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Enzymatic hydrolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921108/a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-derived-from-wheat-germ-prevents-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vitro
#1
Siyuan Chen, Dingbo Lin, Yulong Gao, Xiaozhou Cao, Xinchun Shen
The ingestion of whole wheat products is responsible for the prevention of a number of chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to characterize the molecular properties of a novel wheat germ-derived antioxidant peptide (AOP) in protection against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). AOP (amino acid sequence AREGETVVPG) was isolated from wheat germ albumin using dual-enzymatic hydrolysis/separation, followed by MS/MS. The in vitro IC50 value for Fe(2+) chelation was 0...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919810/immobilization-of-indigenous-holocellulase-on-iron-oxide-fe2o3-nanoparticles-enhanced-hydrolysis-of-alkali-pretreated-paddy-straw
#2
Ajay Kumar, Surender Singh, Rameshwar Tiwari, Renu Goel, Lata Nain
The holocellulase from Aspergillus niger SH3 was characterized and found to contain 125 proteins including cellulases (26), hemicellulases (21), chitinases (10), esterases (6), amylases (4) and hypothetical protein (32). The crude enzyme was immobilized on five different nanoparticles (NPs) via physical adsorption and covalent coupling methods. The enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (ENC) were screened for protein binding, enzymatic activities and immobilization efficiency. Magnetic enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (MENC) formulation showed higher immobilization efficiency (60- 80%) for most of the enzymes...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919544/dual-effect-of-soluble-materials-in-pretreated-lignocellulose-on-simultaneous-saccharification-and-co-fermentation-process-for-the-bioethanol-production
#3
Lei Qin, Xia Li, Li Liu, Jia-Qing Zhu, Qi-Man Guan, Man-Tong Zhang, Wen-Chao Li, Bing-Zhi Li, Ying-Jin Yuan
In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary...
November 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917379/current-understanding-of-the-correlation-of-lignin-structure-with-biomass-recalcitrance
#4
REVIEW
Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas
Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresources to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917366/penicillin-acylase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-n-bromoacetyl-7-aminocephalosporanic-acid-the-key-intermediate-for-the-production-of-cefathiamidine
#5
Xiao-Li Zhang, Min-Hua Zong, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic approaches have become promising alternatives to chemical methods for the production of semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics. In this work, enzymatic synthesis of N-bromoacetyl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (N-bromoacetyl-7-ACA), the key intermediate for the production of cefathiamidine, was reported for the first time. RESULTS: Of the immobilized penicillin acylases (PAs) tested, PGA-750 was the best biocatalyst. Optimization of the biocatalytic process was conducted...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917179/evaluation-of-relationships-between-growth-rate-tree-size-lignocellulose-composition-and-enzymatic-saccharification-in-interspecific-corymbia-hybrids-and-parental-taxa
#6
Adam L Healey, David J Lee, Jason S Lupoi, Gabriella Papa, Joel M Guenther, Luca Corno, Fabrizio Adani, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Robert J Henry
In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915249/new-and-highly-active-microbial-phosphotriesterase-sources
#7
Julia Y Santillan, Lucas A Dettorre, Elizabeth S Lewkowicz, Adolfo M Iribarren
Many toxic insecticides used worldwide as well as some chemical warfare agents are phosphotriester derivatives. Therefore, detoxification of organophosphorus compounds has become the subject of many studies and in particular bioremediation, based on the phosphotriesterase catalysed hydrolysis of these compounds, has shown to be an effective and ecological methodology. In order to identify new bacterial phosphotriesterases, a simple and sensitive fluorimetric screening method on solid media was employed, that allowed the selection of 6 strains with phosphotriesterase activity...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913169/liquid-nitrogen-pretreatment-of-eucalyptus-sawdust-and-rice-hull-for-enhanced-enzymatic-saccharification
#8
Rafael Castoldi, Vanesa G Correa, Gutierrez Rodrigues de Morais, Cristina G M de Souza, Adelar Bracht, Rosely A Peralta, Regina F Peralta-Muniz Moreira, Rosane M Peralta
In this work, liquid nitrogen was used for the first time in the pretreatment of plant biomasses for purposes of enzymatic saccharification. After treatment (cryocrushing), the initial rates of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust and rice hull were increased more than ten-fold. Cryocrushing did not modify significantly the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both eucalyptus sawdust and rice hulls. However, substantial disorganization of the lignocellulosic materials in consequence of the pretreatment could be observed by electron microscopy...
