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Arthur L Caplan, Peter J Hotez
The United States is the only major nation to not yet have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Recently, there has been an erosion of the rights of children across America, Europe, and elsewhere, but through science, we may have an opportunity to counter some of this alarming trend. In the area of vaccines, the scientific community can raise its voice on the dangers that nonmedical exemptions and delays pose to children at risk for measles, influenza, and other childhood illnesses...
September 2018: PLoS Biology
Mazheruddin M Mulla, Tricia H Witte, Kyle Richardson, William Hart, Francesca L Kassing, Christopher A Coffey, Christine L Hackman, Ian M Sherwood
Across three studies, we develop a model of the direct and indirect paths through which the perceived prevalence (perceived descriptive norms [PDN]) of intimate partner violence (IPV) among peers may influence individuals' likelihood of engaging in IPV. Study 1 replicated and extended previous cross-sectional research by demonstrating a positive longitudinal association between PDN and subsequent IPV perpetration. Study 2 further showed the influence of PDN on IPV perpetration to be mediated through its relation to perceived peer acceptance of IPV (perceived injunctive norms [PIN]), which in turn predicted personal IPV acceptance...
September 18, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
M Tracie Shea, Jennifer Lambert, Madhavi K Reddy, Candice Presseau, Elizabeth Sevin, Robert L Stout
Background: Problems with anger and aggression are highly prevalent in Veterans of multiple war eras, including the most recent conflicts in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom; OEF) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom; OIF). The consequences of these problems, such as increased rates of divorce, domestic violence, occupational instability, arrests and incarceration, are often devastating. Despite the seriousness of these problems, relatively little is known about effective treatments for anger in Veterans...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Laurie James-Hawkins, Yuk Fai Cheong, Ruchira T Naved, Kathryn M Yount
Objective: Coercive control in marriage is common in patriarchal settings, but multilevel determinants are understudied. Method: Using a probability sample of 570 junior men (married, 18-34 years) from the Bangladesh survey of the 2011 UN Multi-Country Study of Men and Violence , we examined how exposure to violence in childhood and community-level gender norms were related to men's attitudes about gender equity and use of controlling behavior. We tested whether community-level gender norms moderated the relationship between men's exposure to violence in childhood and our outcomes...
September 2018: Psychology of Violence
Maksym Romenskyy, Viktoria Spaiser, Thomas Ihle, Vladimir Lobaskin
Multiple countries have recently experienced extreme political polarization, which, in some cases, led to escalation of hate crime, violence and political instability. Besides the much discussed presidential elections in the USA and France, Britain's Brexit vote and Turkish constitutional referendum showed signs of extreme polarization. Among the countries affected, Ukraine faced some of the gravest consequences. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of these phenomena, we here combine social media analysis with agent-based modelling of opinion dynamics, targeting Ukraine's crisis of 2014...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Kathleen Baird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Evidence-based Nursing
Alan R Clough, Michelle S Fitts, Reinhold Muller, Valmae Ypinazar, Stephen Margolis
BACKGROUND: Legal restrictions on alcohol availability have been used to address violence and injury in the world's remote Indigenous communities. In Australia, alcohol management plans (AMPs) were implemented by the Queensland Government in 2002. This study reports changes in indicators of alcohol-related violence and injury in selected communities. METHODS: Design and setting: A longitudinal observational study was conducted in four Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Cape York, far north Queensland...
September 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Julia Morphet, Debra Griffiths, Kelli Innes
AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the reporting, monitoring, and use of workplace violence data in Victorian health services. BACKGROUND: Surveillance of workplace violence is important in understanding the circumstances in which workplace violence occurs, and development of relevant, appropriate, prevention and intervention strategies. METHOD: A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Fifteen staff from Occupational Health and Safety, quality and safety, and Nurse Unit Managers, from five major metropolitan health services were interviewed...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Nadia A Kotb, Samah F Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated deaths are a widely recognized phenomenon, that warrants in-depth investigation. Of the 319 suspicious deaths of adult women (>20 years) autopsied during 2011-2012, in the Cairo and Giza governorates, 37 (11.7%) women were pregnant at the time of the autopsy. This paper analyzes the corresponding demographic data, autopsy findings, and toxicological screening. THE RESULTS: Reveal that the number of deaths of pregnant women were higher in 2012 than in 2011...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Nutmeg Hallett, Jörg Huber, Judith Sixsmith, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: Violence and aggression are common in inpatient mental health hospital settings and cause problems for staff, patients and organisations. An important factor in treatment efficacy is ward atmosphere, and one element of this is the violence prevention climate. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure perceptions of the violence prevention climate among staff and patients in mental health inpatient settings...
