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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677704/morphology-of-a-hidden-tube-resin-injection-and-ct-scanning-reveal-the-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-spiracle-in-the-japanese-bullhead-shark-heterodontus-japonicus-chondrichthyes-heterodontiformes-heterodontidae
#1
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kei Miyamoto, Keiichi Ueda, Kazuhiro Nakaya
The spiracle of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) is a gill-slit-derived tube located behind the eye. Its inner structure was well studied in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, but its entire morphology has rarely been characterized and is poorly understood. The present study shows the three-dimensional morphology of the spiracular tube for the first time, using resin injection and CT scanning, in the Japanese bullhead shark. The spiracular tube is characterized by the presence of two caeca (dorsal and ventral spiracular caeca) on the medial wall of the spiracular tube and the presence of a pseudobranch on the anterior wall...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677702/is-the-pelvis-sexually-dimorphic-in-turtles
#2
Gerardo A Cordero
Variation in the pelvis is intrinsically linked to life history evolution. This is perhaps best exemplified by sexually dimorphic pelvic variation in bipedal primates. Yet, whether this trend is applicable to other taxa is unclear. Using turtle anatomy as a model, I tested the hypothesis that the pelvis is also sexually dimorphic in egg-laying tetrapods. I sampled a natural turtle population with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (i.e. larger females). I show that the area of the egg canal (pelvic aperture) is greater in females...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677684/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutics-where-do-we-stand-with-influenza-b-virus
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Tan, Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar, Florian Krammer
The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. The vast majority of these efforts is exclusively focused on influenza A viruses. While influenza A viruses cause the majority of all influenza cases worldwide, influenza B viruses should not be ignored. Approximately 25% of all influenza cases are caused by influenza B viruses which circulate as two distinct B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineages. In contrast to popular belief, influenza B cases frequently cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677669/toxicological-interaction-of-multi-component-mixtures-to-vibrio-qinghaiensis-sp-q67-induced-by-at-least-three-components
#4
Ya-Qian Xu, Shu-Shen Liu, Ye Fan, Kai Li
It has been stated by researchers that the antibiotic polymyxin B sulfate (POL) is a key component inducing time-dependent antagonism in freshwater luminescent bacteria, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67, exposed in the ternary mixture system of the ionic liquids, pesticide and antibiotics. However, the previous statement is limited to ternary and quaternary mixtures without considering situations such as the binary system. In order to prove the direct inducing of antagonism by POL in a more complete and systematic way, two categories of experiments (adding POL in non-antagonistic ternary system and decomposing antagonistic ternary system with POL into the binary system) have been conducted in this paper...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677563/polysaccharide-of-hericium-erinaceus-attenuates-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-via-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-related-signaling-pathways-and-modulating-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#5
Yilin Ren, Yan Geng, Yan Du, Wang Li, Zhen-Ming Lu, Hong-Yu Xu, Guo-Hua Xu, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Our data indicated that HECP could improve clinical symptoms and down-regulate key markers of oxidative stresses, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677562/effective-dose-calculation-program-edcp-for-the-usage-of-norm-added-consumer-product
#6
Do Hyeon Yoo, Jaekook Lee, Chul Hee Min
The aim of this study is to develop the Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) added consumer products. The EDCP was developed based on a database of effective dose conversion coefficient and the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) program to incorporate a Graphic User Interface (GUI) for ease of use. To validate EDCP, the effective dose calculated with EDCP by manually determining the source region by using the GUI and that by using the reference mathematical algorithm were compared for pillow, waist supporter, eye-patch and sleeping mattress...
