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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820214/mediated-water-electrolysis-in-biphasic-systems
#1
Micheál D Scanlon, Pekka Peljo, Lucie Rivier, Heron Vrubel, Hubert H Girault
The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819133/combined-transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-of-metformin-effects-reveal-novel-links-between-metabolic-networks-in-steroidogenic-systems
#2
Sameer S Udhane, Balazs Legeza, Nesa Marti, Damian Hertig, Gaëlle Diserens, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Peter Vermathen, Christa E Flück
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug, which inhibits mitochondrial respiratory-chain-complex I and thereby seems to affect the cellular metabolism in many ways. It is also used for the treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women. In addition, metformin possesses antineoplastic properties. Although metformin promotes insulin-sensitivity and ameliorates reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, its exact mechanisms of action remain elusive. Therefore, we studied the transcriptome and the metabolome of metformin in human adrenal H295R cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818407/effects-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-and-copper-ions-to-zebrafish-danio-rerio-cells-embryos-and-fry
#3
Amalie Thit, Lars M Skjolding, Henriette Selck, Joachim Sturve
The use of engineered metal nanoparticles (NPs) is continuously increasing and so is the need for information regarding their toxicity. This study compares the toxicity of CuO NPs with ionic Cu in three zebrafish model systems; zebrafish hepatoma cell line (ZFL), fish embryo toxicity test (FET) and fry locomotion. In the ZFL tests, no significant cytotoxicity (cell death, decreased metabolic or cell membrane integrity) was detected for either treatment, though both significantly affected reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818378/nsr1-myr2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-asn1-expression-and-its-possible-involvement-in-regulation-of-nitrogen-reutilization-in-arabidopsis
#4
Yoshimi Nakano, Yuki Naito, Toshitsugu Nakano, Namie Ohtsuki, Kaoru Suzuki
Nitrogen (N) is a major macronutrient that is essential for plant growth. It is important for us to understand the key genes that are involved in the regulation of N utilization. In this study, we focused on a GARP-type transcription factor known as NSR1/MYR2, which has been reported to be induced under N-deficient conditions. Our results demonstrated that NSR1/MYR2 has a transcriptional repression activity and is specifically expressed in vascular tissues, especially in phloem throughout the plant under daily light-dark cycle regulation...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#5
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815533/hijacking-of-membrane-contact-sites-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#6
Isabelle Derré
Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack host cellular processes to promote their survival and replication inside host cells. Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to the strategies employed by these pathogens to manipulate various vesicular trafficking pathways. But in the past 5 years, studies have brought to light that intracellular bacteria also target non-vesicular trafficking pathways. Here we review how three vacuolar pathogens, namely, Legionella, Chlamydia, and Coxiella hijack components of cellular MCS with or without the formation of stable MCS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814805/intercalating-and-maintenance-gefitinib-plus-chemotherapy-versus-chemotherapy-alone-in-selected-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-unknown-egfr-status
#7
Hong Jian, Wei Li, Zhiyong Ma, Jianjin Huang, Jifeng Feng, Yong Song, Beili Gao, Huili Zhu, Min Tao, Chong Bai, Shenglin Ma, Hongming Pan, Shukui Qin, Dong Hua, Yongfeng Yu, Shun Lu
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. However, EGFR mutation testing is not attainable in approximately 20% of patients. The current study examined intercalating and maintaining gefitinib treatment in stage IIIB/IV non-squamous NSCLC, never or former light smoking patients with unknown EGFR mutation status. Briefly, 219 patients who achieved stable disease (SD) with gemcitabine (1250 mg/m(2)) plus carboplatin (5 AUC) were randomized at 1:1 ratio to continue chemotherapy (n = 110) or intercalating gefitinib (250 mg/day on days 15-25 of each cycle until disease progress (n = 109)...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813718/transgenic-mice-over-expressing-rbp4-have-rbp4-dependent-and-light-independent-retinal-degeneration
#8
Mei Du, Eric Phelps, Michael J Balangue, Aaron Dockins, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Younghwa Shin, Shelley Kane, Laura Otalora, Jian-Xing Ma, Rafal Farjo, Krysten M Farjo
Purpose: Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear. Previous studies showed RBP4-Tg mice have normal ocular retinoid levels, suggesting that degeneration is independent of the retinoid visual cycle or light exposure. The present study addresses whether retinal degeneration is light-dependent and RBP4-dependent by testing the effects of dark-rearing and pharmacological lowering of serum RBP4 levels, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813456/a-simple-molecular-mechanism-explains-multiple-patterns-of-cell-size-regulation
#9
Morgan Delarue, Daniel Weissman, Oskar Hallatschek
Increasingly accurate and massive data have recently shed light on the fundamental question of how cells maintain a stable size trajectory as they progress through the cell cycle. Microbes seem to use strategies ranging from a pure sizer, where the end of a given phase is triggered when the cell reaches a critical size, to pure adder, where the cell adds a constant size during a phase. Yet the biological origins of the observed spectrum of behavior remain elusive. We analyze a molecular size-control mechanism, based on experimental data from the yeast S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812876/cocatalysing-pt-pto-phase-junction-nanodots-on-hierarchically-porous-tio2-for-highly-enhanced-photocatalytic-hydrogen-production
#10
Xiaoning Ren, Zhiyi Hu, Jun Jin, Liang Wu, Chao Wang, Jing Liu, Fu Liu, Min Wu, Yu Li, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Bao-Lian Su
Phase-junction between cocatalyst and semiconductor host is quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity, and is widely studied while the report on the phase-juncted cocatalyst is still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots formation and dispersity...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812604/stand-age-and-species-richness-dampen-interannual-variation-of-ecosystem-level-photosynthetic-capacity
#11
Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Jens Kattge, Christian Wirth, T Andrew Black, Ivan Janssens, Alexander Knohl, Denis Loustau, Olivier Roupsard, Andrej Varlagin, Serge Rambal, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Hiroaki Kondo, Rijan Tamrakar, Miguel D Mahecha
