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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350159/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Hema Sharma, Debra Smith, Claire E Turner, Laurence Game, Bruno Pichon, Russell Hope, Robert Hill, Angela Kearns, Shiranee Sriskandan
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was originally described in menstruating women and linked to TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Using UK national surveillance data, we ascertained clinical, molecular and superantigenic characteristics of TSS cases. Average annual TSS incidence was 0.07/100,000 population. Patients with nonmenstrual TSS were younger than those with menstrual TSS but had the same mortality rate. Children <16 years of age accounted for 39% of TSS cases, most caused by burns and skin and soft tissue infections...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345424/a-fluorescence-based-sensor-assay-that-monitors-general-protein-aggregation-in-human-cells
#2
Marisa Pereira, Diogo Tomé, Ana S Domingues, Ana S Varanda, Cristiana Paulo, Manuel A S Santos, Ana R Soares
Protein conformational disorders are characterized by disruption of protein folding and toxic accumulation of protein aggregates. Here we describe a sensitive and simple method to follow and monitor general protein aggregation in human cells. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is an oligomeric small heat shock protein that binds and keeps unfolded proteins in a folding competent state. This high specificity of HSP27 for aggregated proteins can be explored to monitor aggregation in living cells by fusing it to a fluorescent protein as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)...
January 18, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345219/transcriptional-changes-when-myxococcus-xanthus-preys-on-escherichia-coli-suggest-myxobacterial-predators-are-constitutively-toxic-but-regulate-their-feeding
#3
Paul G Livingstone, Andrew D Millard, Martin T Swain, David E Whitworth
Predation is a fundamental ecological process, but within most microbial ecosystems the molecular mechanisms of predation remain poorly understood. We investigated transcriptome changes associated with the predation of Escherichia coli by the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus using mRNA sequencing. Exposure to pre-killed prey significantly altered expression of 1319 predator genes. However, the transcriptional response to living prey was minimal, with only 12 genes being significantly up-regulated. The genes most induced by prey presence (kdpA and kdpB, members of the kdp regulon) were confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR to be regulated by osmotic shock in M...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335257/staphylococcal-superantigens-use-lama2-as-a-coreceptor-to-activate-t-cells
#4
Zhigang Li, Joseph J Zeppa, Mark A Hancock, John K McCormick, Terence M Doherty, Geoffrey N Hendy, Joaquín Madrenas
Canonical Ag-dependent TCR signaling relies on activation of the src-family tyrosine kinase LCK. However, staphylococcal superantigens can trigger TCR signaling by activating an alternative pathway that is independent of LCK and utilizes a Gα11-containing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) leading to PLCβ activation. The molecules linking the superantigen to GPCR signaling are unknown. Using the ligand-receptor capture technology LRC-TriCEPS, we identified LAMA2, the α2 subunit of the extracellular matrix protein laminin, as the coreceptor for staphylococcal superantigens...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332774/an-analysis-of-intoxicated-patients-transported-by-a-doctor-helicopter
#5
Ikuto Takeuchi, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiroki Nagasawa, Kei Jitsuiki, Takashi Iso, Akihiko Kondo, Kouhei Ishikawa, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Youichi Yanagawa
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively investigated all of the intoxicated patients who were transported by a doctor helicopter (DH) in eastern Shizuoka between April 2004 and December 2015 to determine when air medical transport was used in cases of toxic exposure. METHODS: Subjects were divided into 2 groups: an outpatient group of subjects who went home after receiving a medical evaluation and treatment and an admission group. RESULTS: The outpatient and admission groups included 17 and 31 subjects, respectively...
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319509/prevalence-influencing-factors-antibiotic-resistance-toxin-and-molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-mrsa-nasal-carriage-among-diabetic-population-in-the-united-states-2001-2004
#6
Jialing Lin, Yang Peng, Chan Bai, Ting Zhang, Haoqu Zheng, Xiaojie Wang, Jiaping Ye, Xiaohua Ye, Ying Li, Zhenjiang Yao
Diabetic population were reported more likely to suffer carriage and infection with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than non-diabetic population. We aim to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among diabetic population in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. Univariate analyses were conducted using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact probability test or student t test, as appropriate...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318784/divalproex-sodium-modulates-nuclear-localization-of-ataxin-3-and-prevents-cellular-toxicity-caused-by-expanded-ataxin-3
#7
Zi-Jian Wang, Aoife Hanet, Daniel Weishäupl, Inês M Martins, Anna S Sowa, Olaf Riess, Thorsten Schmidt
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of SCA worldwide. It is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the ataxin-3 protein. Nuclear localization of the affected protein is a key event in the pathology of SCA3 via affecting nuclear organization, transcriptional dysfunction, and seeding aggregations, finally causing neurodegeneration and cell death...
