, obtained via transcriptome sequencing of muscle tissue of pigs differing in muscle histological structure, and to verify the variants' effect on histological microstructure and production traits in a larger pig population. Methods: RNA-seq data was used to identify the panel of SNPs significantly related with percentage and diameter of each fiber type (I, IIA, IIB). Detected polymorphisms were mapped to QTLs regions...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jingya Ren, Guilong Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Jie Han, Zhengyan Wu, Dongqing Cai
Because of the wide use of chromium-containing feed, much hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) tends to accumulate in pork. In order to decrease the toxicity of Cr(VI)-containing pork for human beings, high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation was used to reduce highly toxic Cr(VI) to low toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) in lean, fat, and marbled pork. HEEB irradiation could efficiently and nondestructively reduce both free and adsorbed Cr(VI) in pork, achieving the highest reductive efficiency (RE) of 98.03%...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Eva-Maria Strasser, Marlene Hofmann, Bernhard Franzke, Barbara Schober-Halper, Stefan Oesen, Waltraud Jandrasits, Alexandra Graf, Markus Praschak, Barbara Horvath-Mechtler, Christine Krammer, Martin Ploder, Norbert Bachl, Michael Quittan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass is accompanied by changes in muscle quality leading to impairment of functional status. AIM: This study investigated the effect of resistance training and nutritional supply on muscle mass and muscle quality in very old institutionalized adults. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, multi-arm parallel and controlled intervention study. SETTING: This study was conducted in five retirement care facilities...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
B J Klehm, D A King, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins were evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28 mm thick chops...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Steven J Firth
Given that a properly formed utilitarian response to healthcare distribution issues should evaluate cost effectiveness against the total utility increase, it follows that any utilitarian cost-effectiveness metric should be sensitive to increases in both individual and social utility afforded by a given intervention. Quality adjusted life year (QALY) based decisionmaking in healthcare cannot track increases in social utility, and as a result, the QALY cannot be considered a strict utilitarian response to issues of healthcare distribution...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Heilok Cheng, Jielan Kong, Catherine Underwood, Peter Petocz, Vasant Hirani, Beryl Dawson, Fiona O'Leary
The loss of lean body mass, muscle strength and physical function causes significant problems in older adults. Protein and amino acid supplements can preserve muscle strength but the effect on function is variable. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of protein and amino acid supplementation on fat-free mass, muscle strength and physical function in malnourished, frail, sarcopenic, dependent or elderly with acute or chronic conditions, with or without rehabilitation exercise...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
C Julián, I Huybrechts, L Gracia-Marco, E M González-Gil, Á Gutiérrez, M González-Gross, A Marcos, K Widhalm, A Kafatos, G Vicente-Rodríguez, L A Moreno
Dietary scores, rather than individual nutrients, allow exploring associations between overall diet and bone health. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the Mediterranean Diet Score for Adolescents (MDS-A) and the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) and bone mineral content (BMC) among Spanish adolescents. Our results do not support an association between dietary scores or indices and BMC in adolescents. INTRODUCTION: To assess the associations between the MDS-A and a DQI-A with the BMC measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
March 5, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Charles Hubert Blouin-Delisle, Renee Drolet, Serge Gagnon, Stephane Turcotte, Sylvie Boutet, Martin Coulombe, Eric Daneau
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to increase efficiency in ORs without affecting quality of care by improving the workflow processes. Administrative processes independent of the surgical act can be challenging and may lead to clinical impacts such as increasing delays. The authors hypothesized that a Lean project could improve efficiency of surgical processes by reducing the length of stays in the recovery ward. Design/methodology/approach Two similar Lean projects were performed in the surgery departments of two hospitals of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec: Hôtel Dieu de Quebec (HDQ) and Hôpital de l'Enfant Jesus (HEJ)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Danilo Yuzo Nishimoto, Giovana Damasceno E Souza, Ariane Pereira Ramirez, Carla Oliveira Carletti, Célio Guilherme Lombardi Daibem, Giorgos K Sakkas, Henrique Luiz Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of continuous progressive resistance training on body composition, functional capacity and self-reported quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: The study included 52 hemodialysis patients (aged 55.7 ± 14.03 years) randomized into exercise (progressive resistance training (PRT), n = 28) or control (CON, n = 24) groups...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Jani Liimatta, Harri Sintonen, Pauliina Utriainen, Raimo Voutilainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Children with premature adrenarche (PA) are taller and more overweight than their healthy peers, and PA girls have a slightly accelerated pubertal development. There is some evidence that early exposure to androgens may have an influence on psychosocial development. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PA children at the age of 12 years. METHODS: The HRQoL was assessed for 43 PA (36 girls) and 63 control children (52 girls) at the median age of 12...