The total uptake of carbon dioxide by ecosystems via photosynthesis (gross primary productivity, GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. A key ecosystem functional property determining GPP is the photosynthetic capacity at light saturation (GPPsat), and its interannual variability (IAV) is propagated to the net land-atmosphere exchange of CO2. Given the importance of understanding the IAV in CO2 fluxes for improving the predictability of the global carbon cycle, we have tested a range of alternative hypotheses to identify potential drivers of the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat in forest ecosystems...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#12
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810204/characteristics-of-black-carbon-emissions-from-in-use-light-duty-passenger-vehicles
#13
Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, K Max Zhang, Xian Wu, Zhenhua Li, Jiming Hao
Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809958/a-cre1-regulated-cluster-is-responsible-for-light-dependent-production-of-dihydrotrichotetronin-in-trichoderma-reesei
#14
Alberto Alonso Monroy, Eva Stappler, Andre Schuster, Michael Sulyok, Monika Schmoll
Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808107/structure-of-psb29-thf1-and-its-association-with-the-ftsh-protease-complex-involved-in-photosystem-ii-repair-in-cyanobacteria
#15
Martina Bec Ková, Jianfeng Yu, Vendula Krynická, Amanda Kozlo, Shengxi Shao, Peter Koník, Josef Komenda, James W Murray, Peter J Nixon
One strategy for enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants is to improve their ability to repair photosystem II (PSII) in response to irreversible damage by light. Despite the pivotal role of thylakoid-embedded FtsH protease complexes in the selective degradation of PSII subunits during repair, little is known about the factors involved in regulating FtsH expression. Here we show using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that the Psb29 subunit, originally identified as a minor component of His-tagged PSII preparations, physically interacts with FtsH complexes in vivo and is required for normal accumulation of the FtsH2/FtsH3 hetero-oligomeric complex involved in PSII repair...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807764/staphylococcal-enterotoxin-c2-mutant-drives-t-lymphocyte-activation-through-pi3k-mtor-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathways
#16
Xuanhe Fu, Mingkai Xu, Songyuan Yao, Huiwen Zhang, Chenggang Zhang, Jinghai Zhang
Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2), a superantigen, causes rapid clonal expansion of lymphocytes and secretion of T cell growth factors, leading to a severe inflammatory response within tissues. Although previous studies have shown that ST-4, a SEC2 mutant with enhanced recognition of Vβ regions of T-cell receptors (TCRVβ), can activate an increased number of T cells and produce more cytokines than SEC2. However, the signaling mechanisms of SEC2/ST-4-mediated immune activation have not been addressed. In this study, we showed that the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor LY294002, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor Bay11-7085 could suppress SEC2/ST-4-induced proliferation, CD69/CD25 expression, cell-cycle progression, and IL-2 production in BALB/c mouse splenocytes...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807299/seasonality-and-circadian-variation-of-microfilaremia-in-dogs-experimentally-infected-with-dirofilaria-immitis
#17
Léonore Lovis, Mélanie Grandjean, Laurence Overney, Wolfgang Seewald, Heinz Sager
Periodicity, the cyclical rise and fall in microfilaria (mff) numbers in the peripheral blood over time, is observed in many filarial infections. It is correlated with the necessity for these larval stages to be ingested by the blood feeding vector before they can be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Microfilariae of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis have been described to show periodicity, but the circadian pattern does not seem to be consistent. Most publications describe the lowest mff-concentrations in the peripheral blood in the early morning, while the highest counts occurred either in the afternoon, in the late evening or shortly after midnight...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807106/developmental-adaptations-of-trypanosome-motility-to-the-tsetse-fly-host-environments-unravel-a-multifaceted-in-vivo-microswimmer-system
#18
Sarah Schuster, Timothy Krüger, Ines Subota, Sina Thusek, Brice Rotureau, Andreas Beilhack, Markus Engstler
The highly motile and versatile protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex life cycle in the tsetse fly. Here we introduce the host insect as an expedient model environment for microswimmer research, as it allows examination of microbial motion within a diversified, secluded and yet microscopically tractable space. During their week-long journey through the different microenvironments of the fly´s interior organs, the incessantly swimming trypanosomes cross various barriers and confined surroundings, with concurrently occurring major changes of parasite cell architecture...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806753/accelerometer-derived-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-by-cancer-type-in-the-united-states
#19
Keith M Thraen-Borowski, Keith P Gennuso, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram
The 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were among the first population-level studies to incorporate objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior, allowing for greater understanding of these behaviors. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive examination of these data in cancer survivors, including short- and long-term survivors of all cancer types. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to use these data to describe activity behaviors in short- and long-term cancer survivors of various types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806056/self-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-crystalline-agbio3-for-the-oxidative-remediation-of-organic-pollutants
#20
Jianyu Gong, Chung-Seop Lee, Eun-Ju Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Woojin Lee, Yoon-Seok Chang
In this study, we synthesized a novel perovskite nanomaterial consisting of AgBiO3 nanoparticles (NPs) via an ion-exchange method for remediation of polluted environments. The AgBiO3 NPs could self-produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) without light illumination or any other additional oxidant due to the controllable release of lattice oxygen from the crystalline AgBiO3, resulting in the formation of ROS somehow. The self-produced (1)O2, O2(•-), and (•)OH were confirmed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using a spin trap technique...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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