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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774232/multiple-origins-of-green-blood-in-new-guinea-lizards
#1
Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770454/streamlining-a-blood-center-and-hospital-transfusion-service-supply-chain-with-an-informatics-vendor-managed-inventory-solution-development-implementation-and-3-month-follow-up
#2
Hamilton C Tsang, Adam Garcia, Robert Scott, David Lancaster, Dianne Geary, Anh-Thu Nguyen, Raina Shankar, Leslie Buchanan, Tho D Pham
BACKGROUND: The ordering process at Stanford Health Care involved twice-daily shipments predicated upon current stock levels from the blood center to the hospital transfusion service. Manual census determination is time consuming and error prone. We aimed to enhance inventory management by developing an informatics platform to streamline the ordering process and reallocate staff productivity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The general inventory accounts for more than 50 product categories based on characteristics including component, blood type, irradiation status, and cytomegalovirus serology status...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764003/a-bioartificial-kidney-device-with-polarized-secretion-of-immune-modulators
#3
N V Chevtchik, M Mihajlovic, M Fedecostante, L Bolhuis-Versteeg, J Sastre Toraño, R Masereeuw, D Stamatialis
The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#4
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726891/understanding-the-role-of-the-perivascular-space-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#5
Rosalind Brown, Helene Benveniste, Sandra E Black, Serge Charpak, Martin Dichgans, Anne Joutel, Maiken Nedergaard, Kenneth J Smith, Berislav V Zlokovic, Joanna M Wardlaw
Small vessel diseases are a group of disorders that result from pathological alteration of the small blood vessels in the brain, including the small arteries, capillaries and veins. Of the 35-36 million people that are estimated to suffer from dementia worldwide, up to 65% have an SVD component. Furthermore, SVD causes 20-25% of strokes, worsens outcome after stroke and is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment and poor mobility. Yet the underlying cause(s) of SVD are not fully understood.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has confirmed enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) as a hallmark feature of SVD...
May 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710687/analysis-of-human-microcirculation-in-weightlessness-study-protocol-and-pre-study-experiments
#6
Nana-Yaw Bimpong-Buta, Peter Jirak, Bernhard Wernly, Michael Lichtenauer, Maryna Masyuk, Johanna Maria Muessig, Kristina Braun, Sema Kaya, Malte Kelm, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: In weightlessness, alterations in organ systems have been reported. The microcirculation consists of a network of blood vessels with diameters of a few μm. It is considered the largest part of the circulatory system of the human body and essential for exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. An investigation of the microcirculation in weightlessness seems warranted but has not yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we outline a study in which we will investigate the possible interrelations between weightlessness and microcirculation...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698503/gene-expression-profiles-of-immune-regulatory-genes-in-whole-blood-of-cattle-with-a-subclinical-infection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis
#7
Hyun-Eui Park, Hong-Tae Park, Young Hoon Jung, Han Sang Yoo
Johne's disease is a chronic wasting disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), resulting in inflammation of intestines and persistent diarrhea. The initial host response against MAP infections is mainly regulated by the Th1 response, which is characterized by the production of IFN-γ. With the progression of disease, MAP can survive in the host through the evasion of the host's immune response by manipulating the host immune response. However, the host response during subclinical phases has not been fully understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683439/perfusable-vascular-network-with-a-tissue-model-in-a-microfluidic-device
#8
Yuji Nashimoto, Yukako Teraoka, Ramin Banan Sadeghian, Akiko Nakamasu, Yuichiro Arima, Sanshiro Hanada, Hidetoshi Kotera, Koichi Nishiyama, Takashi Miura, Ryuji Yokokawa
A spheroid (a multicellular aggregate) is regarded as a good model of living tissues in the human body. Despite the significant advancement in the spheroid cultures, a perfusable vascular network in the spheroids remains a critical challenge for long-term culture required to maintain and develop their functions, such as protein expressions and morphogenesis. The protocol presents a novel method to integrate a perfusable vascular network within the spheroid in a microfluidic device. To induce a perfusable vascular network in the spheroid, angiogenic sprouts connected to microchannels were guided to the spheroid by utilizing angiogenic factors from human lung fibroblasts cultured in the spheroid...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682393/a-rare-anatomical-variation-of-the-termination-of-right-and-left-cephalic-veins
#9
Raymond Saa-Eru Maalman, Yaw Otchere Donkor, Ali M Ayamba, Jubilant Kwame Abledu
Clinically, the cephalic vein is preferred for haemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), to remove waste products from blood. The cut-down of cephalic vein in the deltopectoral groove is preferred when superior vena caval infusion is necessary. However, cephalic veins exhibit a wide array of developmental variations in terms of formation, course, and termination. In this report, we describe a case of an anomalous cephalic vein with a bifid course of terminations on both left and right upper limbs which has not been described by previous literature...
