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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550816/designing-an-hcv-vaccine-a-unique-convergence-of-prevention-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Christopher M Walker
Direct acting antivirals can cure chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but whether they will reduce global liver disease burden is uncertain. Most chronic infections are undiagnosed and transmission has increased in recent years. The first trial of a preventive vaccine is now underway in humans at risk for HCV infection. It will test the novel hypothesis that T cell-mediated immunity alone can prevent persistent HCV infection. Another vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies is at an advanced stage of development...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550804/dispersant-approval-procedures-in-france-and-italy-a-comparative-ecotoxicity-study
#2
Loredana Manfra, Andrea Tornambè, Julien Guyomarch, Pascale Le Guerrogue, Loïc Kerambrun, Alice Rotini, Federica Savorelli, Fulvio Onorati, Erika Magaletti
A research project has been performed to the request of the RAMOGE Executive Secretariat to identify differences between dispersant approval procedures in France and Italy and propose ways to harmonize them. A collaborative study has been conducted by CEDRE (Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution) and ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) to: a) compare current approval procedures in Italy and France with identification of differences and commonalities; b) carry out toxicity tests using both procedures on two selected dispersants; c) propose a common approach between Italy and France...
May 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550790/trophic-fate-of-inorganic-and-methyl-mercury-in-a-macrophyte-chironomid-food-chain
#3
Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Frédéric Gimbert, Ophélie Méhault, Claudia Cosio
Dietary transfer of mercury (Hg) is central for its effects on higher trophic animals, nonetheless, its driving parameters and characteristics are not well understood. Here we measured Hg species transfer (uptake) from the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii -mimicking tissues incorporation in sediments after decay- to Chironomus riparius. Methyl-Hg (MMHg) was more transferable than inorganic Hg (IHg) from plant's intracellular and cell wall compartments. After 10-d-long exposure, MMHg was predominantly found in MMHg form in the cytosolic compartment (S) of chironomids, while IHg showed similar concentrations in S and insoluble debris (P) compartments...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550782/immunofluorescence-evaluation-of-4-hydroxynonenal-and-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-activation-in-zebrafish-daino-rerio-larvae-brain-exposed-microinjected-to-propyl-gallate
#4
Ahmet Topal, Selim Çomakli, Mustafa Özkaraca, Alper Baran, Mine Köktürk, Veysel Parlak, Yavuz Selim Sağlam, Muhammed Atamanalp, Saltuk Buğrahan Ceyhun
Propyl gallate (PG) is a chemical compound obtained by esterification of propanol with gallic acid. Due to its antioxidative properties, it is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries as well as to protect the oils in foods such as butter, milk-based desserts, chewing gum, mayonnaise, meat, soups, cereals, spices and seasonings from rancidity. This study has been designed to assessment 8-OHdG and 4-HNE activity, and histopathological changes in the brain tissues of zebrafish larvae, which is a lecithotrophic organism, after 96 h of PG exposure via microinjecting to yolk sac of embryo...
May 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550753/catalase-loaded-cisplatin-prodrug-constructed-liposomes-to-overcome-tumor-hypoxia-for-enhanced-chemo-radiotherapy-of-cancer
#5
Rui Zhang, Xuejiao Song, Chao Liang, Xuan Yi, Guosheng Song, Yu Chao, Yu Yang, Kai Yang, Liangzhu Feng, Zhuang Liu
Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550752/intracellular-delivery-of-oligonucleotides-in-helicobacter-pylori-by-fusogenic-liposomes-in-the-presence-of-gastric-mucus
#6
Rita S Santos, George R Dakwar, Elisa Zagato, Toon Brans, Céu Figueiredo, Koen Raemdonck, Nuno F Azevedo, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
The rising antimicrobial resistance contributes to 25000 annual deaths in Europe. This threat to the public health can only be tackled if novel antimicrobials are developed, combined with a more precise use of the currently available antibiotics through the implementation of fast, specific, diagnostic methods. Nucleic acid mimics (NAMs) that are able to hybridize intracellular bacterial RNA have the potential to become such a new class of antimicrobials and additionally could serve as specific detection probes...
