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Marni Sommer, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Anaise Williams, Yana Mayevskaya, Kathryn Falb, Gizman Abdella, Lindsay Stark
Violence against women and girls is a global concern, and particularly salient in humanitarian settings. Successful efforts to prevent gender-based violence in humanitarian settings must address a wide range of issues, from discriminatory laws to explicit community support for violence, and yet, at the core of these efforts is reducing oppressive gender and social norms. This study examined local attitudes towards and social norms around responding to physical and sexual abuse of girls through interviews conducted with adolescent girls (n = 66) and with caregivers (n = 58) among two conflict-affected populations: villages in South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudanese and South Sudanese refugees in Ethiopian camps...
February 19, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Weiming Tang, Chuncheng Liu, Bolin Cao, Stephen W Pan, Ye Zhang, Jason Ong, Hongyun Fu, Baoli Ma, Rong Fu, Bin Yang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
HIV serostatus disclosure before sex can facilitate serosorting, condom use and potentially decrease the risk of HIV acquisition. However, few studies have evaluated HIV serostatus disclosure from partners before sex. We examined the rate and correlates of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure from regular and casual male partners before sex among an online sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. An online cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in eight Chinese cities in July 2016. Participants completed questions covering sociodemographic information, sexual behaviors, HIV testing (including HIV self-testing) history, self-reported HIV status, and post-test violence...
February 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Nicole A Anderson, Amy M Bohnert, Amy Governale
Research examining factors that predict youth's involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents' involvement in organized activities concurrently (i...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Alice M Hellebrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
Maria TR Borges
In the United States, women are routinely forced to undergo cesarean sections, episiotomies, and the use of forceps, despite their desire to attempt natural vaginal delivery. Yet, the current American legal system does little to provide redress for women coerced to undergo certain medical procedures during childbirth. Courts and physicians alike are prepared to override a woman's choice of childbirth procedure if they believe this choice poses risks to the fetus, and both give little value to the woman's right to bodily autonomy...
January 2018: Duke Law Journal
B Ludes, A Geraut, M Väli, D Cusack, D Ferrara, E Keller, P Mangin, D N Vieira
Sexual assault is a complex situation with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Forensic experts play a major role in terms of forensic and gynecological medical examination and evidence collection in order to maintain the chain of custody. Victims should be examined by a specially trained medico-legal examiner in order to avoid multiple examinations in the surroundings that do not meet minimum health standards. The evolution and treatment of sexual assault victims are time-intensive and should optimally be provided by a team that includes a forensic medical doctor...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Wanêssa Lacerda Poton, Ana Luiza Gonçalves Soares, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Helen Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between breastfeeding duration and externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Data from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort was used. Information on breastfeeding was assessed at 12 months of age. Behavior was assessed at 4 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and at ages 11 and 15 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), both administered to the mother or caretaker. Of 5 249 cohort participants, those with complete data on breastfeeding and externalizing behaviors were included: 630 children at 4 years of age, 1 277 adolescents at 11 years, and 1 199 at 15 years...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Lanying Huang
Victim support services, in mature societies, aim to help victims recover after suffering a traumatic event. The effectiveness of victim support has traditionally been evaluated through rates of service utilization and incidence of psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study, instead, inquires into service users' unmet needs and satisfaction, and identifies factors that mediate such subjective measures, using data from a national cross-sectional survey on victims and surviving families of violent crime in Taiwan in 2011...
2018: PloS One
Paul D McGreevy, Mark D Griffiths, Frank R Ascione, Bethany Wilson
Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned...
2018: PloS One
Yiwei Xia, Spencer D Li, Tzu-Hsuan Liu
The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of cultural spillover theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how these three factors influenced adolescent violent offending and victimization. A total of 1192 middle and high school students were randomly selected from one of the largest cities in Southwest China...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Samantha P Williams, Kenneth L Bryant
BACKGROUND: Homelessness significantly affects health and well-being. Homeless adults often experience co-occurring and debilitating physical, psychological, and social conditions. These determinants are associated with disproportionate rates of infectious disease among homeless adults, including tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis. Less is known about sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among homeless adults. METHODS: We systematically searched three databases, and reviewed the 2000-2016 literature on STI prevalence among homeless adults in the U...
