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Enzymatic hydrolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647876/characteristics-and-effects-of-dissolved-organic-phosphorus-from-different-sources-on-the-water-quality-of-erhai-lake-in-southwest-china
#1
Ningning Ji, Shengrui Wang, Li Zhang, Zhaokui Ni
To establish the influence of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) from different sources on the water quality of Erhai Lake in August 2014, enzymatic hydrolysis technology was used to characterize enzymatically hydrolyzable phosphorus (EHP). The results indicate that the DOP represents a significant source of the bioavailable P in the lake water and its different sources of Erhai Lake, and the bioavailability of the P pool may be underestimated by up to 55% if DOP is ignored and only the soluble-reactive phosphorus (SRP) is considered...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647665/comparative-metabolism-of-ddao-benzoate-in-liver-microsomes-from-various-species
#2
Hong-Ying Ma, Jia-Da Yang, Jie Hou, Li-Wei Zou, Qiang Jin, Da-Cheng Hao, Jing Ning, Guang-Bo Ge, Ling Yang
DDAB (6,8-dichloro-9,9-dimethyl-7-oxo-7,9-dihydroacridin-2-yl benzoate) is a newly developed near-infrared fluorescent probe for human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), exhibiting high specificity and good reactivity for real-time monitoring the enzymatic activities of hCE2 in complex biological systems. In order to explore the applicability of DDAB in commonly used animal species, the interspecies difference in DDAB hydrolysis was carefully investigated by using liver microsomes from human and five experimental animals including mouse, rat, dog, minipig and monkey...
June 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647525/catalytic-hydrolysis-of-starch-for-biohydrogen-production-by-using-a-newly-identified-amylase-from-a-marine-bacterium-catenovulum-sp-x3
#3
Yi-Rui Wu, Aihua Mao, Chongran Sun, Sabarathinam Shanmugam, Jin Li, Mingqi Zhong, Zhong Hu
An identified cold-adaptive, organic solvents-tolerant alkaline α-amylase (HP664) from Catenovulum sp. strain X3 was heterologously expressed and characterized in E. coli, and it was further applied to starch saccharification for biohydrogen production. The recombinant HP664 belongs to a member of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), with a molecular weight of 69.6kDa without signal peptides, and also shares a relatively low similarity (49%) to other reported amylases. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the maximal enzymatic activity of HP664 was observed at 35°C and pH 9...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646668/%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-aspergillus-lacticoffeatus-a-promising-biocatalyst-for-the-synthesis-of-novel-prebiotics
#4
Beatriz B Cardoso, Sara C Silvério, Luís Abrunhosa, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642968/enhancing-the-enzymatic-saccharification-of-bamboo-shoot-shell-by-sequential-biological-pretreatment-with-galactomyces-sp-cczu11-1-and-deep-eutectic-solvent-extraction
#5
Yong Dai, Hai-Sheng Zhang, Bin Huan, Yucai He
In this study, sequential biological pretreatment (BP) with Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 at 30 °C for 3 days and deep eutectic solvent (DES) choline chloride: oxalic acid (ChCl:OA, 1 mol/2 mol) extraction at 120 °C for 1.5 h was used for pretreating BSS. It was found that combination pretreatment could effectively remove xylan and lignin for enhancing enzymatic saccharification. The reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 100 g/L pretreated BSS with complexed cellulases of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 were obtained in the yields of 81...
June 22, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642038/functional-characterization-of-21-allelic-variants-of-dihydropyrimidinase
#6
Eiji Hishinuma, Fumika Akai, Yoko Narita, Masamitsu Maekawa, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano, Akifumi Oda, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP, EC 3.5.2.2), encoded by the gene DPYS, is the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of pyrimidine and of fluoropyrimidine drugs such as 5-fluorouracil, which are commonly used in anticancer treatment; DHP catalyzes the hydrolytic ring opening of dihydrouracil and dihydro-5-fluorouracil. DPYS mutations are known to contribute to interindividual variations in the toxicity of fluoropyrimidine drugs, but the functional characterization of DHP allelic variants remains inadequate. In this study, in vitro analysis was performed on 22 allelic variants of DHP by transiently expressing wild-type DHP and 21 DHP variants in 293FT cells and characterizing their enzymatic activities by using dihydrouracil and dihydro-5-fluorouracil as substrates...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639649/computational-design-of-cephradine-synthase-in-a-new-scaffold-identified-from-structural-databases
#7
Xiaoqiang Huang, Jing Xue, Yushan Zhu
Computational enzyme design exhibits excellent performance for identifying potential scaffolds from structural databases and creating new enzymatic catalysts from naught. Using the active site-matching algorithm ProdaMatch, we identified a new scaffold cocaine esterase from Rhodococcus sp. that showed modest activity (kcat/Km = 0.018 M(-1) s(-1)) towards the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotic cephradine. The identified cocaine esterase scaffold afforded low sequence identity (<30%) with the known β-lactam synthases, such as penicillin G acylase or α-amino acid ester hydrolase, and was able to catalyze the condensation reaction between d-dihydrophenylglycine methyl ester and 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid to produce cephradine via a kinetically controlled synthesis...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639309/improved-enzymatic-performance-of-graphene-immobilized-%C3%AE-glucosidase-a-in-the-presence-of-glucose-6-phosphate
#8
Anderson Albino Gomes, Elisa Pazinatto Telli, Luiz Claudio Miletti, Everton Skoronski, Marcos Gomes Ghislandi, Gustavo Felippe da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Borba Magalhães
Optimization of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial for cost effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Enzyme immobilization in solid support allows enzyme recycling for reuse, lowering hydrolysis costs. Graphene is a nanomaterial isolated in 2004, which possesses exceptional properties for biomolecule immobilization. This study evaluates the potential for β-glucosidase recycling by immobilization on graphene nanosheets. Data reported here demonstrated that graphene immobilized β-glucosidase can be recycled for at least eight cycles...
