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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916745/cadmium-effects-on-dna-and-protein-metabolism-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-revealed-by-proteomic-analyses
#2
Jie Meng, Wenxiong Wang, Li Li, Qi Yin, Guofan Zhang
Marine molluscs, including oysters, can concentrate high levels of cadmium (Cd) in their soft tissues, but the molecular mechanisms of Cd toxicity remain speculative. In this study, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were exposed to Cd for 9 days and their gills were subjected to proteomic analysis, which were further confirmed with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 4,964 proteins was quantified and 515 differentially expressed proteins were identified in response to Cd exposure. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that excess Cd affected the DNA and protein metabolism...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915566/synergistic-antibiotic-effect-of-looped-antimicrobial-peptide-clp-19-with-bactericidal-and-bacteriostatic-agents
#3
Di Li, Ya Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915397/alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-lemna-minor-by-exogenous-salicylic-acid
#4
Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl2, 10μM CdCl2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915362/improved-efficacy-of-hyperthermia-by-auraptene-in-human-colon-adenocarcinoma-cells
#5
Mahdi Moussavi, Farhang Haddad, Matin Matin, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Fatemeh Rassouli
Colon adenocarcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and resistance to current therapeutic modalities is a serious drawback in its treatment. Auraptene is a natural coumarin with considerable anticancer effects. The goal of present study was to introduce a novel combinatorial approach against colon adenocarcinoma cells. To do so, HT29 cells were pretreated with non-toxic auraptene and then hyperthermia was applied. Afterwards, viability of cells was assessed, changes induced in the cell cycle were analyzed, and expression pattern of candidate genes was studied...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913790/delivery-of-hsp90-inhibitor-using-water-soluble-polymeric-conjugates-with-high-drug-payload
#6
Jose A Suárez Del Pino, Rohit Kolhatkar
PURPOSE: HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90kD) has been validated as a therapeutic target in Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer. Unfortunately, HSP90 inhibitors suffer from dose-limiting toxicities that hinder their clinical applications. Previously developed polymeric delivery systems for HSP90 inhibitors had either low drug content or low biological activity suggesting the need for better delivery system for HSP90 inhibitors. METHODS: We developed a simplified synthetic strategy to prepare polyethylene glycol based water-soluble polymeric system for model HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM)...
September 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913548/changes-in-histopathology-enzyme-activities-and-the-expression-of-relevant-genes-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-following-long-term-exposure-to-environmental-levels-of-thallium
#7
Li-Ping Hou, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Guang-Guo Ying, Jian-Liang Zhao, Yi-Bing Chen, Yong-Heng Chen, Gui-Zhen Fang, Xin Li, Ji-Sheng Liu
Thallium is a rare-earth element, but widely distributed in water environments, posing a potential risk to our health. This study was designed to investigate the chronic effects of thallium based on physiological responses, gene expression, and changes in the activity of relevant enzymes in adult zebra fish exposed to thallium at low doses. The endpoints assessed include mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT)2 and heat shock protein HSP70; enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase; and the histopathology of gill, gonad, and liver tissues...
