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Enzymatic hydrolysis

Xiangrong Chen, Yijie Luo, Benkun Qi, Jianquan Luo, Yinhua Wan
Ultrasonic probe-assisted enzymolysis technology was developed to improve the hydrolysis efficiency of soy sauce residue (SSR). The effects of enzyme type and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters on the hydrolysis degree of SSR were studied firstly to obtain the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Then the effects of ultrasound on protease activity and structure of SSR were investigated to elucidate the acting mechanism of ultrasound. Finally, the ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis modes were designed and compared, and the hydrolysates from SSR were characterized to evaluate their further application...
October 15, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
R Rapini, A Cincinelli, G Marrazza
In this work, we propose an electrochemical DNA aptasensor for sensitive multidetection of acetamiprid based on a competitive format and disposable screen-printed arrays. To improve the sensitivity of the aptasensor, polyaniline film and gold nanoparticles were progressively electrodeposited on the graphite screen-printed electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry. Gold nanoparticles were then employed as platform for thiol-tethered DNA aptamer immobilization. Different acetamiprid solutions containing a fixed amount of biotinylated complementary oligonucleotide sequence by DNA aptasensor arrays were analyzed...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Shobini Jayaraman, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Lipids in the body are transported via lipoproteins that are nanoparticles comprised of lipids and amphipathic proteins termed apolipoproteins. This family of lipid surface-binding proteins is over-represented in human amyloid diseases. In particular, all major proteins of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including apoA-I, apoA-II and serum amyloid A, can cause systemic amyloidoses in humans upon protein mutations, post-translational modifications or overproduction. Here, we begin to explore how the HDL lipid composition influences amyloid deposition by apoA-I and related proteins...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
James A Shayman
Prostaglandins have been characterized as the metabolic products of arachidonic acid released from glycerophospholipids following hydrolysis by phospholipase A2s and enzymatic oxidation by the COX1 and COX2. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Liu et al. (2016) examine the metabolism of 2-arachidonoyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine and 2-arachidonoyl-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine by COX2 and conversion to glycerolipid linked prostanoids, raising a series of interesting and important questions.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Krzysztof Ziemiński, Monika Kowalska-Wentel
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp (SBP) pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2.5-mm particles resulted in the cumulative biogas productivity of 617.2 mL/g volatile solids (VS), which was 20.2 % higher compared to the biogas yield from the not pretreated SBP, and comparable to that from not ground, enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP...
October 20, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
James J Lischeske, Nathan C Crawford, Erik Kuhn, Nicholas J Nagle, Daniel J Schell, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan, Edward J Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/days continuous reactor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Intidhar Bkhairia, Rabeb Ben Slama Ben Salem, Rim Nasri, Mourad Jridi, Sofiane Ghorbel, Moncef Nasri
Bioactive Liza aurata protein hydrolysates (LAPHs) were prepared by treatment with Trypsine (PH-TR), Esperase (PH-ES), enzyme preparations from Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2 (PH-A2), Bacillus subtilis A26 (PH-A26) and Liza aurata (PH-LA). Their functional properties and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The hydrolysates had degree of hydrolysis (DH) values ranging from 8.15 % to 13.05 %. Reverse-phase HPLC analyses of the LAPHs showed considerable variation in peptide composition. All hydrolysates had high protein content (83...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Samiha Mhamdi, Naourez Ktari, Sawssen Hajji, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami Kamoun
The present study was undertaken to characterize the extracellular thermostable serine alkaline proteases from newly actinomycete strain Micromonospora chaiyaphumensis S103 and to describe their evaluation in commercial detergents and shrimp waste deproteinization. This proteolytic crude extract was active and stable in alkaline solution. It was extremely stable in the pH range of 5.0-12.0. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 70°C, respectively, using casein as a substrate. The thermoactivity and thermostability of proteases were enhanced by the addition of 5mM Ca(2+)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Meihui Chang, Xiaoyu Chu, Jinzhi Lv, Qingbin Li, Jian Tian, Ningfeng Wu
Pullulanase (EC plays an important role in the specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin. Enhancing its thermostability is required for its industrial application. In this study, rational protein design was used to improve the thermostability of PulB from Bacillus naganoensis (AB231790.1), which has strong enzymatic properties. Three positive single-site mutants (PulB-D328H, PulB-N387D, and PulB-A414P) were selected from six mutants. After incubation at 65°C for 5 min, the residual activities of PulB-D328H, PulB-N387D, and PulB-A414P were 4...