January 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Claudia M Carlini, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions...
February 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Kabir Dasgupta, Gail Pacheco
State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation...
February 21, 2018: Health Economics
Rachel M Tache, Sharon F Lambert, Jody M Ganiban, Nicholas S Ialongo
Research suggests that neighborhood risks are associated with internalizing symptoms for adolescents high on temperament characteristics related to the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). However, it is unclear whether newer conceptualizations of the BIS distinguishing fear from anxiety operate similarly. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the BIS attenuates community violence exposure effects on externalizing problems. The current study examined whether the BIS or the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) moderated associations between community violence exposure and internalizing and externalizing problems...
February 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Steven Moylan
BACKGROUND: The recent death of a Victorian surgeon who was assaulted by a member of the public when leaving work has re-highlighted the risk and potential cost of violence experienced by healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to outline the risk of occupational violence experienced by doctors, and general practitioners in particular, and to discuss practical measures that can be taken to manage this risk. DISCUSSION: The majority of doctors have experienced aggression or violence in their workplaces in the past 12 months...
December 2017: Australian Family Physician
Kátia Biagio Fontes, Ana Carolina Jacinto Alarcão, Oscar Kenji Nihei, Sandra Marisa Pelloso, Luciano Andrade, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate disparities in a Brazilian state by conducting an analysis to determine whether socioeconomic status was associated with the reported intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) rates against women. DESIGN: A retrospective, ecological study. SETTINGS: Data retrieved from the Notifiable Diseases Information System database of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: All cases of IPSV (n=516) against women aged 15-49 years reported in the Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2009 and 2014...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Munas M Muzrif, Dinusha Perera, Kumudu Wijewardena, Berit Schei, Katarina Swahnberg
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the regional differences in domestic violence among pregnant women in the capital district and in the tea plantation sector of Sri Lanka, to explore potential contributory factors and to assess whether healthcare workers addressed domestic violence and disclosure among survivors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out using interviewer-administered Abuse Assessment Screen. SETTING: Fifty-seven antenatal clinic centres in the capital district and 30 in the tea plantation sector...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Felix Akpojene Ogbo, John Eastwood, Alexandra Hendry, Bin Jalaludin, Kingsley E Agho, Bryanne Barnett, Andrew Page
BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading source of morbidity and health loss in Australian women. This study investigates the determinants of antenatal depressive symptoms and postnatal depressive symptoms in an Australian population, including people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. METHOD: The study used a retrospective cohort of mothers of all live births in public health facilities in 2014 (N = 17,564) within South Western Sydney Local Health District and Sydney Local Health District in New South Wales, Australia...
February 20, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Amy Lehrner, Nicole E Allen
The relevance of gender has been a central debate in the intimate partner violence (IPV) literature. The current qualitative study explored the role of gender in shaping the social context, meaning, and reception of young women's IPV in the United States. A total of 36 undergraduate women were recruited from a larger sample for in-depth interviews. Emergent themes suggest that women's violence was construed as nonequivalent to men's violence, including the perceived triviality of women's violence, contingencies under which women's violence is deemed acceptable, and the status of male IPV as unacceptable...
February 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Lindsay A Taliaferro, Barbara J McMorris, G Nicole Rider, Marla E Eisenberg
This study sought to identify factors distinguishing transgender/gender non-conforming (GNC) adolescents across three groups: no self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI and suicide attempt (NSSI +SA). Data were from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. The final analytic sample included 1,635 transgender/GNC students in grades 9 and 11. Logistic regression analyses determined factors that best distinguished transgender/GNC students who reported self-harm (NSSI only or NSSI +SA) from those who reported no self-harm, and transgender/GNC adolescents who reported NSSI +SA from those who reported NSSI only...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
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