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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874068/identification-of-inhibitors-that-dually-target-the-new-permeability-pathway-and-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-in-the-blood-stage-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#1
Benjamin K Dickerman, Brendan Elsworth, Simon A Cobbold, Catherine Q Nie, Malcolm J McConville, Brendan S Crabb, Paul R Gilson
Plasmodium parasites are responsible for the devastating disease malaria that affects hundreds of millions of people each year. Blood stage parasites establish new permeability pathways (NPPs) in infected red blood cell membranes to facilitate the uptake of nutrients and removal of parasite waste products. Pharmacological inhibition of the NPPs is expected to lead to nutrient starvation and accumulation of toxic metabolites resulting in parasite death. Here, we have screened a curated library of antimalarial compounds, the MMV Malaria Box, identifying two compounds that inhibit NPP function...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858271/pilot-study-on-the-internal-exposure-to-heavy-metals-of-informal-level-electronic-waste-workers-in-agbogbloshie-accra-ghana
#2
Jürgen Wittsiepe, Torsten Feldt, Holger Till, Gerd Burchard, Michael Wilhelm, Julius N Fobil
Informal-level electronic waste (e-waste)-processing activities are performed at hotspots in developing countries such as India, China, and Ghana. These activities increase the ambient burden of heavy metals and contribute to the toxic exposure of the general population. However, few data exist on the internal exposure of populations involved in these informal activities and in close contact with fumes from the direct combustion of electronic waste products in these countries. Therefore, in a cross-sectional study design, we analyzed blood, urine, and hair samples from 75 e-waste workers residing in and/or working on a large e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and compared the results against those of 40 individuals living in a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832278/il-17a-promotes-rantes-expression-but-not-il-16-in-orbital-fibroblasts-via-cd40-cd40l-combination-in-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#3
Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Sisi Zhong, Yidan Zhang, Xingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Ping Gu, Huifang Zhou, Xianqun Fan
Purpose: This present study aims to investigate the phenotype of IL-17A-producing T cells in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and the role of IL-17A on RANTES and IL-16 expression in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from TAO patients. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from TAO patients and healthy controls and were subjected to ELISA and flow cytometry analysis. Primary human OFs cultured from surgical wastes were stimulated with IL-17A in the presence or absence of CD40L and were examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blotting, and apoptosis assays...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829507/environmental-risk-assessment-of-wastewaters-from-printed-circuit-board-production-a-multibiomarker-approach-using-human-cells
#4
Marko Gerić, Goran Gajski, Višnja Oreščanin, Ana-Marija Domijan, Robert Kollar, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
Since the production of printed circuit boards (PCBs) generates wastewater contaminated with heavy metals and organic matter, PCB factories represent potential pollution sites. The wastewater toxicologically tested in this study contained several metals and the most abundant were copper and iron. At two exposure times tested (4 and 24 h) PCB wastewater (PCBW) proved to be cytotoxic (decreased cell viability) and genotoxic (increased comet assay tail intensity and tail moment) to human blood peripheral lymphocytes in vitro, and the oxidative stress parameter (malondialdehyde concentration) was also found to be higher...
November 6, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809749/fish-hydrolysates-a-regulatory-perspective-of-bioactive-peptides
#5
Bert Gevaert, Lieselotte Veryser, Frederick Verbeke, Evelien Wynendaele, Bart De Spiegeleer
For the first time introduced on the Japanese market, bioactive fish hydrolysates are now available all over the world as food supplements, functional food ingredients or nutricosmeceuticals. They are generally produced from low value fish waste, an almost inexhaustible source of raw material, and are sold as high value products, making them economically interesting from a manufacturer's view point. Most of these products have health or structure/function claims on their packages with different actions like antihypertensive, blood-glucose lowering, anxiolytic and skin anti-aging activities...
