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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#1
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343697/effluent-and-serum-protein-n-glycosylation-is-associated-with-inflammation-and-peritoneal-membrane-transport-characteristics-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#2
Evelina Ferrantelli, Karima Farhat, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Karli R Reiding, Robert H J Beelen, Frans J van Ittersum, Manfred Wuhrer, Viktoria Dotz
Mass spectrometric glycomics was used as an innovative approach to identify biomarkers in serum and dialysate samples from peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. PD is a life-saving treatment worldwide applied in more than 100,000 patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. PD treatment uses the peritoneum as a natural membrane to exchange waste products from blood to a glucose-based solution. Daily exposure of the peritoneal membrane to these solutions may cause complications such as peritonitis, fibrosis and inflammation which, in the long term, lead to the failure of the treatment...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330527/aquaglyceroporin-pbaqp-is-required-for-efficient-progression-through-the-liver-stage-of-plasmodium-infection
#3
Dominique Promeneur, Godfree Mlambo, Peter Agre, Isabelle Coppens
The discovery of aquaglyceroporins (AQP) has highlighted a new mechanism of membrane solute transport that may hold therapeutic potential for controlling parasitic infections, including malaria. Plasmodium parasites express a single AQP at the plasma membrane that functions as a channel for water, nutrients and waste into and out cells. We previously demonstrated that Plasmodium berghei targeted for PbAQP deletion are deficient in glycerol import and less virulent than wild-type parasites during the blood developmental stage...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322250/lactate-metabolism-historical-context-prior-misinterpretations-and-current-understanding
#4
REVIEW
Brian S Ferguson, Matthew J Rogatzki, Matthew L Goodwin, Daniel A Kane, Zachary Rightmire, L Bruce Gladden
Lactate (La-) has long been at the center of controversy in research, clinical, and athletic settings. Since its discovery in 1780, La- has often been erroneously viewed as simply a hypoxic waste product with multiple deleterious effects. Not until the 1980s, with the introduction of the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle did a paradigm shift in our understanding of the role of La- in metabolism begin. The evidence for La- as a major player in the coordination of whole-body metabolism has since grown rapidly. La- is a readily combusted fuel that is shuttled throughout the body, and it is a potent signal for angiogenesis irrespective of oxygen tension...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275545/application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-the-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels-during-opening-of-blood-brain-barrier-mechanisms-of-brain-clearing
#5
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Arkady Abdurashitov, Alexander Dubrovsky, Denis Bragin, Olga Bragina, Nataliya Shushunova, Galina Maslyakova, Nikita Navolokin, Alla Bucharskaya, Valery Tuchin, Juergen Kurths, Alexander Shirokov
The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260406/feasibility-study-for-production-and-quality-control-of-yb-175-as-a-byproduct-of-no-carrier-added-lu-177-preparation-for-radiolabeling-of-dotmp
#6
Nafise Salek, Simindokht Shirvani Arani, Ali Bahrami Samani, Sara Vosoghi, Mohsen Mehrabi
Skeletal uptake of β- emitters of DOTMP complexes is used for the bone pain palliation. In this study, two moderate energy β- emitters, 177Lu (T1/2 = 6.7 days, Eβmax = 497 keV) and 175Yb (T1/2 = 4.2 days, Eβmax = 480 keV), are considered as potential agents for the development of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Since the specific activity of the radiolabelled carrier molecules should be high, the non-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides have an effective role in nuclear medicine...
