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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722049/photochrome-doped-organic-films-for-photonic-keypad-locks-and-multi-state-fluorescence
#1
Chris Ritchie, George Vamvounis, Hamid Soleimaninejad, Trevor A Smith, Evan J Bieske, Viktoras Dryza
The spectroscopic properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer films doped with two kinds of photochromic molecular switches are investigated. A green-fluorescent sulfonyl diarylethene (P1) is combined with either a non-fluorescent diarylethene (P2) or red-fluorescent spiropyran (P3). Photoswitching between the colorless and colored isomers (P1: o-BTFO4 ↔ c-BTFO4, P2: o-DTE ↔ c-DTE, P3: SP ↔ MC) enables the P1 + P2 and P1 + P3 films to be cycled through three distinct states. From the initial state (o-BTFO4 + o-DTE/SP), irradiation with UV light generates the second state (c-BTFO4 + c-DTE/MC), where c-BTFO4 → c-DTE/MC energy transfer is established...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#2
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720699/cellular-trade-offs-and-optimal-resource-allocation-during-cyanobacterial-diurnal-growth
#3
Alexandra-M Reimers, Henning Knoop, Alexander Bockmayr, Ralf Steuer
Cyanobacteria are an integral part of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and a promising resource for the synthesis of renewable bioproducts from atmospheric CO2 Growth and metabolism of cyanobacteria are inherently tied to the diurnal rhythm of light availability. As yet, however, insight into the stoichiometric and energetic constraints of cyanobacterial diurnal growth is limited. Here, we develop a computational framework to investigate the optimal allocation of cellular resources during diurnal phototrophic growth using a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720290/how-to-improve-sleep-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review
#4
Agnes van den Hoogen, Charlotte J Teunis, Renée A Shellhaas, Sigrid Pillen, Manon Benders, Jeroen Dudink
There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a major role in the development of neural pathways in the neonatal brain. Several studies have suggested evidence-based approaches to improve sleep for infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); however, in many neonatal centers very few of these strategies seem to be implemented in routine care. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature to determine interventions promoting neonatal sleep on the NICU, in order to develop key guidelines to improve neonatal sleep...
July 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720249/using-wheel-availability-to-shape-running-behavior-of-the-rat-towards-improved-behavioral-and-neurobiological-outcomes
#5
Julia C Basso, Joan I Morrell
BACKGROUND: Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. NEW METHOD: We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses"...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719961/artyfechinostomum-malayanum-metacercariae-encysted-in-pila-sp-snails-purchased-from-phnom-penh-cambodia
#6
Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong, Keeseon S Eom, Muth Sinuon, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Jong-Yil Chai
The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#7
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718480/visible-light-induced-thiotrifluoromethylation-of-terminal-alkenes-with-sodium-triflinate-and-benzenesulfonothioates
#8
Weiguang Kong, Hejun An, Qiuling Song
An unconventional reductive quenching cycle was developed to realize the visible-light-induced thiotrifluoromethylation of terminal alkenes. CF3SO2Na was used as an easy to handle CF3 radical source to afford the desired products in moderate to good yields. Mild reaction conditions and a broad substrate scope feature in this transformation.
July 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718293/functional-design-of-dielectric-metal-dielectric-based-thin-film-encapsulation-with-heat-transfer-and-flexibility-for-flexible-displays
#9
Jeong Hyun Kwon, Seungyeop Choi, Yongmin Jeon, Hyuncheol Kim, Ki Soo Chang, Kyung Cheol Choi
In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, considered as essential requirements for OLED encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al2O3, Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10-6 g/m2/day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm corresponding to 0...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717024/inorganic-carbon-availability-in-benthic-diatom-communities-photosynthesis-and-migration
#10
REVIEW
Jorge Marques da Silva, Sónia Cruz, Paulo Cartaxana
Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716091/suppression-of-the-phytoene-synthase-gene-egcrtb-alters-carotenoid-content-and-intracellular-structure-of-euglena-gracilis
#11
Shota Kato, Mika Soshino, Shinichi Takaichi, Takahiro Ishikawa, Noriko Nagata, Masashi Asahina, Tomoko Shinomura
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organisms utilize carotenoids for photoprotection as well as light harvesting. Our previous study revealed that high-intensity light increases the expression of the gene for phytoene synthase (EgcrtB) in Euglena gracilis (a unicellular phytoflagellate), the encoded enzyme catalyzes the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. To examine carotenoid synthesis of E. gracilis in response to light stress, we analyzed carotenoid species and content in cells grown under various light intensities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715652/linkage-between-the-leader-sequence-and-leader-rna-production-in-borna-disease-virus-infected-cells
#12
Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Shohei Kojima, Yusuke Yamamoto, Naohiro Ohtaki, Keizo Tomonaga
The 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the non-segmented, negative-strand (NNS) RNA viral genome is called the leader sequence, and functions as the promoter for viral replication and transcription. NNS RNA viruses also use the sequence as a template to synthesize leader RNAs (leRNAs) with unknown functions. Borna disease virus (BDV) is unique because it establishes a persistent infection and replicates in the nucleus. No report has yet demonstrated the presence of leRNAs during BDV infection. Here, we report that BDV synthesizes leRNAs from the 3'-UTR of the genome...
