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Enzymatic hydrolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822953/xylanase-from-acinetobacter-pittii-mask-25-and-developed-magnetic-cross-linked-xylanase-aggregate-produce-predominantly-xylopentose-and-xylohexose-from-agro-biomass
#1
Anjali Purohit, Shushil Kumar Rai, Manisha Chownk, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Sudesh Kumar Yadav
Most of the chemical and biochemical processes used for the de-polymerization of structural polymers of lignocellulosic biomass are environment unfriendly and costly. Here an efficient process based on xylanase, produced by Acinetobacter pittii MASK25 (MTCC 25132), hydrolysis of only physically treated rice straw and corn cob has been developed for the production of xylooligosaccharides. Bacterial strain isolated from soil was found to produce maximum xylanase at 30°C and pH 7. While the optimum temperature and pH of xylanase were characterized as 40°C and 5...
August 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821099/xyloglucan-gelation-induced-by-enzymatic-degalactosylation-kinetics-and-the-effect-of-the-molar-mass
#2
Caroline Novak Sakakibara, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Christophe Chassenieux, Taco Nicolai, Rilton Alves de Freitas
Gelation kinetics of aqueous solutions of xyloglucan (XG) extracted from H. courbaril seeds were investigated, in-situ, during enzymatic removal of galactose units by oscillatory shear rheological measurements, at different XG and enzyme (β-galactosidase) concentrations. Increasing the enzyme concentration (Cenz) led to an increase of the gelation rate. Master curves of the evolution of the storage shear modulus at different Cenz could be formed by time-Cenz superposition showing that Cenz influenced the kinetics, but not the gelation process and the final gel stiffness...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821067/optimization-of-high-purity-chitin-and-chitosan-production-from-illex-argentinus-pens-by-a-combination-of-enzymatic-and-chemical-processes
#3
José Antonio Vázquez, Diana Noriega, Patricia Ramos, Jesus Valcarcel, Ramon Novoa-Carballal, Lorenzo Pastrana, Rui L Reis, Ricardo I Pérez-Martín
The present report illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions for the chemical and enzymatic production of chitin and chitosan from Illex argentinus pen by-products. Optima conditions for chitin isolation were established at 0.82M NaOH/36.4°C, 57.5°C/pH=9.29, 59.6°C/pH=9.30 and 49.6°C/pH=5.91 for chemical, alcalase, esperase and neutrase deproteinization, respectively. Chitin samples were subsequently deacetylated by alkaline treatment reaching the highest degrees of deacetylation (DD>93%) at 61...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817933/biochemical-characterization-and-substrate-degradation-mode-of-a-novel-exo-type-%C3%AE-agarase-from-agarivorans-gilvus-wh0801
#4
Yunxiao Liang, Xiaoqing Ma, Lujia Zhang, Fuli Li, Zhen Liu, Xiangzhao Mao
Agarases are important hydrolytic enzymes for the biodegradation of agar. Understanding the degradation mode and hydrolysis products of agarases is essential for their utilization in oligosaccharide preparations. Herein, we cloned and expressed AgWH50B, a novel neoagarotetraose-forming β-agarase from Agarivorans gilvus WH0801 that has high specific activity and a fast reaction rate. AgWH50B consists of a C-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 50 catalytic domain with two tandem noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the N-terminus (residues 45-214 and 236-442)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816606/scale-up-of-puf-immobilized-fungal-chitosanase-lipase-preparation-production
#5
Katarzyna Struszczyk-Świta, Łukasz Stańczyk, Mirosława Szczęsna-Antczak, Tadeusz Antczak
Mucor circinelloides IBT-83 mycelium that exhibits both lipolytic (AL) and chitosanolytic (ACH) activities was immobilized into polyurethane foam (PUF) in a 30 L laboratory fermenter. The process of immobilization was investigated in terms of: the carrier porosity, its type, amount and shape, location inside the fermenter, mixing and aeration parameters during the culture, as well as downstream processing operations. The selected conditions allowed for immobilization of approx. 7 g of defatted and dried mycelium in 1 g of carrier, i...