December 19, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208974/bioaccumulation-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-product-chemicals-in-fish-exposed-to-wastewater-effluent-in-an-urban-wetland
#7
Derek Muir, Denina Simmons, Xiaowa Wang, Tom Peart, Maria Villella, Jason Miller, Jim Sherry
The bioaccumulation of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and personal care product chemicals (PPCPs) was studied in Cootes Paradise Marsh (CPM), an urban wetland that receives tertiary treated municipal waste waters as well as urban storm runoff. We measured PPCPs in caged and wild goldfish, as well as wild carp, and compared observed bioaccumulation factors (BAFP) using concentrations in surface waters and fish blood plasma, with modeled BAFs. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in water from the central CPM site (CPM3) while 64 PPCPs were found at higher concentrations at a site immediately downstream of the effluent outflow (CPM1)...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201470/a-novel-mutation-of-the-cyp11b2-in-a-saudi-infant-with-primary-hypoaldosteronism
#8
Lama Alfaraidi, Abrar Alfaifi, Rawan Alquaiz, Faten Almijmaj, Horia Mawlawi
Isolated hypoaldosteronism is a rare autosomal recessive disease presenting with severe salt wasting and failure to thrive in infancy. A 6-month-old Saudi girl born to consanguineous parents was referred from primary health care for failure to thrive and developmental delay. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis with high renin and low aldosterone. Blood samples were collected for endocrine and genetic studies. Sequence analysis of the CYP11B2 revealed a T to A transition at position 1398 + 2 in exon 8 of the gene in a homozygous state (c...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200531/a-composite-smeared-finite-element-for-mass-transport-in-capillary-systems-and-biological-tissue
#9
M Kojic, M Milosevic, V Simic, E J Koay, J B Fleming, S Nizzero, N Kojic, A Ziemys, M Ferrari
One of the key processes in living organisms is mass transport occurring from blood vessels to tissues for supplying tissues with oxygen, nutrients, drugs, immune cells, and - in the reverse direction - transport of waste products of cell metabolism to blood vessels. The mass exchange from blood vessels to tissue and vice versa occurs through blood vessel walls. This vital process has been investigated experimentally over centuries, and also in the last decades by the use of computational methods. Due to geometrical and functional complexity and heterogeneity of capillary systems, it is however not feasible to model in silico individual capillaries (including transport through the walls and coupling to tissue) within whole organ models...
September 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198036/detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-and-hbsag-from-postmortem-blood-and-bloodstains
#10
Junpei Hara, Yuka Tanaka, Hiroto Kaneko, Yoshito Itoh, Hiroshi Ikegaya
A large number of accidental virus infections occur in medical and non-medical workers exposed to infectious individuals and materials. We evaluated whether postmortem blood and bloodstains containing hepatitis B virus (HBV) are infectious. HBV-infected blood and bloodstains were stored for up to 60 days at room temperature and subsequently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA. In addition, HBV-positive postmortem blood was added to a cell line and the production of HBV virions was examined over a period of 7 days...
December 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185179/enniatin-b-and-ochratoxin-a-in-the-blood-serum-of-workers-from-the-waste-management-setting
#11
Susana Viegas, Bernd Osteresch, Ana Almeida, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Carla Viegas
The waste management occupational environment is recognized by the simultaneous presence of several substances and biologic agents. Therefore, workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in one Portuguese waste sorting plant was already reported. However, besides this mycotoxin, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected. A study was developed to analyze if exposure to other mycotoxins besides aflatoxin B1 was occurring in the workers from the waste sorting plant previously assessed and to discuss how these findings need to be considered in the risk assessment process...
November 29, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130500/purification-characterization-and-application-of-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-from-andrias-davidianus-blood
#12
Jinjin Pei, Zhenzhen Feng, Ting Ren, Haiyan Sun, Hao Han, Wengang Jin, Jun Dang
The Andrias davidianus has been known as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Its blood is considered as a waste or by-product of the meat production industry. Although there are reports on isolation of the antimicrobial peptides from different resources, there are no reports of their isolation from Andrias davidianus blood. In this work, an antimicrobial peptide, andricin B, was isolated from the blood of Andrias davidianus by an innovative method in which the magnetic liposome adsorption was combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
November 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124388/measuring-the-impact-of-olive-pomace-enriched-biscuits-on-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-activity-in-mildly-hypercholesterolaemic-subjects
#13
Lorenza Conterno, Francesca Martinelli, Matteo Tamburini, Francesca Fava, Andrea Mancini, Maddalena Sordo, Massimo Pindo, Stefan Martens, Domenico Masuero, Urska Vrhovsek, Claudia Dal Lago, Gabriele Ferrario, Mario Morandini, Kieran Tuohy
PURPOSE: Olive pomace is a major waste product of olive oil production but remains rich in polyphenols and fibres. We measured the potential of an olive pomace-enriched biscuit formulation delivering 17.1 ± 4.01 mg/100 g of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives, to modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota. METHODS: In a double-blind, controlled parallel dietary intervention 62 otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic (total plasma cholesterol 180-240 mg/dl) subjects were randomly assigned to eat 90 g of olive pomace-enriched biscuit (olive-enriched product, OEP) or an isoenergetic control (CTRL) for 8 weeks...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110778/more-than-a-drainage-fluid-the-role-of-csf-in-signaling-in-the-brain-and-other-effects-on-brain-tissue
#14
Sebastian Illes
Current progress in neuroscience demonstrates that the brain is not an isolated organ and is influenced by the systemic environment and extracerebral processes within the body. In view of this new concept, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important body fluids linking extracerebral and intracerebral processes. For decades, substantial evidence has been accumulated indicating that CSF modulates brain states and influences behavior as well as cognition. This chapter provides an overview of how CSF directly modulates the function of different types of brain cells, such as neurons, neural stem cells, and CSF-contacting cells...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090028/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-statins-on-post-surgical-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Abkhiz Saeed, Valizade Hasanloei Mohammad Amin, Mahoori Alireza, Hooshiar Hadi, Alizadeh Osalou Rahimeh
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is the sudden and almost complete loss of renal function with reduced glomerular filtration rate, and it occurs whenever the kidneys are unable to excrete metabolic waste products. METHOD: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university educational hospital. After randomization with a random assigning table of numbers, patients were divided into two groups: an intervention group and a control group...