September 6, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Tara E Galovski, Zoe D Peterson, Annie Fox-Galalis
Longitudinal research following discreet traumatic events reveals distinct symptom trajectories in untreated survivors of trauma. Trajectories within communities exposed to shared, prolonged violence involving subgroups differing in perspectives, and roles during the event have not been studied. This study examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depressive symptoms secondary to exposure to violence during civil unrest in citizens (n = 311) and law enforcement (n = 255) over 1.5 years following exposure...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Jaclyn D Houston-Kolnik, Nathan R Todd, Megan R Greeson
Described as a "holy hush," past research has noted a general silence about and reluctance to address intimate partner violence (IPV) in religious congregations. To explore this, we interviewed 20 Protestant Christian religious leaders about how they understood and responded to IPV. Based on a thematic content analysis, our study revealed some of the challenges, tensions, and complexities that may be barriers to leaders speaking about and responding to IPV, and also the ways religious leaders in our sample attempted to overcome these challenges...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
John R Anderson, Zach Walsh, David S Kosson
Psychopathy has long been noted to play an important role in the prediction of criminal behavior and offending. Although many studies have demonstrated that psychopathic traits are predictive of violent recidivism among offenders, relatively few studies have examined the predictive validity of psychopathic traits for nonviolent recidivism and very few have examined this issue in a sample of offenders in the United States. To address this issue, we examined the predictive validity of psychopathy for both nonviolent and general recidivism using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 422 county jail inmates...
September 17, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Yuan-Ping Chang, De-Chih Lee, Hsiu-Hung Wang
AIMS: To determine the moderating effect of a violence-prevention climate and the mediating effect of work frustration on the relationship between workplace violence (WPV) and the turnover intention of nurses. BACKGROUND: To maintain the stability and work quality of nurses, WPV should be studied to provide effective prevention measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was adopted. Participants were nurses from three hospitals in Taiwan...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Nils Böckler, Vincenz Leuschner, Andreas Zick, Herbert Scheithauer
Analysis of incidents over the past ten years in Germany reveals that the boundaries between targeted attacks in schools and terrorist attacks are starting to blur. Böckler, Leuschner, Roth, Zick, and Scheithauer (2018) recently presented a set of hypotheses about similarities between the developmental pathways of school attackers and lone actor terrorists. To date there is only a small body of empirical research comparing these two forms of targeted violence in depth. In order to fill this gap, this article presents findings from a qualitative analysis of prosecution files comparing the developmental pathways of German school attackers (N = 7; age range: 13 to 23) and Jihadi attackers (N = 7; age range: 21 to 28 years) who committed their attacks between 2000 and 2013...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Science
Caitlin Elsaesser
Objective: Community violence exposure is multi-dimensional, yet the majority of studies examining the relation of exposure and developmental outcomes employ measures that collapse a wide range of experiences into a global summed scale. Building on research conducted in child maltreatment indicating that the impact of exposure varies as a function of the nature of maltreatment, the present study examines the contribution of dimensions of exposure to community violence (i.e., type - hearing about violence, witnessing violence, victimization - and relationship to perpetrator) on three areas of adolescent functioning: depression, aggression, and attention problems...
July 2018: Psychology of Violence
Abdullah A AlMulhim, Mukhtar Nasir, Abdulrahman AlThukair, Maryam AlNasser, Jennifer Pikard, Syed Ahmer, Muhammad Ayub, Alya Elmadih, Farooq Naeem
BACKGROUND: Many medical students, junior doctors, and other health-care professionals have been affected by the negative experience of bullying. Research is scarce on bullying experienced by medical and nonmedical students in Saudi Arabia unlike what is found in Western countries. It is unclear whether being a nonmedical student modifies the risk of being bullied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 400 university students using convenient sampling...
September 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Safar A Alsaleem, Abdullah Alsabaani, Reem S Alamri, Rawan A Hadi, Mona H Alkhayri, Kholoud K Badawi, Almozn G Badawi, Abdulaziz A Alshehri, Abdulrahman M Al-Bishi
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence in healthcare settings is a common, but an underreported problem that has been largely ignored. Violence against healthcare workers can have an adverse effect on their performance outcomes and thus influence patients' health and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and types of violence against healthcare workers in a Saudi Arabian city. It was also to identify the risk factors of violence against healthcare workers and to investigate the possible consequences of such behavior...
September 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Abenaa Acheampong Jones, Travis Gerke, Catherine W Striley, Nicole Whitehead, Vicki Osborne, Linda B Cottler
The aim of this analysis is to identify latent subgroups of women based on substance use, exposure to violence, and risky sexual behaviors and quantify discrete stages of behavior change over time. Data comes from 317 women recruited from a Municipal Drug Court System in the Midwest. All participants were interviewed regarding their substance use and sexual behaviors, as well as their exposure to violence at baseline, a 4th-month follow-up, and an 8th-month follow-up. A latent transitional analysis (LTA), a longitudinal extension of a latent class analysis (LCA), was used to quantify discrete stages of behavior change...
September 2018: American Journal of Criminal Justice: AJCJ
Michel Janosz, Frédéric N Brière, Benoît Galand, Sophie Pascal, Isabelle Archambault, Marie-Christine Brault, Brigitte Moltrecht, Linda S Pagani
BACKGROUND: Past research suggests that adolescents who witness violence are at risk of adjustment problems. However, few studies have implemented a longitudinal design and have accounted for direct experiences of victimisation and other major confounders. This prospective study examines the relationship between witnessing school violence and subsequent impairment and whether such associations depend on the kind of violence witnessed. METHODS: 3936 adolescents from Quebec (Canada) were followed from ages 12 through 15 years...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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