2018: Case Reports in Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626589/red-onion-scales-ameliorated-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-and-diabetic-nephropathy-in-wistar-rats-in-relation-to-their-metabolite-fingerprint
#10
Tarek Kamal Abouzed, María Del Mar Contreras, Kadry Mohamed Sadek, Moustafa Shukry, Doaa Abdel Hady, Wael Mohamed Gouda, Walied Abdo, Nasr Elsayed Nasr, Reham Hassan Mekky, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Khaled Abdel-Aleim Kahilo, Essam Abdel-Sattar
AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of red onion scales extract (ROS) against diabetic nephropathy, in relation to its metabolic profiling. METHODS: Four groups of male Wistar rats were assigned as follows; 1st untreated group, 2nd group (animals with diabetes) treated with streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) IP, 3rd group co-treated with ROS (150mg/kg + STZ, 50mg/kg) and 4th group co-treated with ROS by a dose (300mg/kg + STZ, 50mg/kg) daily...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619904/dynamics-of-evans-blue-clearance-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-into-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels-and-deep-cervical-lymph-nodes
#11
Marcela Maloveska, Jan Danko, Eva Petrovova, Lenka Kresakova, Katarina Vdoviakova, Alena Michalicova, Andrej Kovac, Veronika Cubinkova, Dasa Cizkova
Objectives Recently, it has been confirmed, that excess fluid and waste products from the brain are drained into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and afterwards cleared via the olfactory route and/or lymphatic vessels in the brain dura and corresponding extracranial lymphatic structures. Therefore, the aim of present study was to monitor time-dependent uptake of Evans blue (EB) tracer from subarachnoid space into the meningeal lymphatic vessels and extracranial lymph nodes in rats during 3 hours-12 days. Methods EB was injected into the cisterna magna of anesthetized rats and after required survival, plasma, brain dura matter and corresponding lymph nodes (cervical, thoracic and lumbar) were dissected and processed for lymphatic vessels analyses using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry...
April 5, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617642/the-science-and-translation-of-lactate-shuttle-theory
#12
REVIEW
George A Brooks
Once thought to be a waste product of anaerobic metabolism, lactate is now known to form continuously under aerobic conditions. Shuttling between producer and consumer cells fulfills at least three purposes for lactate: (1) a major energy source, (2) the major gluconeogenic precursor, and (3) a signaling molecule. "Lactate shuttle" (LS) concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signaling. In medicine, it has long been recognized that the elevation of blood lactate correlates with illness or injury severity...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610928/brain-drains-new-insights-into-brain-clearance-pathways-from-lymphatic-biology
#13
REVIEW
Neil I Bower, Benjamin M Hogan
The lymphatic vasculature act as the drainage system for most of our tissues and organs, clearing interstitial fluid and waste and returning them to the blood circulation. This is not the case for the central nervous system (CNS), which is devoid of parenchymal lymphatic vessels. Nevertheless, the brain is responsible for 25% of the body's metabolism and only compromises 2% of the body's mass. This high metabolic load requires an efficient system to remove waste products and maintain homeostasis. Well-described mechanisms of waste clearance include phagocytic immune cell functions as well as perivascular fluid flow; however, the need for active drainage of waste from the brain is becoming increasingly appreciated...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604374/insulin-delivery-systems-combined-with-microneedle-technology
#14
Xuan Jin, Dan Dan Zhu, Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xin Dong Guo
Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs...
March 28, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596815/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-piperacillin-and-tazobactam-by-rp-hplc-of-residual-blood-specimens
#15
Sylvia M Verhoven, Joseph J Groszek, William H Fissell, Adam Seegmiller, Jennifer Colby, Pratish Patel, Alain Verstraete, Matthew Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common diagnosis in critical care with inpatient mortality rates up to 50%. Sepsis care is organized around source control, antibiotics, and supportive care. Drug disposition is deranged by changes in volume of distribution and regional blood flow, as well as multiple organ failure. Thus, assuring that each patient with sepsis attains pharmacokinetic targets is challenging. There is currently no commercially available FDA-approved assay to measure piperacillin-tazobactam, very commonly used as a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
March 26, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578495/laser-doppler-a-tool-for-measuring-pancreatic-islet-microvascular-vasomotion-in-vivo
#16
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bingwei Li, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Fei Shang, Ailing Li, Hongwei Li, Ruijuan Xiu
As a functional status of microcirculation, microvascular vasomotion is important for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products. The impairment of microvascular vasomotion might be a crucial step in the development of microcirculation-related diseases. In addition, the highly vascularized pancreatic islet is adapted to support endocrine function. In this respect, it seems possible to infer that the functional status of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion might affect pancreatic islet function...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547732/macroscopic-characteristics-of-the-umbilical-cord-in-standardbred-thoroughbred-and-warmblood-horses
#17
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
March 7, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536638/management-of-hunting-waste-as-control-measure-for-tuberculosis-in-wild-ungulates-in-south-central-spain
#18
D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516503/blood-product-transfusion-and-wastage-rates-in-obstetric-hemorrhage
#19
Mark H Yazer, Nancy M Dunbar, Claudia Cohn, Jessica Dillon, Howida Eldib, Bryon Jackson, Richard Kaufman, Michael F Murphy, Kerry O'Brien, Jay S Raval, Jansen Seheult, Julie Staves, Jonathan H Waters
BACKGROUND: Bleeding emergencies can complicate pregnancies. Understanding the disposition of the products that are issued in this clinical setting can help inform inventory levels at hospitals where obstetric patients are seen. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients who had an obstetric hemorrhage of any etiology between January 2013 and June 2017, and whose resuscitation began with uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs) or emergency-issued plasma or platelets (PLT), were included...
March 7, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513032/tumor-oxygenation-and-cancer-therapy-then-and-now
#20
Veronica S Hughes, Jennifer M Wiggins, Dietmar W Siemann
In 2012, cancer affected 14.1 million people worldwide and was responsible for 8.2 million deaths. The disease predominantly affects aged populations and is one of the leading causes of death in most western countries. In tumors, the aggressive growth of the neoplastic cell population and associated overexpression of pro-angiogenic factors lead to the development of disorganized blood vessel networks that are structurally and functionally different from normal vasculature. A disorganized labyrinth of vessels that are immature, tortuous and hyperpermeable typifies tumor vasculature...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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