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Enzymatic hydrolysis

Manish Salgaonkar, Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The multi-enzyme biocatalyst allows to run in vitro multi-step cascade reactions in a single pot. An efficient combi-metal organic frameworks (combi-MOF) of α-amylase and glucoamylase for one pot starch hydrolysis was constructed by mixing zinc acetate and 2‑methylimmidazole with enzyme mixture in one pot under biocompatible conditions. The prepared combi-MOF was characterized and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Anastasiya D Zubkova, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Elena S Odintsova, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their posttranslational modified forms play pivotal roles in chromatin functioning and gene transcription. Also, histones are harmful when they enter the intercellular space; their administration to animals results in systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies having enzymatic activities (abzymes) are the specific feature of several autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical proteases were purified from sera of HIV-infected patients by using several affinity chromatographies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Jinjian Huang, Youming Deng, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Gefei Wang, Feng Wang, Xiuwen Wu
Injectable hydrogels have been an attractive topic in biomaterials. However, during gelation in vivo, they are easy to disperse due to tissue exudates, thus leading to failure of controlled drug release. To solve this problem, we present a novel polysaccharide-based injectable hydrogel via self-crosslinking of aldehyde-modified xanthan (Xan-CHO) and carboxymethyl-modified chitosan (NOCC). The physical properties were optimized by adjusting the mass ratio of Xan-CHO and NOCC. Experiments revealed that this material exhibited the characteristics of self-healing, anti-enzymatic hydrolysis, biocompatibility and biodegradability...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yu-Di Hsu, Yu-Fen Huang, Yih-Jiuan Pan, Li-Kun Huang, Ya-Yun Liao, Wei-Hua Lin, Tzu-Yin Liu, Ching-Hung Lee, Rong-Long Pan
Plant vacuolar H + -transporting inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-PPase; EC is a crucial enzyme that exists on the tonoplast to maintain pH homeostasis across the vacuolar membrane. This enzyme generates proton gradient between cytosol and vacuolar lumen by hydrolysis of a metabolic byproduct, pyrophosphate (PP i ). The regulation of V-PPase at protein level has drawn attentions of many workers for decades, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this work, we show that AVP1, the V-PPase from Arabidopsis thaliana, is a target protein for regulatory 14-3-3 proteins at the vacuolar membrane, and all twelve 14-3-3 isoforms were analyzed for their association with AVP1...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Tae Il Kim, Dong Hyun Lim, Kwang Soo Baek, Sun Sik Jang, Beom Young Park, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan
The important platform polysaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used in the fields of food, cosmetics, agricultural, pharmaceutical, medicine and biotechnology. This GlcNAc is being produced by traditional methods of environment-unfriendly chemical digestion with strong acids. Therefore, researchers have been paying more attention to enzymatic hydrolysis process for the production of GlcNAc. Hence, in this study, we isolated novel chitinase (Escherichia fergusonii) and chitosanase (Chryseobacterium indologenes, Comamonas koreensis) producing strains from Korean native calves feces, and developed the potential of an eco-friendly microbial progression for GlcNAc production from swollen chitin and chitosan by enzymatic degradation...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Background: Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. Results: The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Damiana Pieragostino, Ilaria Cicalini, Paola Lanuti, Eva Ercolino, Maria di Ioia, Mirco Zucchelli, Romina Zappacosta, Sebastiano Miscia, Marco Marchisio, Paolo Sacchetta, Marco Onofrj, Piero Del Boccio
Multiple Sclerosis (MuS) is a complex multifactorial neuropathology, resulting in heterogeneous clinical presentation. A very active MuS research field concerns the discovery of biomarkers helpful to make an early and definite diagnosis. The sphingomyelin pathway has emerged as a molecular mechanism involved in MuS, since high levels of ceramides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were related to axonal damage and neuronal dysfunction. Ceramides are the hydrolysis products of sphingomyelins through a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes named sphingomyelinases, which were recently related to myelin repair in MuS...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiefen Cui, Yinping Li, Shixin Wang, Yongzhou Chi, Hueymin Hwang, Peng Wang
The sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PE) are a potential source of anticoagulant agents. In this study, the PE was degraded by specific degradase and five hydrolysis products with different molecular weights were prepared. The product of 206 kDa is a kind of high rhamnose-containing polysaccharide with sulfate ester (34.29%). It could effectively prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), which indicated inhibition of the intrinsic coagulation pathway. The artificial neural network (ANN) was built to realize the directional preparation of anticoagulant-active polysaccharides...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diego Esposito, Regina A Günster, Luigi Martino, Kamel El Omari, Armin Wagner, Teresa L M Thurston, Katrin Rittinger
The Salmonella secreted effector SseK3 translocates into host cells, targeting innate immune responses including NF-κB activation. SseK3 is a glycosyltransferase that transfers an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety onto the guanidino group of a target arginine, modulating host cell function. However, a lack of structural information has precluded elucidation of the molecular mechanisms in arginine and GlcNAc selection. We report here the crystal structure of SseK3 in its apo form and in complex with hydrolysed UDP-GlcNAc...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prabha Dwivedi, Xiaoliu Zhou, Tolar G Powell, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye
Human exposure to consumer and personal care products chemicals such as phenols, including parabens and other antimicrobial agents, can be assessed through biomonitoring by quantifying urinary concentrations of the parent chemical or its metabolites, often after hydrolysis of phase II conjugates. Developing suitable analytical methods for the concurrent quantification of multiple exposure biomarkers is challenging because optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of such conjugates (e.g., O-glucuronides, N-glucuronides, sulfates) may differ depending on the biomarker...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Kejing Zhang, Mengying Si, Dan Liu, Shengnan Zhuo, Mingren Liu, Hui Liu, Xu Yan, Yan Shi