March 2, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Miji Kim, Junghoon Kim, Chang Won Won
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between involuntary weight loss with low muscle mass and health-related quality of life in a large representative sample of older adults. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2008 to 2011. Study participants included 2249 individuals aged ≥70 years. The participants reported an unintentional weight loss >3 kg in the past year...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Alan Albert Aragon
Controversy exists about the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for lean tissue-building purposes in a single meal for those involved in regimented resistance training. It has been proposed that muscle protein synthesis is maximized in young adults with an intake of ~ 20-25 g of a high-quality protein; anything above this amount is believed to be oxidized for energy or transaminated to form urea and other organic acids. However, these findings are specific to the provision of fast-digesting proteins without the addition of other macronutrients...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Karen M O'Callaghan, Mairead Kiely
This narrative systematic review evaluates growing evidence of an association between low maternal vitamin D status and increased risk of hypertensive disorders. The inclusion of interventional, observational, and dietary studies on vitamin D and all hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a novel aspect of this review, providing a unique contribution to an intensively-researched area that still lacks a definitive conclusion. To date, trial evidence supports a protective effect of combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation against preeclampsia...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Brandon M Roberts, Kaleen M Lavin, Gina M Many, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, Edward K Merritt, C Scott Bickel, David L Mayhew, S Craig Tuggle, James M Cross, David J Kosek, John K Petrella, Cynthia J Brown, Gary R Hunter, Samuel T Windham, Richard M Allman, Marcas M Bamman
Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem affecting both men and women - accompanied by muscle weakness, dysfunction, disability, and impaired quality of life. Current definitions of sarcopenia do not fully encompass the age-related changes in skeletal muscle. We therefore examined the influence of aging and sex on elements of skeletal muscle health using a thorough histopathological analysis of myocellular aging and assessments of neuromuscular performance. Two-hundred and twenty-one untrained males and females were separated into four age cohorts [mean age 25 y (n = 47), 37 y (n = 79), 61 y (n = 51), and 72 y (n = 44)]...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Joshua F Baker, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Jin Long, Babette Zemel, Said Ibrahim, Elena Taratuta, Mary B Leonard
PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with adverse body composition profiles, and low muscle density due to accumulation of intramuscular fat. This study assessed associations between muscle density, body composition, muscle strength, and physical functioning in patients with RA and a reference group. METHODS: Patients with RA, ages 18-70 years, and healthy control participants completed whole-body DXA and peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) to quantify appendicular lean mass (ALMI, kg/m2 ) and fat mass indices (FMI, kg/m2 ), visceral fat area, and muscle density...
February 26, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Juha-Matti Lindholm, Ilkka Laine, Heli Hippala, Petteri Ylinen, Raimo Tuuminen
PURPOSE: Effective provision of eye care services in government-financed hospitals is essential to balance the discrepancy between growing demand and limited resources. We aimed to improve efficiency of the treatment protocol for Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Predetermined quality targets were a patient-oriented and patient-safe approach and the development of a clinical care process with purposeful use of competences. METHODS: We utilized a lean process improvement methodology to develop a streamlined Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy treatment protocol...
February 20, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Barbara Resnick, J Richard Hebel, Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Gregory E Hicks, Marc C Hochberg, Denise Orwig, Marty Eastlack, Jay Magaziner
The purpose of this study was to test a model of the factors influencing physical activity, physical function and physical performance at 2 months post hip fracture and compare model fit between men and women. Age, cognitive status, comorbidities, pain, resilience, bone mineral density, total body lean mass, total body fat and grip strength were hypothesized to be directly and/or indirectly related to physical activity, physical function and physical performance. This analysis used data from the seventh Baltimore Hip Studies (BHS-7), a prospective cohort study that included 258 community-dwelling participants, 125 (48%) men and 133 (52%) women, hospitalized for treatment of a hip fracture; survey and objective data were obtained at 2 months post hip fracture...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Jing Li, Preetham Talari, Andrew Kelly, Barbara Latham, Sherri Dotson, Kim Manning, Lisa Thornsberry, Colleen Swartz, Mark V Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations and the need to accelerate redesign of delivery models to be team-based and patient-centred, professional silos and cultural and structural barriers that inhibit working together and communicating effectively still predominate in the hospital setting. Aiming to improve team-based rounding, we developed, implemented and evaluated the Interprofessional Teamwork Innovation Model (ITIM). METHODS: This quality improvement (QI) study was conducted at an academic medical centre...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
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