June 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073058/big-data-modeling-to-predict-platelet-usage-and-minimize-wastage-in-a-tertiary-care-system
#16
Leying Guan, Xiaoying Tian, Saurabh Gombar, Allison J Zemek, Gomathi Krishnan, Robert Scott, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Robert J Tibshirani, Tho D Pham
Maintaining a robust blood product supply is an essential requirement to guarantee optimal patient care in modern health care systems. However, daily blood product use is difficult to anticipate. Platelet products are the most variable in daily usage, have short shelf lives, and are also the most expensive to produce, test, and store. Due to the combination of absolute need, uncertain daily demand, and short shelf life, platelet products are frequently wasted due to expiration. Our aim is to build and validate a statistical model to forecast future platelet demand and thereby reduce wastage...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067695/towards-bedside-washing-of-stored-red-blood-cells-a-prototype-of-a-simple-apparatus-based-on-microscale-sedimentation-in-normal-gravity
#17
G Khanal, R A Huynh, K Torabian, H Xia, E Vörös, S S Shevkoplyas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infusion of by-products of red blood cell (RBC) storage-induced degradation as well as of the residual plasma proteins and the anticoagulant-preservative solution contained in units of stored blood serve no therapeutic purpose and may be harmful to some patients. Here, we describe a prototype of a gravity-driven system for bedside washing of stored RBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored RBCs were diluted to 10% haematocrit (Hct) with normal saline, matching the conventional washing procedure...
October 25, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064875/perioperative-patient-blood-management-to-improve-outcomes
#18
Neel Desai, Nick Schofield, Toby Richards
Anemia is common in elective surgery and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Historical management of anemia has focused on the use of allogeneic blood transfusion but this in itself is not without risk. It too has been independently associated with morbidity and mortality, let alone the costs and relative shortage of this resource. In recognition of this, patient blood management (PBM) shifts the focus from the product to the patient and views the patient's own blood as a resource that should be conserved and managed appropriately as a standard of care...
October 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056892/antithrombotic-mechanism-of-polysaccharides-in-blackberry-rubus-spp-seeds
#19
Jinmei Wang, Pengli Lian, Qi Yu, Jinfeng Wei, Wenyi Kang
The blackberry seed was typically removed as a byproduct and waste from blackberry fruits for juices. Developing value-added utilization of berry seeds will significantly expand the market for berry products as well as improve benefit to berry producers. However, the research on blackberry seed is limited. The objective of this paper was to research antithrombotic mechanism of polysaccharides in blackberry seeds. Polysaccharides in blackberry seeds were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPSEC), gas chromatography (GC), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR)...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039724/paravascular-spaces-at-the-brain-surface-low-resistance-pathways-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow
#20
Beatrice Bedussi, Mitra Almasian, Judith de Vos, Ed VanBavel, Erik Ntp Bakker
Clearance of waste products from the brain is of vital importance. Recent publications suggest a potential clearance mechanism via paravascular channels around blood vessels. Arterial pulsations might provide the driving force for paravascular flow, but its flow pattern remains poorly characterized. In addition, the relationship between paravascular flow around leptomeningeal vessels and penetrating vessels is unclear. In this study, we determined blood flow and diameter pulsations through a thinned-skull cranial window...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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