November 25, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911925/attenuation-of-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-through-an-ahl-lactonase-produced-by-lysinibacillus-sp-gs50
#9
Sneha S Garge, Anuradha S Nerurkar
Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism in which Gram negative bacterial pathogens sense their population density through acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and regulate the expression of virulence factors. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs by lactonases, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is thus a potential strategy for attenuating QS regulated bacterial infections. We characterised the QQ activity of soil isolate Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 and explored its potential for controlling bacterial soft rot of crop plants. Lysinibacillus sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911800/an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-fold-protein-in-the-biosynthesis-of-thiostrepton-exhibits-a-dual-activity-for-endopeptidyl-hydrolysis-and-epoxide-ring-opening-macrocyclization
#10
Qingfei Zheng, Shoufeng Wang, Panpan Duan, Rijing Liao, Dandan Chen, Wen Liu
Thiostrepton (TSR), an archetypal bimacrocyclic thiopeptide antibiotic that arises from complex posttranslational modifications of a genetically encoded precursor peptide, possesses a quinaldic acid (QA) moiety within the side-ring system of a thiopeptide-characteristic framework. Focusing on selective engineering of the QA moiety, i.e., by fluorination or methylation, we have recently designed and biosynthesized biologically more active TSR analogs. Using these analogs as chemical probes, we uncovered an unusual indirect mechanism of TSR-type thiopeptides, which are able to act against intracellular pathogens through host autophagy induction in addition to direct targeting of bacterial ribosome...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#11
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910937/biohydrogen-production-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-food-waste-in-batch-and-continuous-systems
#12
Wei Han, Yingting Yan, Yiwen Shi, Jingjing Gu, Junhong Tang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905534/pore-scale-dynamics-of-enzyme-adsorption-swelling-and-reactive-dissolution-determine-sugar-yield-in-hemicellulose-hydrolysis-for-biofuel-production
#13
Sajal Kanti Dutta, Saikat Chakraborty
Hemicelluloses are the earth's second most abundant structural polymers, found in lignocellulosic biomass. Efficient enzymatic depolymerization of xylans by cleaving their β-(1 → 4)-glycosidic bonds to produce soluble sugars is instrumental to the cost-effective production of liquid biofuels. Here we show that the multi-scale two-phase process of enzymatic hydrolysis of amorphous hemicelluloses is dominated by its smallest scale-the pores. In the crucial first five hours, two to fourfold swelling of the xylan particles allow the enzymes to enter the pores and undergo rapid non-equilibrium adsorption on the pore surface before they hydrolyze the solid polymers, albeit non-competitively inhibited by the products xylose and xylobiose...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904411/synthesis-of-octyl-%C3%AE-glucoside-catalyzed-by-almond-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-unconventional-reaction-media
#14
Irina Mladenoska
The reaction system for octyl-β-glucoside synthesis catalysed by the almond-β-glucosidase has been characterised. The monophasic octanol saturated with different amounts of water served as a reaction medium. Both the glucose and the activated substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside were examined as glycon donors. The reverse hydrolysis and the transglycosylation were both used as reaction models for this enzymatically catalysed alkyl-β-glucoside synthesis. The rate of synthesis of octyl-β-glucoside (vS), the rate of hydrolysis, i...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900528/the-thermophilic-biomass-degrading-fungus-thielavia-terrestris-co3bag1-produces-a-hyperthermophilic-and-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanase-with-exo-and-endo-activity
#16
Yolanda García-Huante, Maribel Cayetano-Cruz, Alejandro Santiago-Hernández, Claudia Cano-Ramírez, Rodolfo Marsch-Moreno, Jorge E Campos, Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio, Claudia G Benitez-Cardoza, Sergio Trejo-Estrada, María Eugenia Hidalgo-Lara
A hyperthermophilic and thermostable xylanase of 82 kDa (TtXynA) was purified from the culture supernatant of T. terrestris Co3Bag1, grown on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and characterized biochemically. TtXynA showed optimal xylanolytic activity at pH 5.5 and at 85 °C, and retained more than 90% of its activity at a broad pH range (4.5-10). The enzyme is highly thermostable with a half-life of 23.1 days at 65 °C, and active in the presence of several metal ions. Circular dichroism spectra strongly suggest the enzyme gains secondary structures when temperature increases...
November 29, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898203/biorefining-of-lignocellulosic-feedstock-by-a-modified-ammonia-fiber-expansion-pretreatment-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-for-production-of-fermentable-sugars
#17
Birgit Kamm, Sebastian Leiß, Petra Schönicke, Matthias Bierbaum
Wheat straw was pretreated and afterwards enzymatically hydrolyzed using a modified ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process under different reaction conditions to produce fermentable sugars. Instead of liquid ammonia, aqueous ammonia (25 % w/v) was used to test its influence on the sugar concentration and yield of the sugars. It is shown that a protein extraction after the pretreatment can distinctly improve the result obtained for the enzymatic hydrolysis. This modified AFEX process using aqueous ammonia represents a simpler and less expensive variant of the AFEX process usually described in literature...
November 29, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897254/high-level-expression-of-improved-thermo-stable-alkaline-xylanase-variant-in-pichia-pastoris-through-codon-optimization-multiple-gene-insertion-and-high-density-fermentation
#18
Yihong Lu, Cheng Fang, Qinhong Wang, Yuling Zhou, Guimin Zhang, Yanhe Ma
In paper industry, xylanases are used to increase the pulp properties in bleaching process as its eco-friendly nature. The xylanases activity is hindered by high temperature and alkaline conditions with high enzyme production cost in the paper industry. Here, XynHB, an alkaline stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus HBP8 was mutated at N188A to XynHBN188A. Expressed mutant in E. coli showed 1.5-fold higher xylanase activity than XynHB at 60 °C. The mutant expressed in Pichia pastoris was glycosylated, remained stable for 30 min at 60 °C...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895853/expression-of-liver-alpha-amylase-in-obese-mouse-hepatocytes
#19
Zohreh Afsartala, Sanaz Savabkar, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Vahideh Assadollahi, Shima Tanha, Khosro Bijangi, Mohammadreza Gholami
AIM: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relation between the expression of liver alpha-amylase and obesity. BACKGROUND: Alpha-amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides and has three main subtypes, including: salivary, pancreatic, and hepatic. Hepatic alpha-amylase is involved in glycogen metabolism, and has a role in obesity and its management. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression of liver alpha-amylase in overweight and obese mouse...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895707/fungal-fermentation-on-anaerobic-digestate-for-lipid-based-biofuel-production
#20
Yuan Zhong, Zhiguo Liu, Christine Isaguirre, Yan Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestate is the effluent from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. It contains a significant amount of nutrients and lignocellulosic materials, even though anaerobic digestion consumed a large portion of organic matters in the wastes. Utilizing the nutrients and lignocellulosic materials in the digestate is critical to significantly improve efficiency of anaerobic digestion technology and generate value-added chemical and fuel products from the organic wastes...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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