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Nicola Vaia, Federico Lo Torto, Marco Marcasciano, Donato Casella, Claudia Cacace, Carlo De Masi, Fabio Ricci, Diego Ribuffo
BACKGROUND: The number of patients undergoing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expanders followed by post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is exponentially increasing. To reduce the rate of complications, in 2011, the senior author of this manuscript described the use of protective lipofilling in patients undergoing unplanned PMRT to the expander with a specific protocol aiming to decrease the rate of complications. OBJECTIVES: A study was performed to evaluate the thickness of the breast irradiated tissue to create a standard pattern of "protective" lipofilling infiltration on limited key areas that could re-establish a thickness similar to non-radiotreated tissues...
March 19, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, Sathvik Aithala, Visweswaran Ravikumar, Youyun Zheng, Basak Dogan, Emerlinda Bonaccio, Elizabeth S Burnside, Elizabeth Morris, Elizabeth Sutton, Gary J Whitman, Jose Net, Kathy Brandt, Marie Ganott, Margarita Zuley, Arvind Rao
Background: Imaging features derived from MRI scans can be used for not only breast cancer detection and measuring disease extent, but can also determine gene expression and patient outcomes. The relationships between imaging features, gene/protein expression, and response to therapy hold potential to guide personalized medicine. We aim to characterize the relationship between radiologist-annotated tumor phenotypic features (based on MRI) and the underlying biological processes (based on proteomic profiling) in the tumor...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Bradley A Perkins, C Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S Karow, Andrew M Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J Jönsson, Bryan M Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, J Craig Venter
Reducing premature mortality associated with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, is an urgent priority. We report early results using genomics in combination with advanced imaging and other clinical testing to proactively screen for age-related chronic disease risk among adults. We enrolled active, symptom-free adults in a study of screening for age-related chronic diseases associated with premature mortality. In addition to personal and family medical history and other clinical testing, we obtained whole-genome sequencing (WGS), noncontrast whole-body MRI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), global metabolomics, a new blood test for prediabetes (Quantose IR), echocardiography (ECHO), ECG, and cardiac rhythm monitoring to identify age-related chronic disease risks...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ramin Mandegaran, Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Sanjay Vijayanathan, Gopinath Gnanasegaran
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental value of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over Tc-MDP two-phase bone scan (TPBS) in the assessment of the patients with pain following knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tc-MDP TPBS and Tc-MDP SPECT/CT were performed in 49 patients with knee pain after knee arthroplasty. The scans were reviewed by two readers (nuclear medicine physician and musculoskeletal radiologist)...
March 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Leslie Mertz
Nuclear medicine has come a long way in a short time. Over the past three decades alone, it has taken two major steps forward and is now on the precipice of yet another advance that could begin to have a real impact on cancer care within the year.
March 2018: IEEE Pulse
Monica Terracciano, Michela Napolitano, Luca De Stefano, Anna Chiara De Luca, Ilaria Rea
Diatomite is a fossil material made of amorphous porous silica. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified diatomite NPs (PEG-DNPs) are decorated with gold NPs (AuNPs) by one-pot liquid-phase synthesis. Nanocomplexes (PEG-DNPs@AuNPs), with an average size of about 450 nm, are characterized by dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, UV-VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Preliminary studies on the use of the nanocomplex in nanomedicine are also presented...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yuki Tanisaka, Shomei Ryozawa, Masanori Kobayashi, Maiko Harada, Tsutomu Kobatake, Kumiko Omiya, Hirotoshi Iwano, Shin Arai, Kouichi Nonaka, Yumi Mashimo
Lymphadenopathy may be difficult to diagnose using imaging results alone. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may help to diagnose and determine the appropriate management of lymphadenopathy. EUS-FNA has been used as a safe and less invasive method for obtaining pathologic specimens from extraluminal lesions using endoscopic ultrasound. The present study evaluated the usefulness of EUS-FNA for lymphadenopathy. Between July 2013 and December 2016, 72 patients undergoing EUS-FNA for lymphadenopathy that could not be diagnosed solely using imaging were included...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Samaresh Sau, Katyayani Tatiparti, Hashem O Alsaab, Sushil K Kashaw, Arun K Iyer
Nanomedicines can be multifunctional drug delivery agents for cancer therapies. However, they have faced several challenges in clinical trials owing to poor targeting ability, insufficient tumor penetration, difficulty in synthesis and scale up, and limited understanding of interactions between a tumor and nanoparticles. In this regard, tumor muticomponent targeting drug delivery systems are a rational approach for developing tumor-site-specific therapeutics. One of the goals is to arrive at a ready-to-configure, combinatorial, reagent-free click-chemistry-based tumor multicomponent targeting nanoparticle library...