January 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316463/electrochemical-and-microbial-community-responses-of-electrochemically-active-biofilms-to-copper-ions-in-bioelectrochemical-systems
#8
Yaping Zhang, Guanqun Li, Jing Wen, Yangao Xu, Jian Sun, Xun-An Ning, Xingwen Lu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Yong Yuan
Heavy metals play an important role in the conductivity of solution, power generation and activity of microorganisms in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). However, effect of heavy metal on the process of exoelectrogenesis metabolism and extracellular electron transfer of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) was poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of Cu2+ at gradually increasing concentration on the morphological and electrochemical performance and bacterial communities of anodic biofilms in mixed-culture BESs...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305323/polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-production-from-phenol-in-an-acclimated-consortium-batch-study-and-impacts-of-operational-conditions
#9
Yi Zhang, Apiredan Wusiman, Xiang Liu, Chunli Wan, Duu-Jong Lee, JooHwa Tay
Microbial intracellular biopolymer PHA was synthesized from toxic pollutant phenol by an acclimated consortium. Various operational conditions were experimented for their effects on biomass growth and PHA accumulation. Carbon to nitrogen ratios from 5 to 40 (w/w) showed little impact, as did the levels of Fe, Ca and Mg in a short term. Acidic pH inhibited both growth and PHA synthesis, and an optimal dissolved oxygen level of 1-4 mg L-1 was identified. Low temperature (7 °C) significantly slowed but did not totally repress microbial activities...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285052/suppression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-phenotypes-by-the-heat-shock-protein-70-inducer-geranylgeranylacetone-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-via-the-erk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#10
Yuan Sun, Jiang-Rong Zhang, Shuyan Chen
HSP70 overexpression has a remedying effect in neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the suppressive effects of HSP70 overexpression on AD-related phenotypes and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the current study, the effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a non-toxic inducer of heat shock protein (HSP)-70 expression, on cognitive function and other pathological phenotypes were evaluated in APP/PS1 mice. It was observed that all doses of orally administered GGA (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) improved cognitive deficit (P<0...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284248/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-i-epidemiology
#11
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280962/selection-of-a-very-active-microbial-community-for-the-coupled-treatment-of-tetramethylammonium-hydroxide-and-photoresist-in-aqueous-solutions
#12
Giulio Moretti, Federica Matteucci, Matteo Saraullo, Francesco Vegliò, Maddalena Del Gallo
Aerobic treatment of wastewater containing Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and photoresist was investigated using a lab scale reactor inoculated with activated sludge coming from urban wastewater treatment that never received TMAH before. The consumption of TMAH was monitored by liquid ion chromatography. Biodiversity indices were calculated from Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) bands distribution and used to estimate changes in community composition related to adaptation to the new feeding compound...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278528/treatment-of-severe-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-review
#13
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. RECENT FINDINGS: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248836/a-case-report-primary-hydatid-cyst-of-uterus
#14
Farzad Kakaei, Touraj Asvadi Kermani, Kawsar Tarvirdizade
INTRODUCTION: Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic tape worm. The definitive host is the dog and humans are one of its intermediate hosts. It involves organs such as liver and lungs. Uterus involvement is very rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We here report a case of primary uterus hydatid cyst that we had to remove her uterine on left ovary and fallopian tube. Generalized toxic shock and infection due to cyst rupture or organ dysfunction due to invasion (like our patient) or pressure of cyst are complications of this cyst...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247916/studies-on-influence-of-process-parameters-on-simultaneous-biodegradation-of-atrazine-and-nutrients-in-aquatic-environments-by-a-membrane-photobioreactor
#15
Zahra Derakhshan, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Mohammad Faramarzian, Mansooreh Dehghani, Saeed Yousefinejad, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, S Mehran Abtahi
A Lab scale algal-bacterial membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) was designed and operated under 12-h light and 12-h dark conditions with a light intensity of 8000lx, in order to investigate the effects of initial concentrations of atrazine, carbon concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the ability of this photobioreactor in simultaneous removal of atrazine and nutrients in the continuous mode. The removal efficiencies of atrazine (ATZ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (PO43--P) and nitrogen (NOx) in optimum condition was more than 95%, 99%, 98% and 97% when the maximum removal rates were 9...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247497/the-prevalence-of-antibody-responses-against-staphylococcus-aureus-antigens-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
J de Wit, J E E Totté, F J M van Buchem, S G M A Pasmans
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus plays a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), possibly via the expression of various virulence antigens. An altered antibody response towards these antigens might contribute to inflammation. We aimed to provide an overview of the varying prevalences and odds of antibody responses against S. aureus antigens in AD patients. Data were systematically obtained from Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed and Google Scholar (up to February 12th 2016). We selected all original observational and experimental studies assessing anti-staphylococcal antibodies in serum of AD patients...