August 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#7
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813686/genetic-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-gh10-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanase-with-a-ricin-type-%C3%AE-trefoil-domain-like-domain-from-luteimicrobium-xylanilyticum-hy-24
#8
Do Young Kim, Sun Hwa Lee, Min Ji Lee, Han-Young Cho, Jong Suk Lee, Young Ha Rhee, Dong-Ha Shin, Kwang-Hee Son, Ho-Yong Park
The gene (1488-bp) encoding a novel GH10 endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylM) consisting of an N-terminal catalytic GH10 domain and a C-terminal ricin-type β-trefoil lectin domain-like (RICIN) domain was identified from Luteimicrobium xylanilyticum HY-24. The GH10 domain of XylM was 72% identical to that of Micromonospora lupini endo-β-1,4-xylanase and the RICIN domain was 67% identical to that of Actinospica robiniae hypothetical protein. The recombinant enzyme (rXylM: 49kDa) exhibited maximum activity toward beechwood xylan at 65°C and pH 6...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811554/a-new-method-to-investigate-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-yhde-pyrophosphatase-by-using-a-pyrophosphate-fluorescence-probe
#9
Qingya Shen, Hongwei Tan, Guo-Wen Xing, Jimin Zheng, Zongchao Jia
YhdE is a Maf (multicopy associated filamentation) proteins from Escherichia coli which exhibits pyrophosphatase activity towards selected nucleotides, although its catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Herein we used a novel fluorescence probe (4-isoACBA-Zn(II) complex) to characterize the enzymatic properties of YhdE and its mutant, establishing a new method for assaying pyrophosphatase catalytic function. Our results reveal for the first time that the new fluorescence sensor confers high sensitivity and specificity and pyrophosphate (PPi) is the direct catalytic product of YhdE...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806986/antihyperlipidaemic-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-acidic-and-enzymatic-hydrolysis-exopolysaccharides-from-pleurotus-eryngii-si-04
#10
Chen Zhang, Juan Li, Jing Wang, Xingling Song, Jianjun Zhang, Shang Wu, Chunlong Hu, Zhiyuan Gong, Le Jia
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidaemia is the major risk factor contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, fatty liver and cerebrovascular disease. Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is rich in biologically active components, especially polysaccharides that exhibit various biological activities, including reducing blood lipids. In the present study, three novel polysaccharide types, including exopolysaccharides (EPS), enzymatic EPS (EEPS) and acidic EPS (AEPS) were isolated, and the hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects were investigated to better understand possible hypolipidaemic mechanisms and their hepatoprotective effects...
August 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804002/a-novel-glycoside-hydrolase-family-97-enzyme-bifunctional-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidase-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#11
Asako Kikuchi, Masayuki Okuyama, Koji Kato, Shohei Osaki, Min Ma, Yuya Kumagai, Kana Matsunaga, Patcharapa Klahan, Takayoshi Tagami, Min Yao, Atsuo Kimura
Glycoside hydrolase family 97 (GH97) is one of the most interesting glycosidase families, which contains inverting and retaining glycosidases. Currently, only two enzyme types, α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, are registered in the carbohydrate active enzyme database as GH97 function-known proteins. To explore new specificities, BT3661 and BT3664, which have distinct amino acid sequences when compared with that of GH97 α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, were characterized in this study...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803111/laccase-enzyme-detoxifies-hydrolysates-and-improves-biogas-production-from-hemp-straw-and-miscanthus
#12
Michel Schroyen, Stijn W H Van Hulle, Sander Holemans, Han Vervaeren, Katleen Raes
The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802008/mechanism-study-of-multimode-ultrasound-pretreatment-on-the-enzymolysis-of-wheat-gluten
#13
Yanyan Zhang, Jing Li, Suyun Li, Haile Ma, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound pretreatment could improve the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hydrolysates of wheat gluten (WG). The working mode of ultrasound has an important effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. RESULTS: The results showed that the optimum working mode of ultrasound was alternate dual-frequency mode (20/35 kHz), substrate concentration was 30 g L(-1) , initial temperature of the suspension was 30 °C, ultrasound pretreatment time was 10 min and power density was 150 W L(-1) ...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798762/functional-characterization-of-slsahh2-in-tomato-fruit-ripening
#14
Lu Yang, Guojian Hu, Ning Li, Sidra Habib, Wei Huang, Zhengguo Li