September 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911062/tpf-plus-cetuximab-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-biochemoradiation-with-weekly-cetuximab-plus-weekly-cisplatin-or-carboplatin-a-randomized-phase-ii-eortc-trial
#8
P M Specenier, E Remenar, J Buter, D L Schrijvers, C Bergamini, L F Licitra, A Awada, P M Clement, C Fortpied, J Menis, J B Vermorken
Background: Our aim was to test the safety of cetuximab added to chemoradiation with either cisplatin or carboplatin after prior induction chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with stage III/IV unresectable, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received up to four cycles of TPF-E (cisplatin and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 1 followed by 5-FU 750 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion on days 1-5 plus cetuximab at a loading dose of 400 mg/m2 followed by a weekly dose of 250 mg/m2), with prophylactic antibiotics but no growth factors...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900025/psp-stress-response-proteins-form-a-complex-with-mislocalized-secretins-in-the-yersinia-enterocolitica-cytoplasmic-membrane
#9
Disha Srivastava, Amal Moumene, Josué Flores-Kim, Andrew J Darwin
The bacterial phage shock protein system (Psp) is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response that is essential for the virulence of some pathogens, including Yersinia enterocolitica It is induced by events that can compromise inner membrane (IM) integrity, including the mislocalization of outer membrane pore-forming proteins called secretins. In the absence of the Psp system, secretin mislocalization permeabilizes the IM and causes rapid cell death. The Psp proteins PspB and PspC form an integral IM complex with two independent roles...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894448/sirtuin-2-deficiency-increases-bacterial-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-and-protects-from-chronic-staphylococcal-infection
#10
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Charlotte Théroude, Jacobus Herderschee, Matteo Mombelli, Jérôme Lugrin, Marc Pfefferlé, Beatrice Tyrrell, Sarah Lensch, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the seven members of the family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuins target histones and non-histone proteins according to their subcellular localization, influencing various biological processes. SIRT2 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle, and metabolic pathways. As such, SIRT2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, metabolic, oncologic, and chronic inflammatory disorders. This motivated the development of SIRT2-directed therapies for clinical purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893987/acidophilic-green-algal-genome-provides-insights-into-adaptation-to-an-acidic-environment
#11
Shunsuke Hirooka, Yuu Hirose, Yu Kanesaki, Sumio Higuchi, Takayuki Fujiwara, Ryo Onuma, Atsuko Era, Ryudo Ohbayashi, Akihiro Uzuka, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Some microalgae are adapted to extremely acidic environments in which toxic metals are present at high levels. However, little is known about how acidophilic algae evolved from their respective neutrophilic ancestors by adapting to particular acidic environments. To gain insights into this issue, we determined the draft genome sequence of the acidophilic green alga Chlamydomonas eustigma and performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses between Ceustigma and its neutrophilic relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii The results revealed the following features in Ceustigma that probably contributed to the adaptation to an acidic environment...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893927/mutant-huntingtin-inhibits-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-expression-and-impairs-exosome-secretion-from-astrocytes
#12
Yan Hong, Ting Zhao, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
In the brain, astrocytes secrete diverse substances that regulate neuronal function and viability. Exosomes, which are vesicles produced through the formation of multivesicular bodies and their subsequent fusion with the plasma membrane, are also released from astrocytes via exocytotic secretion. Astrocytic exosomes carry heat shock proteins that can reduce the cellular toxicity of misfolded proteins and prevent neurodegeneration. Although mutant huntingtin (mHtt) affects multiple functions of astrocytes, it remains unknown whether mHtt impairs the production of exosomes from astrocytes...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892185/prevalence-comorbidities-and-mortality-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-united-states-children-and-adults
#13
Mark A Strom, Derek Y Hsu, Jonathan I Silverberg
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a superantigen-mediated illness characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. The predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. We analyzed data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations. ICD-9-CM coding was used to identify 4,491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Incidence, in-hospital mortality rate, comorbidities, length of stay and costs of care due to TSS were determined...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882472/overwhelming-streptococcus-pyogenes-sepsis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-septic-arthritis
#14
Aarti Chadha, Wafaa Jamal, Abdul Raouf Abdul Aziz, Vincent O Rotimi
INTRODUCTION: The signs of Streptococcus pyogenes, group A streptococci (GAS) bacteremia are non-specific and patients can have wide presentations ranging from flu-like symptoms to life-threatening toxic-shock syndrome in just a few hours. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of fulminant S. pyogenes sepsis in an elderly woman with septic arthritis and remarkable past medical history/risk factors. She was febrile, hypotensive and had a swollen and tender right knee...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880920/the-staphylococcus-aureus-superantigen-selx-is-a-bifunctional-toxin-that-inhibits-neutrophil-function
#15
Stephen W Tuffs, David B A James, Jovanka Bestebroer, Amy C Richards, Mariya I Goncheva, Marie O'Shea, Bryan A Wee, Keun Seok Seo, Patrick M Schlievert, Andreas Lengeling, Jos A van Strijp, Victor J Torres, J Ross Fitzgerald
Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) cause Vβ-dependent T-cell proliferation leading to immune dysregulation associated with the pathogenesis of life-threatening infections such as toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing pneumonia. Previously, we demonstrated that staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) from Staphylococcus aureus is a classical superantigen that exhibits T-cell activation in a Vβ-specific manner, and contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia. Here, we discovered that SElX can also bind to neutrophils from human and other mammalian species and disrupt IgG-mediated phagocytosis...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869541/spread-of-tst-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-belonging-to-st30-clone-among-patients-and-healthcare-workers-in-two-intensive-care-units
#16
Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Eleanna Drougka, Fotini Fligou, Vasiliki Dodou, Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Kriton S Filos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Efthimia Petinaki, Markos Marangos, Iris Spiliopoulou
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections. Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are associated with severe clinical syndromes. S. aureus colonizing isolates recovered from healthcare workers and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital comprising Group A were compared with those from adult non-ICU carriers (Group B). mecA, lukS/lukF-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL), and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) gene carriage was detected by PCR...
