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toxic shock streptococcal syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219889/rapid-and-rigorous-il-17a-production-by-a-distinct-subpopulation-of-effector-memory-t-lymphocytes-constitutes-a-novel-mechanism-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-immunopathology
#1
Peter A Szabo, Ankur Goswami, Delfina M Mazzuca, Kyoungok Kim, David B O'Gorman, David A Hess, Ian D Welch, Howard A Young, Bhagirath Singh, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens (SAgs) that provoke a swift hyperinflammatory response typified by a cytokine storm. The precipitous decline in the host's clinical status and the lack of targeted therapies for TSS emphasize the need to identify key players of the storm's initial wave. Using a humanized mouse model of TSS and human cells, we herein demonstrate that SAgs elicit in vitro and in vivo IL-17A responses within hours. SAg-triggered human IL-17A production was characterized by remarkably high mRNA stability for this cytokine...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121169/development-of-a-dna-aptamer-that-binds-specifically-to-group-a-streptococcus-serotype-m3
#2
Hanif Alfavian, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Samaneh Rasoulinejad, Arvin Medhat
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important Gram-positive pathogen that causes various human diseases ranging from peripheral lesions to invasive infections. The M protein is one of the main virulence factors present on the cell surface and is associated with invasive GAS infections. Compared with other M types, serotype M3 has a predominant role in lethal infections and demonstrates epidemic behaviors, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and necrotizing fasciitis. Traditional methods for M typing are time-consuming, tedious, contradictory, and generally restricted to reference laboratories...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092693/pathogenic-streptococcus-strains-employ-novel-escape-strategy-to-inhibit-bacteriostatic-effect-mediated-by-mammalian-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein
#3
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Swaminath Srinivas, Chen Chen, Hui Liao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
Pathogenic streptococcal species are responsible for some of the most lethal and prevalent animal and human infections. Previous reports have identified a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI) in two highly virulent clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2), a causative agent of high-mortality streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). This PAI contains a Type-IVC secretion system C subgroup (Type-IVC secretion system) that is involved in the secretion of unknown pathogenic effectors that are responsible for STSS caused by highly virulent strains of SS2...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057904/a-serine-threonine-phosphatase-1-of-streptococcus-suis-type-2-is-an-important-virulence-factor
#4
Lihua Fang, Pengcheng Fan, Yunkai Yang, Jingjing Zhou, Hongxia Shen, Weihuan Fang
Streptococcus suis is regarded as one of the major pathogens of pigs while S. suis type 2 (SS2) is considered to be a zoonotic bacterium for its ability to cause meningitis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in humans. Many bacterial species contain genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases (STP) responsible for dephosphorylation of their substrates in a single reaction step. This study was aimed to investigate the role of stp1 in pathogenesis of SS2. An isogenic stp1 mutant (Δstp1) was constructed from the SS2 strain ZJ081101...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995095/roles-of-the-putative-type-iv-like-secretion-system-key-component-vird4-and-prsa-in-pathogenesis-of-streptococcus-suis-type-2
#5
Xiaowu Jiang, Yunkai Yang, Jingjing Zhou, Lexin Zhu, Yuanxing Gu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang
Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is a zoonotic pathogen causing septic infection, meningitis and pneumonia in pigs and humans. SS2 may cause streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) probably due to excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. A previous study indicated that the virD4 gene in the putative type IV-like secretion system (T4SS) within the 89K pathogenicity island specific for recent epidemic strains contributed to the development of STSS. However, the functional basis of VirD4 in STSS remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983491/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-group-g-streptococcus-united-kingdom
#6
Melissa Baxter, Marina Morgan
We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903001/right-in-front-of-our-eyes-evolution-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#7
Salaheldin M Elhamamsy, Mazen O Al-Qadi, Taro Minami, Marguerite Neill