June 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638985/glucuronidation-of-deoxynivalenol-don-by-different-animal-species-identification-of-iso-don-glucuronides-and-iso-deepoxy-don-glucuronides-as-novel-don-metabolites-in-pigs-rats-mice-and-cows
#9
Heidi E Schwartz-Zimmermann, Christian Hametner, Veronika Nagl, Iris Fiby, Lukas Macheiner, Janine Winkler, Sven Dänicke, Erica Clark, James J Pestka, Franz Berthiller
The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i...
June 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638776/synthetic-approaches-for-the-preparation-of-phosphoramidate-prodrugs-of-2-deoxypseudoisocytidine
#10
Michaela Serpi, Roberto De Biasi, Fabrizio Pertusati, Magdalena Slusarczyk, Christopher McGuigan
A synthetic procedure for the preparation of phosphoramidate prodrugs of C-nucleosides is reported. Different phosphorochloridates were reacted with 3'-O-protected N-acetyl-2'-deoxypseudoisocytidine or 3'-O-protected 2'-deoxypseudoisocytidine, followed by acidic hydrolysis of the protecting group. In the presence of the N-acetyl moiety, the enolisable keto group of the nucleobase was able to react (like the 5'-OH) with the phosphorochloridates to give bisphosphorylated derivatives. Epimerisation (β to α) occurred if the amino group of the nucleobase was unprotected...
June 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636912/channeling-of-camp-in-pde-pka-complexes-promotes-signal-adaptation
#11
Nikhil Kumar Tulsian, Srinath Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand
Spatiotemporal control of the cAMP signaling pathway is governed by both hormonal stimulation of cAMP generation by adenylyl cyclases (activation phase) and cAMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (termination phase). The termination phase is initiated by PDEs actively targeting the protein kinase A (PKA) R-subunit through formation of a PDE-PKAR-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) complex (the termination complex). Our results using PDE8 as a model PDE, reveal that PDEs mediate active hydrolysis of cAMP bound to its receptor RIα by enhancing the enzymatic activity...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636431/enhanced-production-of-raw-starch-degrading-enzyme-using-agro-industrial-waste-mixtures-by-thermotolerant-rhizopus-microsporus-for-raw-cassava-chip-saccharification-in-ethanol-production
#12
Srisakul Trakarnpaiboon, Nantana Srisuk, Kuakoon Piyachomkwan, Kenji Sakai, Vichien Kitpreechavanich
In the present study, solid state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to non-sterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial wastes ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran: corncob: cassava bagasse at 8 g: 10 g: 2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201...
June 21, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634326/a-chrysoporthe-cubensis-enzyme-cocktail-produced-from-a-low-cost-carbon-source-with-high-biomass-hydrolysis-efficiency
#13
Thiago Rodrigues Dutra, Valéria Monteze Guimarães, Ednilson Mascarenhas Varela, Lílian da Silva Fialho, Adriane Maria Ferreira Milagres, Daniel Luciano Falkoski, José Cola Zanuncio, Sebastião Tavares de Rezende
Low cost and high efficiency cellulolytic cocktails can consolidate lignocellulosic ethanol technologies. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is a low cost agro-industrial residue, and its use as a carbon source can reduce the costs of fungi cultivation for enzyme production. Chrysoporthe cubensis grown under solid state fermentation (SSF) with wheat bran has potential to produce efficient enzymatic extracts for SCB saccharification. This fungus was grown under submersed fermentation (SmF) and SSF with in natura SCB, pretreated with acid or alkali and with others carbon sources...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633930/phospholipase-a2-in-the-venom-of-three-cottonmouth-snakes
#14
Ying Jia, Boris Ermolinsky, Aryana Garza, Daniele Provenzano
Two phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), Asp49 (D49) and Lys49 (K49), were purified by one-step reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the venom of each of the three subspecies of cottonmouth snake, Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma; Apl), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus; App) and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti; Apc). Venom protein profiles and PLA2s elution pattern of the three cottonmouth snakes were remarkably similar displaying four similar sharp and two wide peaks; in all cases K49 PLA2 eluted first followed by D49 PLA2...