April 9, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677545/protective-effects-of-silk-lutein-extract-from-bombyx-mori-cocoons-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-induced-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#7
Nongnuch Singhrang, Chainarong Tocharus, Sarinthorn Thummayot, Manote Sutheerawattananonda, Jiraporn Tocharus
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), invokes a cascade of oxidative damage to neurons and eventually leads to neuronal death. This study evaluated the protective effects of lutein extract from yellow cocoons of Bombyx mori, and its underlying mechanisms against was investigated to assess its protective effects and the underlying mechanisms against Aβ25-35 -induced neuronal cell death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Aβ25-35 -induced neuronal toxicity is characterized by decrease in cell viability, increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, activation of mitochondrial death pathway, and activation the phospholyration of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) pathway...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677538/improvement-effects-of-a-mixed-extract-of-flowers-of-pueraria-thomsonii-benth-and-peels-of-citrus-unshiu-markovich-on-postmenopausal-symptoms-of-ovariectomized-mice
#8
Na-Ra Han, Sun-Young Nam, Sungwei Hong, Hee-Yun Kim, Phil-Dong Moon, Hyeong-Jin Kim, Hosong Cho, Boyoung Lee, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
BACKGROUND: Menopausal hot flushes occur frequently in postmenopausal women. In the present study, we investigated a regulatory effect of a mixed extract of flowers of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. and peels of Citrus unshiu Markovich (PCE17), an extract of flowers of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (PE), an extract of peels of Citrus unshiu Markovich (CE), a mixture of tectorigenin 7-O-xylosylglucoside, tectoridin, and tectorigenin (Tec, the active compounds of PE), and hesperidin (Hes, an active compound of CE) on menopausal hot flushes...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677537/the-rescue-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-on-sodium-iodate-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-death-through-deactivation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome
#9
Xiying Mao, Ting Pan, Han Shen, Huiyu Xi, Songtao Yuan, Qinghuai Liu
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease resulting in the gradual loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the permanent visual damage. Various risk factors, including oxidative stress, form a complex network at the confluence of inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a well-studied population of adult stem cell with strong neuroprotective and immunoregulatory properties. Here, we reported the protective effect of MSC on sodium iodate (NaIO3)-triggered RPE degeneration. Sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced RPE cell death was remarkably reduced when cocultured with MSC...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677535/betulinic-acid-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-oxidative-damage-through-the-jnk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#10
Lijuan Zhu, Xianglian Yi, Jing Zhao, Zhihang Yuan, Lixin Wen, Blazej Pozniak, Bozena Obminska-Mrukowicz, Yanan Tian, Zhuliang Tan, Jing Wu, Jine Yi
Dexamethasone (Dex), a potent anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agent, has been shown to induce oxidative stress. Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic lupane triterpene with a potent antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect and underlying mechanisms of BA on Dex-induced oxidative damage. Mice were pretreated with BA orally (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and then a single dose of Dex (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally 8 h after the last administration of BA to induce oxidative stress...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677529/probing-nanomechanical-interaction-at-the-interface-between-biological-membrane-and-potentially-toxic-chemical
#11
Chanoong Lim, Sohee Park, Jinwoo Park, Jina Ko, Dong Woog Lee, Dong Soo Hwang
Various xenobiotics interact with biological membranes, and precise evaluations of the molecular interactions between them are essential to foresee the toxicity and bioavailability of existing or newly synthesized molecules. In this study, surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurement and Langmuir trough based tensiometry are performed to reveal nanomechanical interaction mechanisms between potential toxicants and biological membranes for ex vivo toxicity evaluation. As a toxicant, polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) was selected because PHMG containing humidifier disinfectant and Vodka caused lots of victims in both S...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677480/effect-of-healthy-and-unhealthy-habits-on-obesity-a-multicentric-study
#12
Mirta Crovetto, Macarena Valladares, Valentina Espinoza, Francisco Mena, Gloria Oñate, Macarena Fernandez, Samuel Durán-Agüero
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize and compare eating patterns of university students in Chile, by sex and body weight, body mass index, and nutritional status. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. University students (n = 1454) of Chile were evaluated. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits using a questionnaire with values between 1 (do not consume) and 5 (consume) for a total of 9 to 45 points (higher values represent better eating habits)...
February 19, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677461/ebola-s-would-be-refugees-performing-fear-and-navigating-asylum-during-a-public-health-emergency
#13
Benjamin N Lawrance
Chronic and acute illnesses sit uncomfortably with asylum claiming and refugee mobilities. The story of a Sierra Leonean, an athlete who feared Ebola and sought refuge in the UK, provides an opening to examine protection discourses that invoke fear, trauma, and crisis metaphors, to understand how asylum claims are performed, and how related petitions are adjudicated during public health emergencies of international concern. Ebola is revealed as a novel claim strategy, and thus a useful subject matter to investigate the shifting modalities of migrant agency, the unstable fabric of medical humanitarianism, and knowledge production in moments of exceptionality...
April 20, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677459/hepatoprotective-and-antioxidant-properties-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-olea-europaea-leaves-against-diclofenac-induced-liver-damages-in-mice
#14
Rawya Soussi, Najla Hfaiedh, Fatma Guesmi, Mohsen Sakly, Khémais Ben Rhouma
Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2...
