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Enzymatic hydrolysis

Michele Silveira Coelho, Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares-Freitas, José Alfredo Gomes Arêas, Eliezer Avila Gandra, Myriam de Las Mercedes Salas-Mellado
In previous studies, it has not been reported that protein isolated from chia interferes favorably with antibacterial activity, and reduces cholesterol synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether commonly used commercial microbial proteases can be utilized to generate chia protein-based antibacterial and hypocholesterolemic hydrolysates/peptides, considering the effects of protein extraction method. Alcalase, Flavourzyme and sequential Alcalase-Flavourzyme were used to produce hydrolysates from chia protein (CF), protein-rich fraction (PRF) and chia protein concentrates (CPC1 and CPC2)...
April 20, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Berta N Estevinho, Nuria Samaniego, David Talens-Perales, Maria José Fabra, Amparo López-Rubio, Julio Polaina, Julia Marín-Navarro
Enzymatically-active bacterial cellulose (BC) was prepared by non-covalent immobilization of a hybrid enzyme composed by a β-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmLac) and a carbohydrate binding module (CBM2) from Pyrococcus furiosus. TmLac-CBM2 protein was bound to BC, with higher affinity at pH 6.5 than at pH 8.5 and with high specificity compared to the non-engineered enzyme. Both hydrated (HBC) and freeze-dried (DBC) bacterial cellulose showed equivalent enzyme binding efficiencies. Initial reaction rate of HBC-bound enzyme was higher than DBC-bound and both of them were lower than the free enzyme...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Luca Carena, Mariagrazia Proto, Marco Minella, Giovanni Ghigo, Cristina Giovannoli, Marcello Brigante, Gilles Mailhot, Valter Maurino, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione
The secondary pollutant 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is produced by the biological degradation of several herbicides, including propanil in paddy fields. The enzymatic hydrolysis of propanil yields DCA with almost quantitative yield. DCA undergoes rather fast photodegradation in paddy water, mostly by direct photolysis. An exception might be represented by the cases (rather rare in paddies) of quite high nitrate concentration (around 50 mgNO3- L-1), when DCA degradation by CO3·- would play a comparable role as the direct photolysis...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Courtney M Gardner, Carley A Gwin, Claudia K Gunsch
The use of transgenic crops has become increasingly common in the United States over the last several decades. Increasing evidence suggests that DNA may be protected from enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis in the digestive tract, suggesting that crop-derived transgenes may enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) intact. Given the historical use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers in transgenic crop development, it is important to consider the fate of these transgenes. Herein we detected and quantified crop-derived transgenes in WWTPs...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Shihui Yang, Mary Ann Franden, Qing Yang, Yat-Chen Chou, Min Zhang, Philip T Pienkos
The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yufei Nan, Lili Jia, Ming Yang, Donglin Xin, Yujie Qin, Junhua Zhang
In this work, a simplified and cost-effective chlorite pretreatment method to improve the hydrolysabiliy of biomass was developed. Compared to common used sodium chlorite-acetic acid (SCA) pretreatment (18.1%), sodium chlorite (SC) pretreatment resulted in less xylan loss (7.8%), thus led more carbohydrates retention. Moreover, the Chinese silvergrass pretreated by SC for 2 h achieved higher glucose yield (70.5%) than the substrate pretreated by SCA under the same pretreatment conditions did (58.7%), after 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ganggang Chong, Junhua Di, Cuiluan Ma, Dajing Wang, Chu Wang, Lingling Wang, Pengqi Zhang, Jun Zhu, Yucai He
In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na2 CO3 , 0.032% Na2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Peyman Mahmoodi, Keikhosro Karimi, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is dominated by carbohydrates, including starch-based and lignocellulosic materials. The OFMSW was hydrothermally pretreated at 100-160 °C for 0-60 min, and then assessed for enzymatic ethanol production, followed by biogas production from the stillage. The highest glucose yield of 520 g/Kg of dry OFMSW, corresponding to 131% increase compared to that of the untreated OFMSW, was obtained after the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Through ethanolic fermentation by an inhibitory tolerant fungus, Mucor indicus, 191...
April 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kevser Sabanci, Ali Oguz Buyukkileci
The effect of pretreatments on the composition of the hazelnut tree pruning residue (HTPR) and on the digestibility of the cellulose was investigated. The liquid hot water (LHW) and the very dilute acid (VDA) treatments were effective in solubilizing hemicellulose. The cellulose conversion increased up to around 60% (corresponding to 32-36 g/L glucose) with decreasing hemicellulose concentration in the pretreated HTPR. The alkali treatment provided partial delignification, however, the glucose production was comparably lower...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Quan Gan, Xinwei Zhang, Daobo Zhang, Liang Shi, Yue Zhou, Tongtong Sun, Song Jiang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
Sucrose is the most commonly transported sugar in plants and is easily assimilated by insects to fulfill the requirement of physiological metabolism. BmSuc1 is a novel animal β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase, EC gene that was firstly cloned and identified in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmSUC1 was presumed to play an important role in the silkworm-mulberry enzymatic adaptation system by effectively hydrolyzing sucrose absorbed from mulberry leaves. However, this has not been proved with direct evidence thus far...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Muhammad Rafehi, Christa E Müller
P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2Y4 , P2Y6 , P2Y11 , P2Y12 , P2Y13 , and P2Y14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose)...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Abdolkhalegh Golkar, Jafar M Milani, Todor Vasiljevic
Cow's milk-based infant formulas have a long tradition in infant nutrition, although some infants are unable to use them due to presence of several known allergens. Various processing methods have been identified capable of reducing cow's milk protein allergenicity including thermal and non-thermal methods and their combinations. Heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been in production of hypoallergenic infant formulas. However, modulation of allergenic epitopes depends on the extent of heat treatment applied, which consequently may also reduce a nutritional value of these proteins...