December 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246970/compounds-producing-an-effective-combinatorial-regimen-for-disruption-of-hiv-1-latency
#17
Pargol Hashemi, Kris Barreto, Wendy Bernhard, Adam Lomness, Nicolette Honson, Tom A Pfeifer, P Richard Harrigan, Ivan Sadowski
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the outlook for the HIV epidemic, but does not provide a cure. The proposed "shock-and-kill" strategy is directed at inducing latent HIV reservoirs, which may then be purged via boosted immune response or targeting infected cells. We describe five novel compounds that are capable of reversing HIV latency without affecting the general T-cell activation state. The new compounds exhibit synergy for reactivation of latent provirus with other latency-reversing agents (LRAs), in particular ingenol-3-angelate/PEP005...
December 15, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245238/autopsy-relevance-determining-hemochromatosis-case-report
#18
Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Dalius Banionis, Sigitas Laima, Gerda Andriuskeviciute, Sandra Mazeikiene, Jurgita Stasiuniene, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Sonata Jarmalaite
RATIONALE: Hemochromatosis is a disorder, associated with an abnormal accumulation of iron leading to toxic organ damage. Clinical symptoms develop during a long period of time, thus, determining accidental or late diagnosis, usually when complications are evident. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old man was brought to the emergency unit with symptoms of hypovolemic shock without any apparent cause, which ultimately led to multiple organ failure, severe metabolic acidosis...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237775/induction-of-immunosuppressive-cd8-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-by-suboptimal-stimulation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-c1
#19
Juyeun Lee, Nogi Park, Joo Youn Park, Barbara L F Kaplan, Stephen B Pruett, Juw Won Park, Yong Ho Park, Keun Seok Seo
Superantigens (SAgs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus at high concentrations induce proliferation of T cells bearing specific TCR Vβ sequences and massive cytokinemia that cause toxic shock syndrome. However, the biological relevance of SAgs produced at very low concentrations during asymptomatic colonization or chronic infections is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that suboptimal stimulation of human PBMCs with a low concentration (1 ng/ml) of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1, at which half-maximal T cell proliferation was observed, induced CD8+CD25+ T cells expressing markers related to regulatory T cells (Tregs), such as IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, FOXP3, CD28, CTLA4, TNFR2, CD45RO, and HLA-DR...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230937/chrysanthemum-cmhsfa4-gene-positively-regulates-salt-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-chrysanthemum
#20
Li Fei, Huanru Zhang, Husheng Zhao, Tianwei Gao, Aiping Song, Jiafu Jiang, Fadi Chen, Sumei Chen
Salinity-induced Na+ toxicity and oxidative stress hamper plant growth. Here, we showed that expression of the chrysanthemum CmHSFA4, a homologue of the heat shock factor AtHSFA4a, is inducible by salt, and localizes to the nucleus. It is a transcription activator binding with HSE. Chrysanthemum overexpressing CmHSFA4 displayed enhanced salinity tolerance by limiting Na+ accumulation while maintaining K+ concentration, which is consistent with the up-regulation of ion-transporters CmSOS1 and CmHKT2. Additionally, the transgenic plants reduced H2 O2 and O2∙- accumulation under salinity, which could be due to up-regulation of ROS-scavenger activities such as SOD, APX and CAT as well as CmHSP70, CmHSP90...
December 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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