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"Space Medicine"

Łukasz Dziuda, Mariusz Krej, Maciej Śmietanowski, Aleksander Sobotnicki, Mariusz Sobiech, Piotr Kwaśny, Anna Brzozowska, Paulina Baran, Krzysztof Kowalczuk, Franciszek W Skibniewski
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a method derived from space medicine, which in recent years has been increasingly used by clinicians to assess the efficiency of the cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. LBNP with combined tilt testing is considered as an effective form of training to prevent orthostatic intolerance. We have developed a prototype system comprising a tilt table and LBNP chamber, and tested it in the context of the feasibility of the device for assessing the pilots' efficiency. The table allows for controlled tilting in the range from -45 to +80° at the maximum change rate of 45°/s...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Gudrun von Scheven, Alan Feiveson, Alexander Bürkle, Honglu Wu, Namni Goel
Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation...
March 27, 2018: Sleep
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantina Fylaktakidou, Efthimios Sivridis, Christos E Zois, Dimitra Kalamida, Achilleas Mitrakas, Stamatia Pouliliou, Ilias V Karagounis, Konstantinos Simopoulos, David J P Ferguson, Adrian L Harris
Effective cytoprotectors that are selective for normal tissues could decrease radiotherapy and chemotherapy sequelae and facilitate the safe administration of higher radiation doses. This could improve the cure rates of radiotherapy for cancer patients. Autophagy is a cytoplasmic cellular process that is necessary for the clearance of damaged or aged proteins and organelles. It is a strong determinant of post-irradiation cell fate. In this study, we investigated the effect of the mTOR-independent small molecule enhancer of autophagy (SMER28) on mouse liver autophagy and post-irradiation recovery of mouse bone marrow and liver...
January 31, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
P D Hodkinson, R A Anderton, B N Posselt, K J Fong
Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Nandu Goswami
This paper provides a general overview of key physiological consequences of microgravity experienced during spaceflight and of important parallels and connections to the physiology of aging. Microgravity during spaceflight influences cardiovascular function, cerebral autoregulation, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor system performance. A great deal of research has been carried out to understand these influences and to provide countermeasures to reduce the observed negative consequences of microgravity on physiological function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, William Tarver
New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Jochen Hinkelbein, Christopher Neuhaus, Lennert Böhm, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Braunecker
BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using unipark...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
David J Beard, Jonathan A Cook
Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Justin M Lopchuk, Kasper Fjelbye, Yu Kawamata, Lara R Malins, Chung-Mao Pan, Ryan Gianatassio, Jie Wang, Liher Prieto, James Bradow, Thomas A Brandt, Michael R Collins, Jeff Elleraas, Jason Ewanicki, William Farrell, Olugbeminiyi O Fadeyi, Gary M Gallego, James J Mousseau, Robert Oliver, Neal W Sach, Jason K Smith, Jillian E Spangler, Huichin Zhu, Jinjiang Zhu, Phil S Baran
Driven by the ever-increasing pace of drug discovery and the need to push the boundaries of unexplored chemical space, medicinal chemists are routinely turning to unusual strained bioisosteres such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane, azetidine, and cyclobutane to modify their lead compounds. Too often, however, the difficulty of installing these fragments surpasses the challenges posed even by the construction of the parent drug scaffold. This full account describes the development and application of a general strategy where spring-loaded, strained C-C and C-N bonds react with amines to allow for the "any-stage" installation of small, strained ring systems...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Charles R Doarn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Priti Mehta, Dhara Bhayani
To upkeep health of astronauts in a unique, isolated, and extreme environment of space is the primary goal for a successful space mission, hence, safe and efficacious medications are essential for the wellness of astronauts. Space medication has been challenged with problems related to efficacy. Along with altered physiology, one of the possible reasons could be instability of space medications in the presence of harsh spaceflight environmental conditions. Altered physical and chemical stability can result in reduced potency which can result in reduced efficacy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Lachlan Mackay Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Occupational Medicine
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
Johann Bauer, Markus Bussen, Petra Wise, Markus Wehland, Sabine Schneider, Daniela Grimm
BACKGROUND: More than one hundred reports were published about the characterization of cells from malignant and healthy tissues, as well as of endothelial cells and stem cells exposed to microgravity conditions. METHODS: We retrieved publications about microgravity related studies on each type of cells, extracted the proteins mentioned therein and analyzed them aiming to identify biological processes affected by microgravity culture conditions. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 66 different biological processes, 19 of them were always detected when papers about the four types of cells were analyzed...
July 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Chen Jing, Cheng Xingqun, Xu Xin, Zhou Xuedong, Li Yuqing
As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect.
February 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Julia Raykin, Taylor E Forte, Roy Wang, Andrew Feola, Brian C Samuels, Jerry G Myers, Lealem Mulugeta, Emily S Nelson, Rudy L Gleason, C Ross Ethier
Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is characterized by a number of permanent ophthalmic changes, including loss of visual function. It occurs in some astronauts during long-duration spaceflight missions. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology of VIIP is currently a major priority in space medicine research. It is hypothesized that maladaptive remodeling of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), in response to microgravity-induced elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP), contributes to VIIP...
February 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Alessandra Cazzaniga, Jeanette A M Maier, Sara Castiglioni
Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved...
April 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
R Glen Calderhead, Won-Serk Kim, Toshio Ohshiro, Mario A Trelles, David B Vasily
BACKGROUND: Aggressive, or even minimally aggressive, aesthetic interventions are almost inevitably followed by such events as discomfort, erythema, edema and hematoma formation which could lengthen patient downtime and represent a major problem to the surgeon. Recently, low level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED-LLLT) at 830 nm has attracted attention in wound healing indications for its anti-inflammatory effects and control of erythema, edema and bruising. RATIONALE: The wavelength of 830 nm offers deep penetration into living biological tissue, including bone...
December 30, 2015: Laser Therapy
Bradley T Holschuh, Dava J Newman
INTRODUCTION: Compression garments tend to be difficult to don/doff, due to their intentional function of squeezing the wearer. This is especially true for compression garments used for space medicine and for extravehicular activity (EVA). We present an innovative solution to this problem by integrating shape changing materials-NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) coil actuators formed into modular, 3D-printed cartridges-into compression garments to produce garments capable of constricting on command...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Natalia Moskaleva, Alexander Moysa, Svetlana Novikova, Olga Tikhonova, Victor Zgoda, Alexander Archakov
Hard conditions of long-term manned spaceflight can affect functions of many biological systems including a system of drug metabolism. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily plays a key role in the drug metabolism. In this study we examined the hepatic content of some P450 isoforms in mice exposed to 30 days of space flight and microgravity. The CYP content was established by the mass-spectrometric method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Significant changes in the CYP2C29, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 contents were detected in mice of the flight group compared to the ground control group...
2015: PloS One
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