2016: PloS One
Anastasia V Balakireva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
R Pola, O Janoušková, T Etrych
Cytarabine is one of the most efficient drugs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of two different polymer conjugates of cytarabine that were designed for the controlled release of cytarabine within the leukemia cells. Reactive copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and 3-(3-methacrylamidopropa-noyl)thiazolidine-2-thione) or 3-(Nmethacryloylglycyl-phenylalanylleucylglycyl)thiazolidine-2-thione were used in the study as reactive polymer precursors for reaction with cytarabine...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Roent Dune A Cayetano, Tae Hyun Kim
Corn stover was treated using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) at controlled ammoniation temperature. Moisturized corn stover (50 % moisture) was contacted with anhydrous ammonia (0.1 g NH3/g-biomass) in a batch reactor at various temperatures (ambient to 150 °C). After ammoniation at elevated and controlled temperature, ammoniated corn stover was pretreated at various temperatures (60-150 °C) for 72-144 h. Change in composition was marginal at low pretreatment temperature but was relatively severe with pretreatment at high temperature (130-150 °C)...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shubhangi Rastogi, Raman Soni, Jaspreet Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar Soni
A natural variant of Pyrenophora phaeocomes isolated from natural biodiversity was able to grow on various agricultural residues by co-producing laccase, xylanase and mannanase. Solid state fermentation of rice straw induced the highest productivities corresponding to 10,859.51±46.74, 22.01±1.00 and 10.45±0.128IUgds(-1) for laccase, xylanase and mannanase respectively after 4days. Besides producing the ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktail, 40days cultivation of P. phaeocomes S-1 on rice straw brought about the 63 and 51% degradation of lignin and hemicellulose...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Paulina Jackowiak, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Blazewicz
Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing interest in the research of ribonucleic acids has been observed in response to a surprising discovery of the role that RNA molecules play in the biological systems. It was demonstrated that they do not only take part in the protein synthesis (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) but also are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Several classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered (e.g. microRNA, small interfering RNA, piwiRNA). Most of them are excised from specific double-stranded RNA precursors by enzymes that belong to the RNaseIII family (Drosha, Dicer or Dicer-like proteins)...
October 19, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Erika Camacho, Libia Sanz, Teresa Escalante, Alicia Pérez, Fabián Villalta, Bruno Lomonte, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Andrés Feoli, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play key biological roles in prey immobilization and digestion. The majority of these activities depend on the hydrolysis of relevant protein substrates in the tissues. Hereby, we describe several isoforms and a cDNA clone sequence, corresponding to PII SVMP homologues from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothriechis lateralis, which have modifications in the residues of the canonical sequence of the zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH. As a consequence, the proteolytic activity of the isolated proteins was undetectable when tested on azocasein and gelatin...
October 12, 2016: Toxins
Ruta Grinyte, Javier Barroso, Marco Möller, Laura Saa, Valeri Pavlov
Electrochemical detection strategies employing semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) open up new opportunities for highly sensitive detection of biological targets. We designed new a assay based on microbead linked enzymatic generation of CdS QDs (Microbead QD-ELISA) and employed it in optical and electrochemical affinity assays for the cancer biomarker superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Biotinylated antibodies against SOD2 were immobilized on the surface of polyvinyl chloride microbeads bearing streptavidin. In order to prevent any non specific adsorption the microbeads were further blocked with bovine serum albumin...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hai-Long Liu, Yu-Jie Chang, Ting Fan, Zhi-Yuan Gu
Stable 2-D metal-organic framework nanosheets were utilized as a superior clean-background matrix for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of small biomolecules and pollutants in both positive and negative ion modes. The matrix could unusually afford up to 1000 mM of the salt concentrations in the monitoring of the enzymatic hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Qiong Xiao, Qin Yin, Hui Ni, Huinong Cai, Changzheng Wu, Anfeng Xiao
Carboxyl functioned magnetic nanoparticles (CMNPs) were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spedtroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The prepared CMNPs were used for covalent immobilization of the arylsulfatase which could be applied in desulfation of agar. The optimal immobilizaion conditions were obtained as follows: glutaraldehyde concentration 1.0% (v/v), cross-linking time 3h, immobilization time 3h, immobilization temperature 5°C and enzyme dose 0...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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