November 2, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807831/quantitative-clinical-imaging-methods-for-monitoring-intratumoral-evolution
#6
Joo Yeun Kim, Robert A Gatenby
Solid tumors are multiscale, open, complex, dynamic systems: complex because they have many interacting components, dynamic because both the components and their interactions can change with time, and open because the tumor freely communicates with surrounding and even distant host tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that striking intratumoral variations are commonly observed in clinical imaging such as MRI and CT and that several recent studies found striking regional variations in the molecular properties of cancer cells from the same tumor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799782/cancer-fundamentals-behind-ph-targeting-and-the-double-edged-approach
#7
Tomas Koltai
The highly regulated pH of cells and the less-regulated pH of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) is the result of a delicate balance between metabolic processes and proton production, proton transportation, chemical buffering, and vascular removal of waste products. Malignant cells show a pronounced increase in metabolic processes where the 10- to 15-fold rise in glucose consumption is only the tip of the iceberg. Aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) is one of the hallmarks of cancer metabolism that implies excessive production of protons, which if stayed inside the cells would result in fatal intracellular acidosis (maintaining a strict acid-base balance is essential for the survival of eukaryotic cells)...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774614/blood-component-transfusion-and-wastage-rates-in-the-setting-of-massive-transfusion-in-three-regional-trauma-centers
#8
Nancy M Dunbar, Nicholas J Olson, Zbigniew M Szczepiorkowski, Eric D Martin, Ryan M Tysarcyk, Darrell J Triulzi, Louis H Alarcon, Mark H Yazer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) is to provide large quantities of blood products rapidly to exsanguinating patients. The expected rates of blood product transfusion and wastage in this setting have not been defined. This study was undertaken to assess the transfusion and wastage rates for bleeding patients requiring emergency issue of blood components at three American Level I trauma centers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Three hospitals participated, all of which are Level I trauma centers that have MTPs in place where uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs) can be ordered with or without platelets (PLTs), plasma, and cryoprecipitate...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765054/regulation-of-blood-flow-and-volume-exchange-across-the-microcirculation
#9
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759495/blood-borne-biomarkers-and-bioindicators-for-linking-exposure-to-health-effects-in-environmental-health-science
#10
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707703/the-enigma-of-continual-plasma-volume-expansion-in-pregnancy-critical-role-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system
#11
REVIEW
Crystal A West, Jennifer M Sasser, Chris Baylis
Pregnancy is characterized by avid renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion in the presence of decreased blood pressure. Decreased maternal blood pressure is a consequence of reduced systemic vascular tone, which results from an increased production of vasodilators [nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and relaxin] and decreased vascular responsiveness to the potent vasoconstrictor (angiotensin II). The kidneys participate in this vasodilatory response, resulting in marked increases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during pregnancy...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611888/levels-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-and-a-role-for-taurine-in-dystropathology-of-the-golden-retriever-muscular-dystrophy-dog-model-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#12
Jessica R Terrill, Marisa N Duong, Rufus Turner, Caroline Le Guiner, Amber Boyatzis, Anthony J Kettle, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species...
August 30, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598136/lactate-as-a-metabolite-and-a-regulator-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Patrizia Proia, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Gabriella Schiera, Anna Fricano, Italia Di Liegro
More than two hundred years after its discovery, lactate still remains an intriguing molecule. Considered for a long time as a waste product of metabolism and the culprit behind muscular fatigue, it was then recognized as an important fuel for many cells. In particular, in the nervous system, it has been proposed that lactate, released by astrocytes in response to neuronal activation, is taken up by neurons, oxidized to pyruvate and used for synthesizing acetyl-CoA to be used for the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530228/hemozoin-detection-may-provide-an-inexpensive-sensitive-1-minute-malaria-test-that-could-revolutionize-malaria-screening
#14
Brian T Grimberg, Kerry O Grimberg
Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#15
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486231/blood-vessel-formation-and-function-in-bone
#16
REVIEW
Kishor K Sivaraj, Ralf H Adams
In addition to their conventional role as a conduit system for gases, nutrients, waste products or cells, blood vessels in the skeletal system play active roles in controlling multiple aspects of bone formation and provide niches for hematopoietic stem cells that reside within the bone marrow. In addition, recent studies have highlighted roles for blood vessels during bone healing. Here, we provide an overview of the architecture of the bone vasculature and discuss how blood vessels form within bone, how their formation is modulated, and how they function during development and fracture repair...
August 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468359/the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activates-ectopic-production-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#17
Qian Zhang, Michele Doucet, Ryan E Tomlinson, Xiaobin Han, L Darryl Quarles, Michael T Collins, Thomas L Clemens
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which ectopic production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by non-malignant mesenchymal tumors causes phosphate wasting and bone fractures. Recent studies have implicated the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in other phosphate wasting disorders caused by elevated FGF23, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemia. Here we provide evidence that HIF-1α mediates aberrant FGF23 in TIO by transcriptionally activating its promoter...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463239/nutritional-supplement-of-hatchery-eggshell-membrane-improves-poultry-performance-and-provides-resistance-against-endotoxin-stress
#18
S K Makkar, N C Rath, B Packialakshmi, Z Y Zhou, G R Huff, A M Donoghue
Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441492/neonate-acute-kidney-injury-a-review
#19
Huandan Yang, Bingbing Zhu, Ruifeng Zhang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the abrupt inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete waste products and regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. This results in an at least partially reversible increase in the blood concentration of creatinine and nitrogenous waste products. Moreover, medication eliminated via renal routes will accumulate that in turn result in a "second hit" to the already injured kidneys. Furthermore, fluid management and nutrition will be hampered by oliguria...
July 21, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423291/oblique-retro-aortic-left-renal-vein-and-its-clinical-importance
#20
P Bhagavath, B S Nayak, N Pf Monteiro, G P Kumar
Kidneys are the organs that remove the waste products of the metabolic activities. A smooth blood flow to the kidneys is essential to maintain their function. Abnormalities of the renal vasculature may result not only in impairing the renal function but can lead to conditions like varicocele. During an autopsy of an adult male, we observed renal vascular variations. The left renal vein had a retro-aortic course before its termination into the inferior vena cava. It was joined with the inferior vena cava at the level of inferior mesenteric artery with an acute angle...
October 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
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