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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221136/an-essential-dual-function-complex-mediates-erythrocyte-invasion-and-channel-mediated-nutrient-uptake-in-malaria-parasites
#1
Daisuke Ito, Marc A Schureck, Sanjay A Desai
Malaria parasites evade immune detection by growth and replication within erythrocytes. After erythrocyte invasion, the intracellular pathogen must increase host cell uptake of nutrients from plasma. Here, we report that the parasite-encoded RhopH complex contributes to both invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As rhoph2 and rhoph3 gene knockouts were not viable in the human P. falciparum pathogen, we used conditional knockdowns to determine that the encoded proteins are essential and to identify their stage-specific functions...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219435/changing-the-policy-for-intermittent-preventive-treatment-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-during-pregnancy-in-malawi
#2
Chikondi A Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Kamija Phiri, Charles Hongoro, Clifford M Mutero
BACKGROUND: The growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment for uncomplicated malaria led to a recommendation by the World Health Organization for the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Inevitably, concerns were also raised surrounding the use of SP for intermittent prevention treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) amidst the lack of alternative drugs. Malawi was the first country to adopt intermittent prevention treatment with SP in 1993, and updated in 2013...
February 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212641/local-constraints-to-access-appropriate-malaria-treatment-in-the-context-of-parasite-resistance-in-cambodia-a-qualitative-study
#3
Jesse Verschuere, Tom Decroo, Dara Lim, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Chea Nguon, Rekol Huy, Yasmine Alkourdi, Koen Peeters Grietens, Charlotte Gryseels
BACKGROUND: Despite emerging drug resistance in Cambodia, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is still the most efficacious therapy. ACT is available free of charge in the Cambodian public sector and at a subsidized rate in the private sector. However, un- and mistreated cases in combination with population movements may lead to the further spread of resistant parasites, stressing the importance of understanding how the perceived aetiology of malaria and associated health-seeking behaviour may delay access to appropriate treatment...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203236/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-cylindromatosis-dampens-cd8-t-cell-responses-and-is-a-critical-factor-for-experimental-cerebral-malaria-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage
#4
Ursula Schmid, Werner Stenzel, Josephin Koschel, Maria Raptaki, Xu Wang, Michael Naumann, Kai Matuschewski, Dirk Schlüter, Gopala Nishanth
Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of human malaria and may lead to death of Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals. Cerebral malaria is associated with sequestration of parasitized red blood cells within the cerebral microvasculature resulting in damage of the blood-brain barrier and brain pathology. Although CD8(+) T cells have been implicated in the development of murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), several other studies have shown that CD8(+) T cells confer protection against blood-stage infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193647/piperaquine-population-pharmacokinetics-and-cardiac-safety-in-cambodia
#5
Pattaraporn Vanachayangkul, Chanthap Lon, Michele Spring, Sommethy Sok, Winita Ta-Aksorn, Chanikarn Kodchakorn, Sut-Thang Pann, Soklyda Chann, Mali Ittiverakul, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Nillawan Buathong, Worachet Kuntawunginn, Mary So, Theng Youdaline, Erin Milner, Mariusz Wojnarski, Charlotte Lanteri, Jessica Manning, Satharath Prom, Mark Haigney, Louis Cantilena, David Saunders
Despite rising resistance, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) remains a first line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in many parts of Cambodia. While generally well-tolerated as a 3-day regimen, compressed 2-day regimens were associated with treatment-limiting cardiac repolarization effects in a recent clinical trial. To better estimate the risks of piperaquine concentration on QT interval prolongation, we pooled data from 3 randomized clinical trials between 2010 and 2014 in northern Cambodia. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to compare exposure-response relationships between 2-day (2DP) and 3-day (3DP) regimens while accounting for differences in regimen and sample collection times between studies...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192434/adverse-effects-of-mefloquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-thailand-a-pooled-analysis-of-19-850-individual-patients
#6
Sue J Lee, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Ric N Price, Christine Luxemburger, François Nosten
Mefloquine (MQ) has been used for the treatment of malaria since the mid-1980s, first as monotherapy or as fixed combination with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (MSP) and since the mid-1990s in combination with artesunate. There is a renewed interested in MQ as part of a triple therapy for the treatment of multi-drug resistance P. falciparum malaria. The widespread use of MQ beyond south-East Asia has been constrained by reports of poor tolerability. Here we present the side effect profile of MQ for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria on the Thai-Myanmar/Cambodia borders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192202/ethnomedicinal-uses-of-plants-for-the-treatment-of-malaria-in-soon-valley-khushab-pakistan
#7