March 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Shi Kang Wong, Pravinkumar G Patil
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) frequently loops backward before exiting from the mental foramen and spreads several millimeters medially to the foramen. Implant placement in this area may damage the nerve if the anterior loop area is not carefully identified in a radiographic or computed tomography (CT) evaluation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this observational study was to measure the prevalence of the presence of the anterior loop and to estimate sex and ethnicity-related variations in anterior loop length in the Malaysian population...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
C M Chingkoe, A Brook, A J Moser, K J Mortele
PURPOSE: At our tertiary medical center, multidisciplinary subspecialists meet twice a week during a CME-accredited conference to discuss oncologic and non-oncologic patients with pancreatic diseases at which time a subspecialized abdominal staff radiologist reinterprets the patient's relevant imaging studies. This study assesses the changes in patient management due to imaging reinterpretation during multidisciplinary pancreas conference (MPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, imaging studies of all patients discussed at MPC between July 1 and December 31, 2015 were assessed for technical adequacy, and original reports analyzed for congruency with reinterpretation...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Margaret B Menzel, Anne K Lawrence, Eva I Rubio, Dorothy I Bulas
Fetal medicine programs within children's hospitals have been developed to ensure access to pediatric specialists across multiple disciplines. The cases that present to these programs are usually complex and require involvement of a multidisciplinary care team. Although some providers on the team limit their focus to their pediatric specialty when counseling patients, the radiologist and genetic counselor have a distinct perspective allowing them to take the larger picture into account in the evaluation of the fetus...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Christopher G Roth, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Flavius F Guglielmo
MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation...
March 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jiaohan Guo, Kevin Black, Jiawen Hu, Mahi R Singh
We developed a theory for the fluorescence (FL) for quantum emitter and double metallic nanoshell dimer hybrids using the density matrix method. The dimer is made from two identical double metallic nanoshells, which are made of a dielectric core, a gold metallic shell and a dielectric spacer layer. The quantum emitters are deposited on the surface of the spacer layers of the dimers due to the electrostatic absorptions. We consider that dimer hybrids are surrounded by biological cells. This can be achieved by injecting them in human or animal cells...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jingxiao Wang, Xinjie Yang, Haibo Han, Limin Wang, Weiqian Bao, Shanshan Wang, Robert M Hoffman, Meng Yang, Hui Qi, Chao An, Kaiwen Hu
Objective: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly invasive and metastatic, which is in urgent need of transformative therapeutics. Tubeimu (TBM), the rhizome of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet, is one of the Chinese medicinal herbs used for breast diseases since the ancient times. The present study evaluated the efficacy, especially the anti-metastatic effects of the dichloromethane extract of Tubeimu (ETBM) on TNBC orthotopic mouse models and cell lines. Methods: We applied real-time imaging on florescent orthotopic TNBC mice model and tested cell migration and invasion abilities with MDA-MB-231 cell line...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Grace Frances Mary McKay, Asoka Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is recognised as an invaluable imaging modality for assessing critically unwell patients and obtaining vascular access. Senior emergency medicine and anaesthetic clinicians will regularly use ultrasound-guided imaging to establish vascular access for unwell patients; however, junior doctors, who are routinely the first clinicians to review deteriorating patients, are not encouraged or required to develop basic ultrasound interventional skills and are therefore ill equipped to use ultrasonography...
March 15, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
C M S Hassing, T F Tvedskov, N Kroman, T L Klausen, J B Drejøe, J F Tvedskov, T-L Lambine, H Kledal, G Lelkaitis, L Langhans
BACKGROUND: Radioactive seed localisation (RSL) is a preoperative localisation method using a small titanium seed containing iodine-125. The method is increasingly applied for localising non-palpable lesions in the treatment of breast cancer. We believe that RSL has the potential to be used in various surgical specialties. The aim of this feasibility study was to test RSL as a preoperative localisation of non-palpable lymph nodes. METHODS: Between November 24, 2015 and October 26, 2016, 15 patients with suspicious lymph nodes on imaging were included in the study...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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