May 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550744/evaluation-of-a-multi-site-program-designed-to-strengthen-relational-bonds-for-siblings-separated-by-foster-care
#7
Jeffrey Waid, Armeda Stevenson Wojciak
Sibling relationships in foster care settings have received increased attention in recent years. Despite growing evidence regarding the protective potential of sibling relationships for youth in care, some sibling groups continue to experience foster care related separation, and few programs exist to address the needs of these youth. This study describes and evaluates Camp To Belong, a multi-site program designed to provide short-term reunification to separated sibling groups through a week-long summer camp experience...
May 13, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550734/pterostilbene-alleviates-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-liver-injury-possible-role-of-sirt1-signaling
#8
Xiaojing Liu, Xueliang Yang, Lingna Han, Feng Ye, Min Liu, Wanhu Fan, Kai Zhang, Ying Kong, Jian Zhang, Lei Shi, Yunru Chen, Xi Zhang, Shumei Lin
Liver injury occurs frequently during sepsis. Pterostilbene (Pte), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol from blueberries, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, the role of Pte in sepsis-induced liver injury and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Pte on sepsis-induced liver injury and its potential mechanisms. Sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered Pte (5, 10, 15mg/kg, i...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550731/xanthotoxin-suppresses-lps-induced-expression-of-inos-cox-2-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-via-ap-1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-inactivation-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#9
Seung-Bin Lee, Woo Seok Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Dae Sik Jang, Kyung Tae Lee
Although xanthotoxin has been reported to possess skin-protective and anti-oxidative properties, its anti-inflammatory capacity has not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated this role as well as the molecular mechanisms of xanthotoxin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Xanthotoxin inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by the LPS-induced macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. It also suppressed the LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at the protein levels and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 at the mRNA levels...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550730/transplantation-of-aire-overexpressing-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-delays-the-onset-of-type-1-diabetes
#10
Dongbei Li, Bo Zhao, Yadong Luo, Steven Limbara, Bingjie Zhao, Xueyang Zou, Wei Yang, Yi Li
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays an indispensable role in maintaining central immune tolerance by promoting the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), which lead to the deletion of autoreactive T cells or the induction of Tregs and consequently prevent autoimmune disease development. Curing autoimmune diseases has always been a challenge. DC-based immunotherapy represents a new and effective method to establish tolerance...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550546/-protection-from-a-dormant-time-bomb-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-against-herpes-zoster
#11
REVIEW
Jörg Schelling, Ina-Maria Rückert-Eheberg, Andreas H Leischker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550530/rtms-ameliorates-ptsd-symptoms-in-rats-by-enhancing-glutamate-transmission-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-acc-via-the-pten-akt-signalling-pathway
#12
Gaohua Liu, Dayun Feng, Jian Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Zhengwu Peng, Min Cai, Jing Yang, Ruiguo Zhang, Huaning Wang, Shengxi Wu, Qingrong Tan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physiological therapy that has been adopted to clinically treat psychiatric disorders. Our previous study indicated the potential therapeutic effect of rTMS on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the exact molecular mechanism is elusive. Currently, using the single prolonged stress (SPS) rat model for PTSD, we investigated the glutamatergic transmission and neural plasticity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) after SPS induction and explored the protective effects and mechanism of rTMS treatment...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550529/single-administration-of-hbk-15-a-triple-5-ht1a-5-ht7-and-5-ht3-receptor-antagonist-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mouse-model-of-depression-induced-by-corticosterone
#13
Karolina Pytka, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Magdalena Kotańska, Anna Waszkielewicz, Agnieszka Kij, Maria Walczak
Studies suggest that the blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT7, and 5-HT3 receptor may increase the speed of antidepressant response. 1-[(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15), dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists, showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like properties in our previous tests in rodents. In this study, we aimed to investigate their antidepressant potential using mouse model of corticosterone-induced depression...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550515/fluctuating-asymmetry-rather-than-oxidative-stress-in-bufo-raddei-can-be-an-accurate-indicator-of-environmental-pollution-induced-by-heavy-metals
#14
Rui Guo, Wenya Zhang, Shiwei Ai, Liang Ren, Yingmei Zhang
Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550491/influence-of-diet-on-the-course-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Laura Tasson, Cristina Canova, Maria Grazia Vettorato, Edoardo Savarino, Renzo Zanotti
BACKGROUND: While the importance of diet in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally recognized, influence of food on the course of IBD is little understood. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between food intake and course of disease in patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 103 adult patients (50 with active disease and 53 in remission, divided by their calprotectin level), who completed a food frequency questionnaire on their intake of several foods over 1 year...