July 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715250/the-development-of-technology-for-effective-respiratory-gated-irradiation-using-an-image-guided-small-animal-irradiator
#13
M A Hill, J Thompson, A Kavanagh, I D C Tullis, R G Newman, J Prentice, J Beech, S Gilchrist, S Smart, E Fokas, B Vojnovic
The development of image-guided small animal irradiators represents a significant improvement over standard irradiators by enabling preclinical studies to mimic radiotherapy in humans. The ability to deliver tightly collimated targeted beams, in conjunction with gantry or animal couch rotation, has the potential to maximize tumor dose while sparing normal tissues. However, the current commercial platforms do not incorporate respiratory gating, which is required for accurate and precise targeting in organs subject to respiration related motions that may be up to the order of 5 mm in mice...
July 17, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713045/cortisol-elevation-post-hatch-affects-behavioural-performance-in-zebrafish-larvae
#14
Carol Best, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Maternal cortisol is essential for cortisol stress axis development and de novo production of this steroid commences only after hatch in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, very little is known about the effect of elevated cortisol levels, during the critical period of stress axis activation, on larval performance. We tested the hypothesis that elevated cortisol levels post-hatch affect behavioural performance and this is mediated by glucocorticoid receptor activation in zebrafish larvae. The behavioural response included measuring larval activity in response to alternating light and dark cycles, as well as thigmotaxis...
July 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711836/one-step-in-situ-hydrothermal-fabrication-of-octahedral-cds-snin4s8-nano-heterojunction-for-highly-efficient-photocatalytic-treatment-of-nitrophenol-and-real-pharmaceutical-wastewater
#15
Fang Deng, Fei Zhong, Lina Zhao, Xubiao Luo, Shenglian Luo, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Octahedral CdS/SnIn4S8 nano-heterojunctions were fabricated by a facile and simple one-step in situ hydrothermal method, and the molar ratio of CdS to SnIn4S8 was optimized. The optimal (0.5:1)CdS/SnIn4S8 heterojunctions exhibit the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity with 97.1% degradation efficiency of 2-nitrophenol in 120min, which is much higher than those of individual CdS and SnIn4S8. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charges originating from the well-matched band gap structures...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711776/sleep-wake-profiles-and-circadian-rhythms-of-core-temperature-and-melatonin-in-young-people-with-affective-disorders
#16
Joanne S Carpenter, Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Christopher Gordon, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
While disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are common in people with affective disorders, the characteristics of these disturbances differ greatly between individuals. This heterogeneity is likely to reflect multiple underlying pathophysiologies, with different perturbations in circadian systems contributing to the variation in sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Such disturbances may be particularly relevant in adolescents and young adults with affective disorders as circadian rhythms undergo considerable change during this key developmental period...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711512/seasonality-in-affective-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Anna Wirz-Justice
Humans retain neurobiological responses to circadian day-night cycles and seasonal changes in daylength in spite of a life-style usually independent of dawn-dusk signals. Seasonality has been documented in many functions, from mood to hormones to gene expression. Research on seasonal affective disorder initiated the first use of timed bright light as therapy, a treatment since extended to non-seasonal major depression and sleep-wake cycle disturbances in many psychiatric and medical illnesses. The growing recognition that sufficient light is important for psychological and somatic well-being is leading to the development of novel lighting solutions in architecture as well as focus on a more conscious exposure to natural daylight...
July 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710358/latitudinal-cline-of-chronotype
#18
Mario André Leocadio-Miguel, Fernando Mazzili Louzada, Leandro Lourenção Duarte, Roberta Peixoto Areas, Marilene Alam, Marcelo Ventura Freire, John Fontenele-Araujo, Luiz Menna-Barreto, Mario Pedrazzoli
The rotation of the Earth around its own axis and around the sun determines the characteristics of the light/dark cycle, the most stable and ancient 24 h temporal cue for all organisms. Due to the tilt in the earth's axis in relation to the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun, sunlight reaches the Earth differentially depending on the latitude. The timing of circadian rhythms varies among individuals of a given population and biological and environmental factors underlie this variability. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that latitude is associated to the regulation of circadian rhythm in humans...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709672/evaluation-of-color-stability-of-preshaded-and-liquid-shaded-monolithic-zirconia
#19
Aikaterini Papageorgiou-Kyrana, Maria Kokoti, Eleana Kontonasaki, Petros Koidis
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The effect of thermal aging on the color stability of monolithic zirconia has not been thoroughly investigated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability before and after thermal cycling of monolithic zirconia specimens, which were either preshaded or characterized in the laboratory through the assessment of color parameters L*, a*, and b*. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 80 specimens (10×10×15 mm) were prepared from zirconia disks (BruxZir) and divided into 2 groups...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709107/efficient-bacterial-inactivation-with-z-scheme-agi-bi2moo6-under-visible-light-irradiation
#20
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Jun Deng, Mian Li, Meiping Tong
A novel Z-scheme AgI/Bi2MoO6 hybrid photocatalyst was fabricated via a solvothermal-precipitation approach to disinfect bacteria in water. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), as well as photoluminescence spectra (PL) were employed to characterize the fabricated photocatalyst. Due to the stronger redox potential and better separation of charge carriers induced by the Z-scheme structure, the optimal synthesized AgI/Bi2MoO6 exhibited excellent disinfection activity towards both Gram-negative strain Escherichia coli (E...
July 6, 2017: Water Research
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