INTRODUCTION: Toxic shock syndrome occurs from dysregulation of host inflammatory responses. Toxin- producing strains of Group A streptococcus cause TSS. Ischemic optic neuropathy rarely complicates septic shock. We present a rare case of streptococcal pharyngitis complicated by septic arthritis and TSS with reversible blindness due to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. CASE: A 28-year-old man drove to our ED with exudative pharyngitis. A rapid streptococcal test was positive...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848904/-a-postpartum-woman-with-toxic-shock-syndrome-group-a-streptococcal-infection-a-much-feared-postpartum-complication
#8
K Abbink, J C Kortekaas, M P Buise, J Dokter, S M I Kuppens, T H M Hasaart
BACKGROUND: The development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) after an invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection in the postpartum period is a much feared complication. The mortality rate of TSS with necrotizing fasciitis is 30 to 50%. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a woman with atypical pelvic pain which was the first symptom of toxic shock syndrome as a consequence of a GAS infection. Clinical deterioration necessitated a hysterectomy. Also a fasciotomy was performed as consequence of lower extremity compartment syndrome...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830834/suilysin-induced-platelet-neutrophil-complexes-formation-is-triggered-by-pore-formation-dependent-calcium-influx
#9
Shengwei Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Shaolong Chen, Shujing Huang, Keke Liu, Qingyu Lv, Yongqiang Jiang, Yuan Yuan
Platelet activation and platelet-neutrophil interactions have been found to be involved in inflammation, organ failure and soft-tissue necrosis in bacterial infections. Streptococcus suis, an emerging human pathogen, can cause streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) similarly to Streptococcus pyogenes. Currently, S. suis-platelet interactions are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), the S. suis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), was the sole stimulus of S. suis that induced platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) formation...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803422/recurrent-streptococcus-agalactiae-toxic-shock-syndrome-triggered-by-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitor
#10
Masataka Yoshida, Takahiro Takazono, Masato Tashiro, Tomomi Saijo, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kazuko Yamamoto, Shigeki Nakamura, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Toyomitsu Sawai, Tomoya Nishino, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by group B streptococcus (GBS) is a rare, but lethal disease. We experienced a 45-year-old woman with pustular psoriasis who developed toxic shock-like syndrome during infliximab treatment. Surprisingly, similar episodes recurred three times in one year with restarting of infliximab treatments. In the third episode, GBS were detected in blood, urine, and vaginal secretion cultures. These episodes of shock syndrome were possibly due to GBS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome possibly caused by GBS which was induced by anti-TNF-α inhibitor therapy...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803183/a-two-component-regulatory-system-impacts-extracellular-membrane-derived-vesicle-production-in-group-a-streptococcus
#11
Ulrike Resch, James Anthony Tsatsaronis, Anaïs Le Rhun, Gerald Stübiger, Manfred Rohde, Sergo Kasvandik, Susanne Holzmeister, Philip Tinnefeld, Sun Nyunt Wai, Emmanuelle Charpentier
: Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS), the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800304/effects-of-suilysin-on-streptococcus-suis-induced-platelet-aggregation
#12
Shengwei Zhang, Junping Wang, Shaolong Chen, Jiye Yin, Zhiyuan Pan, Keke Liu, Lin Li, Yuling Zheng, Yuan Yuan, Yongqiang Jiang
Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798538/compartment-syndrome-secondary-to-group-a-streptococcus-infection-in-the-presence-of-a-congenital-hemangioma
#13
Sharon L Kracoff
OBJECTIVES: Nontraumatic compartment syndrome is frequently difficult to diagnose but this is especially troublesome in infants. Pain is the most sensitive sign and is characteristically severe and refractory to routine analgesia. Failure to diagnose and treat can lead to disability, multiorgan failure, and death. Surgical intervention is crucial and includes emergent fasciotomy, debridement, nerve decompression, and later skin grafting. Streptococcal myositis causing compartment syndrome is more likely in the immunocompromised patient...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617009/suilysin-stimulates-the-release-of-heparin-binding-protein-from-neutrophils-and-increases-vascular-permeability-in-mice
#14
Shaolong Chen, Wenlong Xie, Kai Wu, Ping Li, Zhiqiang Ren, Lin Li, Yuan Yuan, Chunmao Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Qingyu Lv, Hua Jiang, Yongqiang Jiang