S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) functions as an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to homocysteine and adenosine. In the present work we have investigated its role in the ripening process of tomato fruit. Among the three SlSAHH genes we demonstrated that SlSAHH2 was highly accumulated during fruit ripening and strongly responded to ethylene treatment. Over-expression of SlSAHH2 enhanced SAHH enzymatic activity in tomato fruit development and ripening stages and resulted in a major phenotypic change of reduced ripening time from anthesis to breaker...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797630/enzymatic-in-situ-saccharification-of-sugarcane-bagasse-pretreated-with-low-loading-of-alkalic-salts-na2so3-na3po4-by-autoclaving
#15
Chun-Xia Jiang, Yu-Cai He, Gang-Gang Chong, Jun-Hua Di, Ya-Jie Tang, Cui-Luan Ma
Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is an abundant, renewable and inexpensive agricultural byproduct for the production of biofuel and other biobased products. To effectively saccharify SCB with cellulases, combination with dilute alkali salts Na2SO3/Na3PO4 (0.4% Na3PO4, 0.03% Na2SO3) at 7.5% sulfidity and hot water (DASHW) in "one-pot" pretreatment media by autoclaving at 110°C for 40min was attempted to pretreat SCB in this study. Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated Na2SO3/Na3PO4-SCB solid residue, which indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and hemicellulose for enhancing enzymatic saccharification...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796151/potential-development-of-tumor-targeted-oral-anti-cancer-prodrugs-amino-acid-and-dipeptide-monoester-prodrugs-of-gemcitabine
#16
Yasuhiro Tsume, Adam J Drelich, David E Smith, Gordon L Amidon
One of the main obstacles for cancer therapies is to deliver medicines effectively to target sites. Since stroma cells are developed around tumors, chemotherapeutic agents have to go through stroma cells in order to reach tumors. As a method to improve drug delivery to the tumor site, a prodrug approach for gemcitabine was adopted. Amino acid and dipeptide monoester prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were determined and compared to their parent drug, gemcitabine...
August 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794956/recent-progress-on-deep-eutectic-solvents-in-biocatalysis
#17
REVIEW
Pei Xu, Gao-Wei Zheng, Min-Hua Zong, Ning Li, Wen-Yong Lou
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are eutectic mixtures of salts and hydrogen bond donors with melting points low enough to be used as solvents. DESs have proved to be a good alternative to traditional organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs) in many biocatalytic processes. Apart from the benign characteristics similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, low inflammability and low melting point), DESs have their unique merits of easy preparation and low cost owing to their renewable and available raw materials...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789910/one-pot-enzymatic-glycan-remodeling-of-a-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibody-by-endoglycosidase-s-endo-s-from-streptococcus-pyogenes
#18
Xin Tong, Tiezheng Li, Jared Orwenyo, Christian Toonstra, Lai-Xi Wang
A facile, one-pot enzymatic glycan remodeling of antibody rituximab to produce homogeneous high-mannose and hybrid type antibody glycoforms is described. This method was based on the unique substrate specificity of the endoglycosidase S (Endo-S) from Streptococcus pyogenes. While Endo-S efficiently hydrolyzes the bi-antennary complex type IgG Fc N-glycans, we found that Endo-S did not hydrolyze the "ground state" high-mannose or hybrid glycoforms, and only slowly hydrolyzed the highly activated high-mannose or hybrid N-glycan oxazolines...
July 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789909/structural-evidence-for-the-dpph-radical-scavenging-mechanism-of-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic-acid
#19
Akihiro Tai, Atsuko Iomori, Hideyuki Ito
2-O-α-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) exhibits biological activities after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid (AA) by α-glucosidase. We have found that AA-2G per se exerted radical-scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH radical). The radical-scavenging property of AA-2G was greatly different from that of AA; that is, the reaction rate with DPPH radical of AA-2G was far slower than that of AA, but the long-lasting radical-scavenging ability per one molecule of AA-2G was superior to that of AA...
July 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782612/impact-of-the-removal-of-n-terminal-non-structured-amino-acids-on-activity-and-stability-of-xylanases-from-orpinomyces-sp-pc-2
#20
Rafaela Zandonade Ventorim, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Larissa Mattos Trevizano, Ana Maria Dos Santos Camargos, Valéria Monteze Guimarães
Xylanases catalyze the random hydrolysis of xylan backbone from plant biomass and thus, they have application in the production of biofuels, Kraft pulps biobleaching and feed industry. Here, xylanases derived from Orpinomyces sp. PC-2 were engineered guided by molecular dynamics methods to obtain more thermostable enzymes. Based on these models, 27 amino acid residues from the N-terminal were predicted to reduce protein stability and the impact of this removal was validated to two enzyme constructs: small xylanase Wild-Type (SWT) obtained from Wild-Type xylanase (WT) and small xylanase Mutant (SM2) generated from M2 mutant xylanase (V135A, A226T)...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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