April 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677453/l-carnitine-induced-amelioration-of-hdf-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-is-accompanied-by-a-reduction-in-hepatic-tnf-%C3%AE-and-tgf%C3%AE-1
#15
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Fatma Mohamed Ibrahim, Sahar H Orabi, Azza Hassan Morsi, Hesham Saad ElSabbagh
In this study the possible mechanisms through which L-carnitine ameliorates the adverse effects of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity on rats was evaluated. 56 Wister albino rats were randomly assigned into seven groups. Control rats fed basal diet. 2nd group fed basal diet and injected with L-carnitine 200 mg/kg i.p. 3rd group fed HFD. 4th group fed HFD and injected with L-Carnitine 200 mg/kg i.p for 8 weeks. 5th group fed HFD for 10 weeks. 6th group fed HFD for 10 weeks and injected with L-Carnitine 200 mg/kg i...
April 20, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677444/disassembly-of-hydrophobic-photosensitizer-by-bio-degradable-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-8-for-photodynamic-cancer-therapy
#16
Dandan Xu, Yongqiang You, Fanyu Zeng, Yong Wang, Chunyan Liang, Huanhuan Feng, Xing Ma
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an alternative to conventional cancer therapeutics, has gained increasingly attentions for its non-invasive advantages and simultaneously fluorescence imaging property. PDT is a tripartite process that functions in simultaneous presence of a photosensitizer (PS), light and available oxygen molecules. However, many highly efficient PSs are hydrophobic and easily self-aggregate in aqueous solution, leading to quickly quenching of PDT effect. Here we construct zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) containing water insoluble photosensitizer zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc), a typical hydrophobic PS, by one-step coprecipitation process, named as ZnPc@ZIF-8...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677399/outcomes-of-cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-a-less-resourced-health-care-system
#17
Vinicius Ponzio, Luis F A Camargo, José O Medina-Pestana, John R Perfect, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the second most common cause of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients in many countries, and data on graft outcome after treatment for this infection is lacking in less-resourced health care settings. METHODS: Data from 47 renal transplant recipients were retrospectively collected at a single institution during a period of 13 years. Graft dysfunction, graft loss and mortality rates were evaluated. Predictors of mortality and graft loss were estimated...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677388/engulfment-of-hb-activated-platelets-differentiates-monocytes-into-pro-inflammatory-macrophages-in-pnh-patients
#18
Rashi Singhal, Sheetal Chawla, Harish Batra, Sameer Gupta, Amrita Ojha, Deepak K Rathore, Tulika Seth, Prasenjit Guchhait
The distinct response shown by different phenotypes of macrophages and monocytes under various clinical conditions have put the heterogeneity of these cells into focus of investigation for several diseases. Recently we have described that after engulfing Hb-activated platelets, classical monocytes differentiated into pro-inflammatory phenotypes, which were abundant in the circulation of PNH and SCD patients. Our current study shows that upon engulfment of Hb-activated platelets, monocytes differentiate into M1-macrophages under M1-polarization stimulus (GM-CSF, IFN-γ+LPS)...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677387/il13r%C3%AE-2-expression-identifies-tissue-resident-il-22-producing-plzf-innate-t-cells-in-the-human-liver
#19
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Lise Pasquet, Benedikt Strunz, Soo Aleman, Karolin Falconer, Masaki Terabe, Jay A Berzofsky, Johan K Sandberg, Espen Melum, Douglas F Nixon, Niklas K Björkström
Innate lymphocytes are selectively enriched in the liver where they have important roles in liver immunology. Murine studies have shown that type I NKT cells can promote liver inflammation whereas type II NKT cells have an anti-inflammatory role. In humans, type II NKT cells were found to accumulate in the gut during inflammation and IL13Rα2 was proposed as a marker for these cells. In the human liver, less is known about type I and II NKT cells. Here, we studied the phenotype and function of human liver T cells expressing IL13Rα2...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677384/risk-factors-and-long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-high-epstein-barr-virus-loads
#20
Hideya Kamei, Yoshinori Ito, Junichi Kawada, Satoshi Ogiso, Yasuharu Onishi, Masahiko Komagome, Nobuhiko Kurata, Yasuhiro Ogura
BACKGROUND: Serial monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reveals that certain pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients exhibit high EBV loads for long periods. We investigated the incidence and risk factors of chronic high EBV (CHEBV) loads (continuous EBV DNA >10000 IU/mL of whole blood for ≥6 months) and long-term outcomes. METHODS: This single center, retrospective observational study investigated pediatric LT recipients who survived ≥6 months. We quantitated EBV DNA weekly during hospitalization and subsequently every 4 or 6 weeks at the outpatient clinic...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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