April 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tian Li, Nan Liu, Xianjin Ou, Xuebing Zhao, Feng Qi, Jianzhong Huang, Dehua Liu
Background: Cellulose accessibility to cellulases (CAC) is a direct factor determining the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic cellulose. Improving CAC by pretreatment is a prerequisite step for the efficient release of fermentable sugars from biomass cell wall. However, conventional methods to study the porosimetry of solid materials showed some limitations to be used for investigating CAC. In this work, an updated novel fusion protein comprising a fungal cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Cel7A cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) of Trichoderma reesei QM6 and a di-green fluorescent protein (GFP2 ) was constructed for quantitative determination of CAC...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ao-Lin Li, Xue-Dan Hou, Kai-Peng Lin, Xuan Zhang, Ming-Hui Fu
Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is a promising and challenging process for production of biofuels and valuable platform chemicals. In this work, rice straw was mainly fractionated into carbohydrate-rich materials (CRMs) and lignin-rich materials (LRMs) by 90% lactic acid/choline chloride (LC)-water solution with different molar ratio of hydrogen bond donor (HBD, lactic acid) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA, choline chloride). It was found that high HBD/HBA molar ratio of DESs was favorable for achieving CRMs and LRMs with high purity, and both HBD and HBA were responsible for effective biomass fractionation possibly due to their synergistic effect on highly efficient breakage of the linkage between hemicellulose and lignin and thus lignin extraction...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jing Du, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Yu Deng, Zhaofeng Li, Caiming Li, Zhengbiao Gu
The effects of an enzyme-assisted fermentation technique on the water holding capacity (WHC) and drying characteristics of potato pulp were investigated. Potato pulp was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum to increase the content of organic acids, reduce the pH of the pulp and assist in enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis. Removal of pectin and cellulose reduced the WHC of potato pulp from 16.84 to 6.83 and 9.64 g/g, respectively. Drying characteristics were determined using the air-drying process, which indicated that pectinase-assisted fermentation could remove pectin from potato pulp and shorten the air-drying time from 240 to 140 min, while cellulase had an opposite effect on the drying rate...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Libo Zhang, Wenxiu Zheng, Ziming Wang, Yubo Ma, Ling Jiang, Tianfu Wang
The aim of this work was to study the degradation of lignin in raw wood via pretreatment with heteropoly acids as substitutes for traditional H2 SO4 in γ-valerolactone/water. By optimizing catalyst concentration, reaction time and temperature, the optimal lignin degradation conditions are obtained (130 °C, 3 h and 20 mM silicotungstic acid). SEM and FTIR measurements demonstrated the efficient lignin degradation ability of HPAs in the GVL/H2 O solvent, with negligible damage to cellulose within the raw wood...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Alsu R Mukhametshina, Svetlana V Fedorenko, Alexey M Petrov, Guzel F Zakyrjanova, Konstantin A Petrov, Leniz F Nurullin, Irek R Nizameev, Asiya R Mustafina, Oleg G Sinyashin
The present work for the first time introduces nanosensors for luminescent monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine (AСh) released in neuromuscular junctions of isolated muscles. The sensing function results from the quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to proton-induced degradation of luminescent Tb(III) complexes doped into silica nanoparticles (SNs, 23 nm), when acetic acid is produced from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh. The targeting of the silica nanoparticles by α-bungarotoxin was used for selective staining of the synaptic space in the isolated muscles by the nanosensors...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanzi Liu, Peixu Cong, Beijia Li, Yu Song, Yanjun Liu, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
BACKGROUND: Antarctic krill is a huge source of biomass and prospective high-quality lipid source. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), nutritionally important lipid components with poor oxidative stability, were used as markers of oxidation during thermal processing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal by evaluating the lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and non-enzymatic browning reactions. RESULT: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the phospholipids (PLs) and the main oxidation products of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was effective for evaluating the oxidation of EPA and DHA...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shuai Yuan, Sen Yin, Ming Liu, Jian-Qiang Kong
Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are bidirectional biocatalysts catalyzing the glycosylation of diverse molecules. However, the extensive applications of GTs in glycosides formation are limited due to their requirements of expensive nucleotide diphosphate (NDP)-sugars or NDP as the substrates. Here, in an effort to characterize flexible GTs for glycodiversification of natural products, we isolated a cDNA, designated as OcUGT1 from Ornithogalum caudatum, which encoded a flavonoid GT that was able to catalyze the trans-glycosylation reactions, allowing the formation of glycosides without the additions of NDP-sugars or NDP...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Apichai Sawisit, Surawee Jampatesh, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Kaemwich Jantama
Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) before subsequent use for succinate production by Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The NaOH pretreated rice straw was significantly enhanced lignin removal up to 95%. With the optimized enzyme loading of 4% cellulase complex + 0.5% xylanase (endo-glucanase 67 CMC-U/g, β-glucosidase 26 pNG-U/g and xylanase 18 CMC-U/g dry biomass), total sugar conversion reached 91.7 ± 0.8% (w/w). The physicochemical analysis of NaOH pretreated rice straw indicated dramatical changes in its structure, thereby favoring enzymatic saccharification...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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