Amin Shah, Sarvat Rahim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: To best of our knowledge this is the first quantitative ethno-medicinal study with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge and practices of using plants for malarial therapy in Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan. In this Valley, malaria is among the major public health problems but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethno-medicinal data were documented from 63 informants by using semi-structured questionnaires and interviewing the informants about their knowledge of plants regarding malaria and related symptoms...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#8
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187497/antiretroviral-therapy-with-efavirenz-accentuates-pregnancy-associated-reduction-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-exposure-during-malaria-chemoprevention
#9
Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Prasanna Jagannathan, Nona Chamankhah, Moses Were, Theodore Ruel, Catherine A Koss, Abel Kakuru, Norah Mwebaza, Moses Kamya, Diane Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal, Francesca T Aweeka
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine is promising for malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy. We assessed impacts of pregnancy and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy on exposure to DHA and piperaquine in pregnant Ugandan women. Intensive sampling was performed at 28 weeks gestation in 31 HIV-uninfected pregnant women, in 27 HIV-infected pregnant women receiving efavirenz, and in 30 HIV-uninfected non-pregnant women. DHA peak concentration and area under the concentration time curve (AUC0-8hr ) were 50% and 47% lower, respectively, and piperaquine AUC0-21d was 40% lower in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185296/a-report-of-cerebral-malaria-treated-with-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange
#10
Waseem Q Anani, Gerald P Smith, Mehraboon Irani, Kathleen E Puca
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184408/malaria-therapy-for-ebola-virus-infection
#11
Michel Drancourt, Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166813/hidden-reservoir-of-resistant-parasites-the-missing-link-in-the-elimination-of-falciparum-malaria
#12
Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed A K Mahdy, John C Beier, Leonardo K Basco
BACKGROUND: To successfully eliminate malaria, an integrated system that includes a number of approaches and interventions-aimed at overcoming the threat of antimalarial drug resistance-is required. Significant progress has been made in reducing malaria incidence through large-scale use of artemisinin-based combination therapies and insecticide-treated nets. To consolidate these gains, attention should be paid to the missing links in the elimination of malaria. One of these gaps is the residual reservoir of submicroscopic resistant parasites, which remains after case management or other control measures have been carried out...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166440/malaria-treatment-using-novel-nano-based-drug-delivery-systems
#13
Uday Krishna Baruah, Kuppusamy Gowthamarajan, Ravisankar Vanka, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Kousalya Selvaraj, Gifty M Jojo
We reside in an era of technological innovation and advancement despite which infectious diseases like malaria remain to be one of the greatest threats to the humans. Mortality rate caused by malaria disease is a huge concern in the 21(st) century. Multiple drug resistance and non-specific drug targeting of the most widely used drugs are the main reasons/drawbacks behind the failure in malarial therapy. Dose related toxicity because of high doses is also a major concern. Therefore, to overcome these problems nano based drug delivery systems are being developed to facilitate site specific or target based drug delivery and hence minimising the development of resistance progress and dose dependent toxicity issues...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163164/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-for-infectious-diseases-learning-from-the-cancer-paradigm
#14
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells, induce immunological memory, and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies a poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review. METHODS: Online literature searches were performed via PubMed, PubMed Central, and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition"; "host-directed therapy"; "T cell exhaustion"; "cancer immunotherapy"; "anti-PD-1 therapy"; "anti-PD-L1 therapy"; "chronic infections"; "antigen-specific cells"; "tuberculosis"; "malaria"; "viral infections"; "human immunodeficiency virus"; "hepatitis B virus"; "hepatitis C virus"; "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus"...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157136/global-health-of-babies-and-children
#15
Susan Gennaro, Caitlin OʼConnor, Megan Marx
PURPOSE: We provide an overview of the health of neonates, infants, and children around the world. Issues in maximizing neonatal health are examined using the Sustainable Development Goals developed by the United Nations as a framework. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventions that can help optimize neonatal, infant, and child health in the future are reviewed, including increasing preventative healthcare (immunizations, malaria prevention, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life), enhancing point-of-care interventions (including umbilical cord care, antenatal corticosteroids if preterm birth is anticipated, and antibiotic therapy), enhancing nutritional interventions (to decrease diarrheal diseases and decrease wasting, stunting, and underweight), and building systems capacityClinical Implications: In an increasingly global world where wars, climate change, civil unrest, and economic uncertainty all influence health, it is important that nurses understand global health problems common for neonates, infants, and children and current recommendations to enhance their health...