May 26, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550468/probing-the-contractile-vacuole-as-achilles-heel-of-the-biotrophic-grapevine-pathogen-plasmopara-viticola
#16
Viktoria Tröster, Tabea Setzer, Thomas Hirth, Anna Pecina, Andreas Kortekamp, Peter Nick
The causative agent of Grapevine Downy Mildew, the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, poses a serious threat to viticulture. In the current work, the contractile vacuole of the zoospore is analysed as potential target for novel plant protection strategies. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spinning disc confocal microscopy, and video differential interference contrast microscopy, we have followed the genesis and dynamics of this vacuole required during the search for the stomata, when the non-walled zoospore is exposed to hypotonic conditions...
May 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550434/flagellin-fljb-as-an-adjuvant-to-the-recombinant-adenovirus-rabies-glycoprotein-vaccine-increases-immune-responses-against-rabies-in-mice
#17
Xingxing Xiao, Yun Zhang, Qiaolin Wei, Xiangping Yin
Rabies virus (RABV) causes an acute progressive viral encephalitis. Although currently licensed vaccines have an excellent safety and efficacy record, the development of a safer and more cost-effective vaccine is still being sought. An E1-deleted, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) vector expressing RABV glycoprotein (HAd5-G) is thought to be a promising candidate vaccine for immune prophylaxis against rabies. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) flagellin is a well-known immune adjuvant...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550396/genistein-protects-against-ox-ldl-induced-inflammation-through-microrna-155-socs1-mediated-repression-of-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathway-in-huvecs
#18
Huaping Zhang, Zhenxiang Zhao, Xuefen Pang, Jian Yang, Haixia Yu, Yinhong Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jiahui Zhao
Genistein plays an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein (10, 100, and 1000 nM) for 6 h and then exposed to ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for another 24 h. Results showed that ox-LDL induced the expressions of E-selectin, P-selectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-8, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which were counteracted by genistein...
May 27, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550372/tnf%C3%AE-induced-dlk-activation-contributes-to-apoptosis-in-the-beta-cell-line-hit
#19
Svenja Börchers, Rohollah Babaei, Catarina Klimpel, Jorge Duque Escobar, Sabine Schröder, Roland Blume, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Elke Oetjen
Reduction in beta-cell mass and function contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2. The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-1β have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. Overexpression of the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) inhibits beta-cell function and induces apoptosis in the beta-cell line HIT. In the present study, it was investigated whether TNFα or IL-1β stimulates DLK enzymatic activity. Immunoblot analysis, transient transfection with luciferase reporter gene assays, and immunofluorescence were used...
May 27, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550369/why-does-measles-persist-in-europe
#20
P Plans-Rubió
Several reasons may explain why measles was not eliminated by 2015 and continues to persist in Europe, including low measles vaccination coverage, low anti-measles herd immunity levels, and the mobility of individuals with measles across Europe. The study assessed the mean measles vaccination coverage in the European Union and the WHO European region with one and two doses of measles vaccine from 1980 to 2015, and the prevalence of vaccine-induced protected individuals and anti-measles herd immunity levels in the WHO European region during 2000-2015...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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