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Cycling light

Manuel Iglesias, Luis A Oro
This review summarises the most recent advances in Ir-NHC catalysis while revisiting all the classical reactions in which this type of catalyst has proved to be active. The influence of the ligand system and, in particular, the impact of the NHC ligand on the activity and selectivity of the reaction have been analysed, accompanied by an examination of the great variety of catalytic cycles hitherto reported. The reaction mechanisms so far proposed are described and commented on for each individual process. Moreover, some general considerations that attempt to explain the influence of the NHC from a mechanistic viewpoint are presented at the end of the review...
March 20, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Astrid Hauptmann, Katja Podgoršek, Drago Kuzman, Stanko Srčič, Georg Hoelzl, Thomas Loerting
PURPOSE: This study addresses the effect of freezing and thawing on a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution and the corresponding buffer formulation. Particle formation, crystallization behaviour, morphology changes and cryo-concentration effects were studied after varying the freezing and thawing rates, buffer formulation and protein concentration. The impact of undergoing multiple freeze/thaw (FT)-cycles at controlled and uncontrolled temperature rates on mAb solutions was investigated in terms of particle formation...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Erika Salavarría, Sujay Paul, Patricia Gil-Kodaka, Gretty K Villena
To understand the physiological responses of the brown macroalga Macrocystis integrifolia during the marine tidal cycle, two RNA libraries were prepared from algal frond samples collected in the intertidal zone (0 m depth) and subtidal zone (10 m depth). Samples collected from intertidal zone during low tide was considered as abiotic stressed (MI0), while samples collected from subtidal zone was considered as control (MI10). Both RNA libraries were sequenced on Illumina NextSeq 500 which generated approx...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Michaela Lichtenegger, Oleksandra Tiapko, Barbora Svobodova, Thomas Stockner, Toma N Glasnov, Wolfgang Schreibmayer, Dieter Platzer, Gema Guedes de la Cruz, Sarah Krenn, Romana Schober, Niroj Shrestha, Rainer Schindl, Christoph Romanin, Klaus Groschner
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPC7 are able to sense the lipid messenger diacylglycerol (DAG). The DAG-sensing and lipid-gating processes in these ion channels are still unknown. To gain insights into the lipid-sensing principle, we generated a DAG photoswitch, OptoDArG, that enabled efficient control of TRPC3 by light. A structure-guided mutagenesis screen of the TRPC3 pore domain unveiled a single glycine residue behind the selectivity filter (G652) that is exposed to lipid through a subunit-joining fenestration...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Kiyomichi Imamura, Hikari Yoshitane, Kazuki Hattori, Mitsuo Yamaguchi, Kento Yoshida, Takenori Okubo, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo, Yoshitaka Fukada
Daily rhythms of behaviors and physiologies are generated by the circadian clock, which is composed of clock genes and the encoded proteins forming transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs). The circadian clock is a self-sustained oscillator and flexibly responds to various time cues to synchronize with environmental 24-h cycles. However, the key molecule that transmits cellular stress to the circadian clockwork is unknown. Here we identified apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK), a member of the MAPKKK family, as an essential mediator determining the circadian period and phase of cultured cells in response to osmotic changes of the medium...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amy L Robinson-Junker, Bruce F O'hara, Brianna N Gaskill
Sleep disruption in humans, caused by shift work, can be detrimental to physical and behavioral health. Nocturnal laboratory mice may experience a similar disruption caused by human daytime activities, but whether this disruption affects their welfare is unknown. We used 48 mice (CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c of both sexes) in a factorial design to test a sleep disruption treatment, in which mice were disturbed by providing routine husbandry at either 1000 or 2200 during a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, with lights on at 0700...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Chang-Gu Lee, Hassan Javed, Danning Zhang, Jae-Hong Kim, Paul Westerhoff, Qilin Li, Pedro J J Alvarez
Using a bi-polymer system consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), P25-TiO2 was immobilized into thin film mats of porous electrospun fibers. Pores were introduced by dissolving sacrificial PVP to increase surface area and enhance access to TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activity was achieved using a PVDF:PVP weight ratio of 2:1. Methylene blue (MB) was used to visualize contaminant removal, assess the sorption capacity (5.93 ± 0.23 mg/g) and demonstrate stable removal kinetics (kMB > 0...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shweta Duggal, Noor Jailkhani, Mukul Kumar Midha, Kanury V S Rao, Ajay Kumar
The Rb protein is a tumor suppressor protein that regulates the key G1S checkpoint consequently blocking the progression of cell cycle into S-phase. Despite its pertinent role in cell cycle regulation, comprehensive information on its interacting partners across cell cycle progression is lacking. Here, we aim to submit a comprehensive set of Rb interactors as the cell progresses from G0 through G1 and S into G2 phase in HEK 293 cell line. Affinity purification of HA-tagged Rb protein along with its interactors was analyzed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS)...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Anouk S Lubbe, Qing Liu, Sanne J Smith, Jan Willem de Vries, Jos C M Kistemaker, Alex H De Vries, Ignacio Faustino, Zhuojun Meng, Wiktor Szymanski, Andreas Herrmann, Ben L Feringa
Reversible control over the functionality of biological systems via external triggers may be used in future medicine to reduce the need for invasive procedures. Additionally, externally regulated biomacromolecules are now considered as particularly attractive tools in nanoscience and the design of smart materials, due to their highly programmable nature and complex functionality. Incorporation of photoswitches into biomolecules, such as peptides, antibiotics and nucleic acids, has generated exciting results in the past few years...