February 1, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153004/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-artesunate-amodiaquine-and-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-angola-2015
#16
Mateusz M Plucinski, Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Aleixo Panzo Macaia, Carolina Miguel Ferreira, Claudete Samutondo, Joltim Quivinja, Marília Afonso, Richard Kiniffo, Eliane Mbounga, Julia S Kelley, Dhruviben S Patel, Yun He, Eldin Talundzic, Denise O Garrett, Eric S Halsey, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Pascal Ringwald, Filomeno Fortes
BACKGROUND: Recent anti-malarial resistance monitoring in Angola has shown efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in certain sites approaching the key 90% lower limit of efficacy recommended for artemisinin-based combination therapy. In addition, a controversial case of malaria unresponsive to artemisinins was reported in a patient infected in Lunda Sul Province in 2013. METHODS: During January-June 2015, investigators monitored the clinical and parasitological response of children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection treated with AL, artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP)...
February 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148267/reduced-ex-vivo-susceptibility-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-oral-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-in-mali
#17
Souleymane Dama, Hamidou Niangaly, Amed Ouattara, Issaka Sagara, Sekou Sissoko, Oumar Bila Traore, Amadou Bamadio, Niawanlou Dara, Moussa Djimde, Mohamed Lamine Alhousseini, Siaka Goita, Hamma Maiga, Antoine Dara, Ogobara K Doumbo, Abdoulaye A Djimde
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, recent studies conducted in Mali showed an increased frequency of recurrent parasitaemia following artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment. METHODS: Study samples were collected during a large WANECAM study. Ex-vivo Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to artemether and lumefantrine was assessed using the tritiated hypoxanthine-based assay...
February 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144847/-practices-of-caregivers-and-national-recommendations-for-treatment-of-malaria-in-benin-in-2009
#18
S Robin, C Bruneton, E Guévart
New treatments against malaria (artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACT) resulted in profound changes in the therapeutic behaviours in Africa. This study aims to evaluate the practices adaptation to the new strategies in Benin in 2009. In three southern areas of the country, 14 private pharmacies, 10 public health centers and 10 private health centers were audited. Between July and October 2009, 36 providers and 93 prescribers were interviewed, 127 dispensations for self-medication were observed, 210 prescriptions were analyzed according to the WHO recommendations, 251 patients with complaints of malaria and 50 healthy women were interviewed and 34 physical inventories were conducted in pharmacies...
January 31, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143417/early-rising-asexual-parasitaemia-in-nigerian-children-following-a-first-dose-of-artemisinin-based-combination-treatments-of-falciparum-malaria
#19
Akintunde Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Adejumoke I Ayede, Elsie O Adewoye, Godwin Ntadom, Bayo Fatunmbi, Grace O Gbotosho, Onikepe A Folarin, Christian T Happi
BACKGROUND: Early rising asexual parasitaemia (ERAP), initially defined as 'an increase in the parasite count over the baseline pre-treatment level during the first 24 h of treatment' of falciparum malaria with artemisinin derivatives is well documented, but there is no characterization of its risk factors, kinetics, molecular features or relationship to late-appearing anaemia (LAA) in acute falciparum malaria in African children following oral artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs)...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138022/the-severity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-is-associated-with-transcript-levels-of-var-genes-encoding-epcr-binding-pfemp1
#20
Sixbert I Mkumbaye, Christian W Wang, Eric Lyimo, Jakob S Jespersen, Alphaxard Manjurano, Jacklin Mosha, Reginald A Kavishe, Steven B Mwakalinga, Daniel T R Minja, John P Lusingu, Thor G Theander, Thomas Lavstsen
By attaching infected erythrocytes to the vascular lining, Plasmodium falciparum parasites leave blood circulation and avoid splenic clearance. This sequestration is central to pathogenesis. Severe malaria is associated with parasites expressing an antigenically distinct subset of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediating the binding to endothelial receptors. Previous studies indicate that PfEMP1, with so-called CIDRα1 domains capable of binding endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), constitute the PfEMP1 subset associated with severe paediatric malaria...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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