Background: The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing into biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild yet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to pretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism through conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Priscilla Vergara, Mateusz Wojtusik, Esteban Revilla, Miguel Ladero, Felix Garcia-Ochoa, Juan C Villar
The fractionation of wheat straw by ethanol-water (EW) pre-treatment was studied regarding its main operating conditions: time, temperature, L/S ratio and ethanol percentage were optimized by using an orthogonal experimental design (Taguchi). Afterwards, diluted sulfuric acid (DSA) hydrolysis and EW treatments have been compared in terms of energy consumption and yield of a cellulosic solid residue able to be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose. Experimental results show that temperature is the only variable of EW with a significant effect on the quality of the pretreated solids...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
L García-Calvo, R V Ullán, M Fernández-Aguado, A M García-Lino, R Balaña-Fouce, C Barreiro
Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source in the planet, which makes it a potential substrate for biorefinery. It consists of polysaccharides and other molecules with applications in pharmaceutical, food and feed, cosmetics, paper and textile industries. The exploitation of these resources requires the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall, which is a complex process. Aiming to discover novel fungal natural isolates with lignocellulolytic capacities, a screening for feruloyl esterase activity was performed in samples taken from different metal surfaces...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Barbara Prandi, Stefania Baldassarre, Neha Babbar, Elena Bancalari, Pieter Vandezande, David Hermans, Geert Bruggeman, Monica Gatti, Kathy Elst, Stefano Sforza
Pectin oligosaccharides (POS) have been indicated as a new class of potential prebiotic compounds, which can be produced from pectin-rich food byproducts. In the present study, different technological means of POS production were explored to produce tailor-made POS mixtures starting from sugar beet pulp. The overall POS production process consisted of two steps: the extraction of pectin and the hydrolysis of pectin to tailored POS by combined hydrolysis/fractionation approaches. Different extraction as well as hydrolysis and fractionation methodologies were applied...
February 13, 2018: Food & Function
Augusta Caligiani, Angela Marseglia, Giulia Leni, Stefania Baldassarre, Lara Maistrello, Arnaldo Dossena, Stefano Sforza
Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) constitutes an economic way to convert residual biomasses into a valuable source of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of applying different extraction protocols, either chemical extractions or enzymatic assisted extraction, to recover pure fat, protein and chitin fractions. First, exact proximate composition, total amino acids, fatty acids profile, and N-acetylglucosamine content of the prepupae samples were determined...
March 2018: Food Research International
R D Singh, J Banerjee, S Sasmal, J Muir, A Arora
In the present work, xylan from arecanut husk was extracted using 2 stage alkaline pretreatment process. In first step, biomass was incubated in alkali at different temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C), alkali concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v), and incubation periods (8 h, 16 h and 24 h) and evaluated for xylan recovery. It was observed that 40-52% of available xylan could be recovered using 10% alkali when incubated for 8-24 h at 65 °C. Subsequently, the alkali pretreatment operating conditions which provided good xylan recovery were processed further using hydrothermal treatment to extract more xylan...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Min Liu, Qiang Yong, Shiyuan Yu
Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a powerful antioxidant, clears free radicals and exhibits many biological activities. Because contents of HT are low in natural sources, bioconversion of oleuropein (OLE) to HT is of increasing interest. A biotechnological process was investigated to produce HT from OLE presented in olive leaf extract. Enzymatic hydrolysis using two cellulases with high BG activity, Novozymes CTec2 and commercial cellulase KDN (Qingdao, China), was carried out at 50 °C for 12 h followed by raising the temperature to 90 °C for chemical hydrolysis...
February 10, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Luis A Bello-Perez, Pamela C Flores-Silva, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Juscelino Tovar
In the last century, starch present in foods was considered to be completely digested. However, during the eighties, studies on starch digestion started to show that besides digestible starch, which could be rapidly or slowly hydrolysed, there was a variable fraction that resisted hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. That fraction was named resistant starch (RS) and it encompasses those forms of starch that are not accessible to human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota, producing short chain fatty acids...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
In Yung Sunwoo, Nguyen Trung Hau, Chae Hun Ra, Gwi-Taek Jeong, Sung-Koo Kim
The optimal conditions for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production were evaluated using waste seaweed from Gwangalli Beach, Busan, Korea. The waste seaweed had a fiber and carbohydrate, content of 48.34%; these are the main resources for ABE production. The optimal conditions for obtaining monosaccharides based on hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of waste seaweed were slurry contents of 8%, sulfuric acid concentration of 138 mM, and treatment time of 10 min. Enzymatic saccharification was performed using 16 unit/mL Viscozyme L, which showed the highest affinity (K m  = 1...
February 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shan Yan, Peng-Cheng Wei, Qiao Chen, Xin Chen, Shi-Cheng Wang, Jia-Ru Li, Chuan Gao
Saponins are natural glycosides widely used in medicine and the food industry. Although saponin metabolism in human is dependent on intestinal microbes, few involving bacteria enzymes have been identified. We cloned BlBG3, a GH3 β-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium longum, from human stool. We found that BlBG3 catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycoside furostanol and ginsenoside Rb1 at higher efficiency than other microbial β-glucosidases. Structural analysis of BlBG3 in complex with d-glucose revealed its three unique loops, which form a deep pocket and participate in substrate binding...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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