June 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631814/germination-assisted-enzymatic-hydrolysis-can-improve-the-quality-of-soybean-protein
#15
Hui Yang, Xin Li, Jinyan Gao, Ping Tong, Anshu Yang, Hongbing Chen
This study aimed to investigate the effects of combined germination and Alcalase hydrolysis on the quality of soybean protein. Protein profiles, water solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties, thixotropic properties, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were tested, the chemical score (CS), essential amino acid index (EAAI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of soybean protein were also defined. The combined treatment of germination and Alcalase hydrolysis remarkably improved the solubility, emulsification activity index, emulsion stability index, and foaming capacity of soybean protein...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629408/biochemical-characterization-of-an-enantioselective-esterase-from-brevundimonas-sp-ly-2
#16
Jing Zhang, Mengjun Zhao, Die Yu, Jingang Yin, Hao Zhang, Xing Huang
BACKGROUND: Lactofen, a member of the diphenylether herbicides, has high activity and is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds. As a post-emergent herbicide, it is directly released to the environment, and easily caused the pollution. This herbicide is degraded in soil mainly by microbial activity, but the functional enzyme involved in the biodegradation of lactofen is still not clear now. RESULTS: A novel esterase gene lacH, involved in the degradation of lactofen, was cloned from the strain Brevundimonas sp...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629110/recycling-the-liquid-fraction-of-alkaline-hydrogen-peroxide-in-the-pretreatment-of-corn-stover
#17
Bárbara Ribeiro Alves Alencar, Alexandre Libanio Silva Reis, Raquel de Fatima Rodrigues de Souza, Marcos Antônio Morais, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Emmanuel Damilano Dutra
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of recycling the liquid fraction of pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) on the hydrolysis of corn stover. Corn stover was pretreated in the traditional condition with 7.5% v/v H2O2. After pretreatment, the solids were separated from the liquid fraction and five successive reuse cycles of the liquid fraction were tested. The solid fraction from pretreatment in each recycle was submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis. The number of recycles had a linear negative effect (R(2)=0...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629048/fabrication-and-investigation-of-a-biocompatible-microfilament-with-high-mechanical-performance-based-on-regenerated-bacterial-cellulose-and-bacterial-cellulose
#18
Huan-Ling Wu, David H Bremner, Hai-Jun Wang, Jun-Zi Wu, He-Yu Li, Jian-Rong Wu, Shi-Wei Niu, Li-Min Zhu
A high-strength regenerated bacterial cellulose (RBC)/bacterial cellulose (BC) microfilament of potential use as a biomaterial was successfully prepared via a wet spinning process. The BC not only consists of a 3-D network composed of nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers but also has a secondary structure consisting of highly oriented nanofibrils with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers which explains the reason for the high mechanical strength of BC. Furthermore, a strategy of partially dissolving BC was used and this greatly enhanced the mechanical performance of spun filament and a method called post-treatment was utilized to remove residual solvents from the RBC/BC filaments...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628976/effective-enzymatic-in-situ-saccharification-of-bamboo-shoot-shell-pretreated-by-dilute-alkalic-salts-sodium-hypochlorite-sodium-sulfide-pretreatment-under-the-autoclave-system
#19
Gang-Gang Chong, Yu-Cai He, Qiu-Xiang Liu, Xiao-Qin Kou, Xiao-Jun Huang, Jun-Hua Di, Cui-Luan Ma
In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na2S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na2S media could be obtained at 31...
June 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627805/predicting-the-enzymatic-hydrolysis-half-lives-of-new-chemicals-using-support-vector-regression-models-based-on-stepwise-feature-elimination
#20
Wanxiang Shen, Tao Xiao, Shangying Chen, Feng Liu, Yu Zong Chen, Yuyang Jiang
The enzymatic hydrolysis of chemicals, which is important for in vitro drug metabolism assays, is an important indicator of drug stability profiles during drug discovery and development. Herein, we employed a stepwise feature elimination (SFE) method with nonlinear support vector machine regression (SVR) models to predict the in vitro half-lives in human plasma/blood of various esters. The SVR model was developed using public databases and literature-reported data on the half-lives of esters in human plasma/blood...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Informatics
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