September 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867411/toxic-shock-syndrome-in-paediatric-thermal-injuries-a-case-series-and-systematic-literature-review
#17
Linda Gutzler, Clemens Schiestl, Martin Meuli, Carol Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of thermal injuries in children. The study objective was to systematically review the literature on paediatric TSS after burns or scalds, and describe our experience with this condition in Switzerland. METHODS: All tertiary paediatric healthcare centres managing burns and scalds in Switzerland were inquired. A systematic literature review was performed using EMBASE (1947-2016), MEDLINE (1946-2016), Web of Science (1900-2016) and Google Scholar in October 2016...
August 31, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832650/fructose-diet-alleviates-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#18
Sungjoon Cho, Ashutosh Tripathi, George Chlipala, Stefan Green, Hyunwoo Lee, Eugene B Chang, Hyunyoung Jeong
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic that can cause hepatotoxicity due to production of toxic metabolites via cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 1a2 and Cyp2e1. Previous studies have shown conflicting effects of fructose (the major component in Western diet) on the susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To evaluate the role of fructose-supplemented diet in modulating the extent of APAP-induced liver injury, male C57BL/6J mice were given 30% (w/v) fructose in water (or regular water) for 8 weeks, followed by oral administration of APAP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830914/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-protects-astrocytes-against-proteotoxicity-without-recourse-to-glutathione
#19
Amanda M Gleixner, Daniel F Hutchison, Sara Sannino, Tarun N Bhatia, Lillian C Leak, Patrick T Flaherty, Peter Wipf, Jeffrey L Brodsky, Rehana K Leak
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) exhibits protective properties in brain injury models and has undergone a number of clinical trials. Most studies of NAC have focused on neurons. However, neuroprotection may be complemented by the protection of astrocytes because healthier astrocytes can better support the viability of neurons. Here we show that NAC can protect astrocytes against protein misfolding stress (proteotoxicity), the hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Although NAC is thought to be a glutathione precursor, NAC protected primary astrocytes from the toxicity of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 without eliciting any increase in glutathione...
August 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827321/hsp90-activator-aha1-drives-production-of-pathological-tau-aggregates
#20
Lindsey B Shelton, Jeremy D Baker, Dali Zheng, Leia E Sullivan, Parth K Solanki, Jack M Webster, Zheying Sun, Jonathan J Sabbagh, Bryce A Nordhues, John Koren, Suman Ghosh, Brian S J Blagg, Laura J Blair, Chad A Dickey
The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, tau) forms neurotoxic aggregates that promote cognitive deficits in tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperone system affects the accumulation of these toxic tau species, which can be modulated with Hsp90 inhibitors. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors are not blood-brain barrier-permeable, and several present associated toxicities. Here, we find that the cochaperone, activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), dramatically increased the production of aggregated tau...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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