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Blood product waste

Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Crystal A West, Jennifer M Sasser, Chris Baylis
Pregnancy is characterized by avid renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion in the presence of decreased blood pressure. Decreased maternal blood pressure is a consequence of reduced systemic vascular tone which results from an increased production of vasodilators (nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and relaxin) and decreased vascular responsiveness to the potent vasoconstrictor (angiotensin II (Ang II)). The kidneys participate in this vasodilatory response resulting in marked increases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during pregnancy...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jessica R Terrill, Marisa N Duong, Rufus Turner, Caroline Le Guiner, Amber Boyatzis, Anthony J Kettle, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species...
August 30, 2016: Redox Biology
Patrizia Proia, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Gabriella Schiera, Anna Fricano, Italia Di Liegro
More than two hundred years after its discovery, lactate still remains an intriguing molecule. Considered for a long time as a waste product of metabolism and the culprit behind muscular fatigue, it was then recognized as an important fuel for many cells. In particular, in the nervous system, it has been proposed that lactate, released by astrocytes in response to neuronal activation, is taken up by neurons, oxidized to pyruvate and used for synthesizing acetyl-CoA to be used for the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Brian T Grimberg, Kerry O Grimberg
Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Kishor K Sivaraj, Ralf H Adams
In addition to their conventional role as a conduit system for gases, nutrients, waste products or cells, blood vessels in the skeletal system play active roles in controlling multiple aspects of bone formation and provide niches for hematopoietic stem cells that reside within the bone marrow. In addition, recent studies have highlighted roles for blood vessels during bone healing. Here, we provide an overview of the architecture of the bone vasculature and discuss how blood vessels form within bone, how their formation is modulated, and how they function during development and fracture repair...
August 1, 2016: Development
Qian Zhang, Michele Doucet, Ryan E Tomlinson, Xiaobin Han, L Darryl Quarles, Michael T Collins, Thomas L Clemens
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which ectopic production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by non-malignant mesenchymal tumors causes phosphate wasting and bone fractures. Recent studies have implicated the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in other phosphate wasting disorders caused by elevated FGF23, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemia. Here we provide evidence that HIF-1α mediates aberrant FGF23 in TIO by transcriptionally activating its promoter...
2016: Bone Research
S K Makkar, N C Rath, B Packialakshmi, Z Y Zhou, G R Huff, A M Donoghue
Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition...
2016: PloS One
Huandan Yang, Bingbing Zhu, Ruifeng Zhang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the abrupt inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete waste products and regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. This results in an at least partially reversible increase in the blood concentration of creatinine and nitrogenous waste products. Moreover, medication eliminated via renal routes will accumulate that in turn result in a "second hit" to the already injured kidneys. Furthermore, fluid management and nutrition will be hampered by oliguria...
July 21, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
P Bhagavath, B S Nayak, N Pf Monteiro, G P Kumar
Kidneys are the organs that remove the waste products of the metabolic activities. A smooth blood flow to the kidneys is essential to maintain their function. Abnormalities of the renal vasculature may result not only in impairing the renal function but can lead to conditions like varicocele. During an autopsy of an adult male, we observed renal vascular variations. The left renal vein had a retro-aortic course before its termination into the inferior vena cava. It was joined with the inferior vena cava at the level of inferior mesenteric artery with an acute angle...
October 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
Cedric J Simon, Tania C Mendo, Bridget S Green, Caleb Gardner
Mortality events during live transport of Jasus edwardsii rock lobsters are common around the time of season openings in Tasmania, with lobsters from deeper fishing areas with pale shell colouration (brindle) being perceived as more susceptible than shallow-water, red-coloured (red) lobsters. The aims of this study were to assess and predict the vulnerability of brindle and red lobsters to extended emersion exposure using pre- and post-emersion data which included 28 haemolymph biochemical parameters and 5 behaviour traits...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Christian Lange, Erik Storkebaum, Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar, Mieke Dewerchin, Peter Carmeliet
Brain function critically relies on blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients, to establish a barrier for neurotoxic substances, and to clear waste products. The archetypal vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, arose in evolution as a signal affecting neural cells, but was later co-opted by blood vessels to regulate vascular function. Consequently, VEGF represents an attractive target to modulate brain function at the neurovascular interface. On the one hand, VEGF is neuroprotective, through direct effects on neural cells and their progenitors and indirect effects on brain perfusion...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Miao Zheng, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga
LYVE-1, a receptor molecule for hyaluronan, is expressed in the lymphatic endothelium, blood sinus endothelium, and certain macrophage lineages. The present immunohistochemical study revealed a broader distribution of LYVE-1 in vascular endothelial cells of the murine lung, adrenal gland, and heart as well as the liver and spleen. In addition, sinus reticular cells-including sinuslining cells-in the medulla of the lymph node also intensely expressed LYVE-1. Ultrastructurally, immuno-gold particles for LYVE-1 were localized on the entire length of plasma membrane in all cell types...
2016: Biomedical Research
Maksim Agaronov, Anthony DiBattista, Ellen Christenson, Richard Miller-Murphy, Donna Strauss, Beth H Shaz
BACKGROUND: To alleviate the shortage of AB plasma, an alternative plasma product, low-titer group A plasma (LTGAP), is now available. The product is indicated for emergency transfusions when the patient's blood group has not been identified. The product's defining anti-B titers vary across institutions, and at our blood center we define <1:100 as low-titer. METHODS: We created two surveys and emailed them to hospital blood bank managers, supervisors, and medical directors who currently use LTGAP and those that have not ordered it...
August 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
T V Surendra, Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Makuteswaran Sridharan
Most of the wastes emitted from the food processing industries are not utilized for any further purpose. The economic value of the food waste is very less when compared to the collection or reuse or discard. To increase the economic value we have to design the food waste as useful product or applicable in most of the current field. Nothing is waste in this world with this concept we have investigated the phytochemical analysis of drumstick peel (Moringa oleifera). The result supports the presence of phenols, alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides and tannins...
August 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Barbee Whitaker, Srijana Rajbhandary, Steven Kleinman, Andrea Harris, Naynesh Kamani
BACKGROUND: AABB surveyed AABB institutional members about their 2013 blood collection, transfusion, and patient blood management (PBM) programs. Results were compared with previous US national surveys. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2013 AABB Blood Collection, Utilization, and Patient Blood Management Survey was distributed to AABB blood centers (79) and hospitals (1068). Statistical procedures were used to estimate blood collection and transfusion. RESULTS: Estimated whole blood (WB) and red blood cell (RBC) collections in 2013 totaled 13...
September 2016: Transfusion
Rajini Kurup, Audrey Anderson, Cecil Boston, Lynn Burns, Marian George, Marana Frank
BACKGROUND: Blood is a valuable resource and blood wastage in a low socio economic country could impose a very serious impact on healthcare. This study therefore analyzes the usage and wastage of blood and blood products at the Georgetown Public Hospital Cooperation (GPHC), Guyana. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on the data retrieved from laboratory blood banking information system on usage and wastage of blood products during the years 2012-2014 at the public hospital...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Rosa de Hoz, Blanca Rojas, Ana I Ramírez, Juan J Salazar, Beatriz I Gallego, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
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