March 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Osnat Israelsohn-Azulay, Yigal Zidon, Tsadok Tsach
A shooting event involved several types of ammunition that were all shot from a single firearm. GSR analysis of samples taken from the suspect's hands, hair and from his clothes was carried out. Mixed compositions particles were found among other GSR particles, attributed to the weapon memory effect. SEM/EDX analysis of these particles highlighted a particle with defined domains containing distinct groups of elements. Some of these elements were absent in the primers mixtures of the ammunition used in the shooting event...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yizhi Zhuo, Verner Håkonsen, Zhiwei He, Senbo Xiao, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Ice accretion presents a severe risk for human safety. Despite great efforts for developing icephobic surfaces (the surface with an ice adhesion strength below 100 kPa) have been devoted, expanding the lifetime of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces still remains as a critical unsolved issue. Herein, a novel icephobic material is designed by integrating interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) into autonomous self-healing elastomer, and applied in anti-icing for enhancing mechanical durability. The molecular structure, surface morphology, mechanical properties and durable icephobicity of the material were studied...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Aurore Quinault, Corinne Leloup, Geoffrey Denwood, Coralie Spiegelhalter, Marianne Rodriguez, Philippe Lefebvre, Nadia Messaddeq, Quan Zhang, Catherine Dacquet, Luc Pénicaud, Stephan C Collins
The rhythmic nature of insulin secretion over the 24h cycle in pancreatic islets has been mostly investigated using transcriptomics studies showing that modulation of insulin secretion over this cycle is achieved via distal stages of insulin secretion. We set out to measure β-cell exocytosis using in depth cell physiology techniques at several time points. In agreement with the activity and feeding pattern of nocturnal rodents, we find that C57/Bl6J islets in culture for 24h exhibit higher insulin secretion during the corresponding dark phase than in the light phase (Zeitgeber Time ZT20 and ZT8, respectively, in vivo)...
2018: PloS One
David B Medeiros, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Werner C Antunes, Wagner L Araújo, Danilo M Daloso, Alisdair R Fernie
Sucrose has long been thought to play an osmolytic role in stomatal opening. However, recent evidence supports the idea that the role of sucrose in this process is primarily energetic. Here we used a combination of stomatal aperture assays coupled with kinetic [U-13 C]-sucrose isotope labelling experiments to confirm that sucrose is degraded during light-induced stomatal opening and to define the fate of the C released from sucrose breakdown. We additionally show that addition of sucrose in the medium did not enhance light-induced stomatal opening...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael Hart
Daytime use of adaptive optics (AO) at large telescopes is hampered by shot noise from the bright sky background. Wave-front sensing may use a sodium laser guide star observed through a magneto-optical filter to suppress the background, but the laser beacon is not sensitive to overall image motion. To estimate that, laser-guided AO systems generally rely on light from the object itself, collected through the full aperture of the telescope. Daylight sets a lower limit to the brightness of an object that may be tracked at rates sufficient to overcome the image jitter...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Antoneicka L Harris, Samantha E Lee, Louis K Dawson, Laura A Marlow, Brandy H Edenfield, William F Durham, Thomas J Flotte, Michael Thompson, Daniel L Small, Aidan J Synnott, Svetomir N Markovic, John A Copland
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse models were used to discover new therapies for naïve and drug resistant BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma. Tumor histology, oncogenic protein expression, and antitumor activity were comparable between patient and PDTX-matched models thereby validating PDTXs as predictive preclinical models of therapeutic response in patients. PDTX models responsive and non-responsive to BRAF/MEK standard of care (SOC) therapy were used to identify efficacious combination therapies. One such combination includes a CDK4/6 inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nanako Kanno, Katsumi Matsuura, Shin Haruta
Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark...
March 13, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Julia N Bailey, Laurence de Nijs, Dongsheng Bai, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Miyabi Tanaka, Christopher Patterson, Yu-Chen Lin, Marco T Medina, María E Alonso, José M Serratosa, Reyna M Durón, Viet H Nguyen, Jenny E Wight, Iris E Martínez-Juárez, Adriana Ochoa, Aurelio Jara-Prado, Laura Guilhoto, Yolly Molina, Elsa M Yacubian, Minerva López-Ruiz, Yushi Inoue, Sunao Kaneko, Shinichi Hirose, Makiko Osawa, Hirokazu Oguni, Shinji Fujimoto, Thierry M Grisar, John M Stern, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Bernard Lakaye, Antonio V Delgado-Escueta
BACKGROUND: In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, data are limited on the genetic basis of networks promoting convulsions with diffuse polyspikes on electroencephalography (EEG) and the subtle microscopic brain dysplasia called microdysgenesis. METHODS: Using Sanger sequencing, we sequenced the exomes of six members of a large family affected with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and confirmed cosegregation in all 37 family members. We screened an additional 310 patients with this disorder for variants on DNA melting-curve analysis and targeted real-time DNA sequencing of the gene encoding intestinal-cell kinase ( ICK)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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