Most of the deaths that occurred during two large outbreaks of Streptococcus suis infections in 1998 and 2005 in China were caused by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which is characterized by increased vascular permeability. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is thought to mediate the vascular leakage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the release of HBP and the vascular leakage induced by S. suis. Significantly higher serum levels of HBP were detected in Chinese patients with STSS than in patients with meningitis or healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597908/refractory-toxic-shock-like-syndrome-from-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-ssp-equisimilis-and-intravenous-immunoglobulin-as-salvage-therapy-a-case-series
#15
Marjan Islam, Dennis Karter, Jerry Altshuler, Diana Altshuler, David Schwartz, Gianluca Torregrossa
Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE) can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS). Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579001/streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-life-saving-role-of-peritoneal-lavage-and-drainage
#16
Minako Yokoyama, Fumie Oyama, Asami Ito, Megumi Yokota, Daisuke Matsukura, Shinji Tsutsumi, Tomonori Kasai, Yohshiro Nitobe, Akiko Morikawa, Takashi Ozaki, Yoshihito Yokoyama
PURPOSE: We encountered a case where an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS; ie, Streptococcus pyogenes) initially caused primary peritonitis and then subsequently caused streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The patient's life was likely saved by an emergency laparotomy followed by extensive peritoneal lavage and drainage. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for lower abdominal pain and numbness in the extremities...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553071/a-fatal-case-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-streptococcus-suis-carrying-tet-40-and-tet-o-w-32-o-italy
#17
Fabiola Mancini, Francesco Adamo, Roberta Creti, Monica Monaco, Giovanna Alfarone, Annalisa Pantosti, Alessandra Ciervo
We report the first human fatal case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 carrying the tetracycline efflux tet (40) gene and the tetracycline ribosomal protection tet (O/W/32/O) gene. The patient was splenectomized. The case was characterized by multi-organ dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, in accordance with the clinical parameters of STSS. More investigations are needed to improve the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of S. suis in human infection...
November 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552237/management-of-1-lung-ventilation-in-a-patient-with-failing-fontan-circulation
#18
Stephen H Gregory, Madhav Swaminathan, Yasmin Maisonave, Kelly A Machovec
The number of patients reaching adulthood after undergoing Fontan palliation for the repair of a congenital heart defect continues to increase. In this case report, we present the anesthetic management of a patient with a history of tricuspid atresia treated with palliative Fontan repair who had developed clinical evidence of Fontan failure. He presented with septic shock secondary to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome complicated by a loculated pleural effusion. He underwent open thoracic decortication under 1-lung ventilation...
October 15, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524981/lactobacilli-interfere-with-streptococcus-pyogenes-hemolytic-activity-and-adherence-to-host-epithelial-cells
#19
Sunil D Saroj, Lisa Maudsdotter, Raquel Tavares, Ann-Beth Jonsson
Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)], a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract mucosal surface, causes a variety of human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis to the life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. Lactobacilli have been demonstrated to colonize the respiratory tract. In this study, we investigated the interference of lactobacilli with the virulence phenotypes of GAS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289, but not L. salivarius LMG9477, inhibited the hemolytic activity of S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485878/recurrent-sdse-bacteraemia-resulting-in-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-noonan-syndrome
#20
Kei Suzuki, Akiko Nakamura, Ken Ishikura, Hiroshi Imai
A 19-year-old man with chronic lymphoedema due to Noonan syndrome presented at our hospital with septic shock and pain in his lower leg. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE), resulting in a diagnosis of cellulitis with toxic involvement. He was treated with ampicillin for 3 weeks. Although he did well for 6 weeks, septic shock recurred. Blood culture again revealed SDSE, with the strain being identical to the first episode, suggesting that this infection had relapsed...
August 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
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