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image in medicine

Bertram J Wilm, Christoph Barmet, Simon Gross, Lars Kasper, S Johanna Vannesjo, Max Haeberlin, Benjamin E Dietrich, David O Brunner, Thomas Schmid, Klaas P Pruessmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of single-shot spiral MRI and demonstrate its application for diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: Image formation is based on an expanded encoding model that accounts for dynamic magnetic fields up to third order in space, nonuniform static B0 , and coil sensitivity encoding. The encoding model is determined by B0 mapping, sensitivity mapping, and concurrent field monitoring. Reconstruction is performed by iterative inversion of the expanded signal equations...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hong Shang, Subramaniam Sukumar, Cornelius von Morze, Robert A Bok, Irene Marco-Rius, Adam Kerr, Galen D Reed, Eugene Milshteyn, Michael A Ohliger, John Kurhanewicz, Peder E Z Larson, John M Pauly, Daniel B Vigneron
PURPOSE: Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences can provide superior signal-to-noise ratio efficiency for hyperpolarized (HP) carbon-13 ((13) C) magnetic resonance imaging by efficiently utilizing the nonrecoverable magnetization, but managing their spectral response is challenging in the context of metabolic imaging. A new spectrally selective bSSFP sequence was developed for fast imaging of multiple HP (13) C metabolites with high spatiotemporal resolution. THEORY AND METHODS: This novel approach for bSSFP spectral selectivity incorporates optimized short-duration spectrally selective radiofrequency pulses within a bSSFP pulse train and a carefully chosen repetition time to avoid banding artifacts...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Stephen F Cauley, Kawin Setsompop, Berkin Bilgic, Himanshu Bhat, Borjan Gagoski, Lawrence L Wald
PURPOSE: Fast MRI acquisitions often rely on efficient traversal of k-space and hardware limitations, or other physical effects can cause the k-space trajectory to deviate from a theoretical path in a manner dependent on the image prescription and protocol parameters. Additional measurements or generalized calibrations are typically needed to characterize the discrepancies. We propose an autocalibrated technique to determine these discrepancies. METHODS: A joint optimization is used to estimate the trajectory simultaneously with the parallel imaging reconstruction, without the need for additional measurements...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jessica L Partlow, Meghann Lustgarten, W Rich Redding
To the authors' knowledge, the ultrasonographic appearance of hair shafts within a synovial structure of the horse has not been described previously. The purpose of this descriptive study was to illustrate the clinical, ultrasonographic, and arthroscopic characteristics of confirmed hair shafts within synovial structures of seven horses. A review of medical records of the Farm and Equine Veterinary Medical Center at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine identified seven horses with clinical signs suspicious for inflammatory or septic synovitis/tenosynovitis that had hair shafts identified within those structures ultrasonographically...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Rujuta Katkar, Douglas D Steffy, Marcel Noujeim, S Thomas Deahl, Hassem Geha
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milliamperage, number of basis images, and export slice thickness on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and confidence in detecting mandibular canal. STUDY DESIGN: Two phantoms were used. Each phantom consisted of a dry mandible with an epoxy resin bone tissue substitute block and a water-equivalent block, submerged in water. Each mandible was scanned with a Morita 3D Accuitomo cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) machine (Morita, Kyoto, Japan)...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Gerhard Batz, Michael Dinkel
Echocardiography as an imaging method in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine has enabled a new dimension of hemodynamic monitoring: the direct visualization of the cardiac function and its disruptions. Preconditions for a broad application in this area was the development of mobile, high-definition ultrasonic devices and the origination of focused examination techniques. A successful application of this method requires the respective know-how of the examiner, in order to take relevant decisions and avoid misdiagnoses...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Krishan Kant Agarwal, Anirban Mukherjee, ArunRaj St, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental value of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and SPECT for the diagnosis of active condylar hyperplasia (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 21 patients (mean age: 21.9±5.3 years, 10 males, 11 females) who underwent Tc-MDP BS along with regional SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of active CH were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Naomi Winn, Radhesh Lalam, Victor Cassar-Pullicino
Paget's disease of bone is a disorder of bone remodelling, leading to changes in the architecture and overall appearance of the bone. The disorder may be monostotic or polyostotic and affect any bone in the body, although most commonly it involves the spine, pelvis, skull and femur. This article explores the different imaging modalities used in the assessment of Paget's disease of bone in its different phases. The relative merits of each imaging modality is discussed with illustrative examples, in particular with respect to radiographs, nuclear medicine bone scan, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Qiuyu Wang, Chuan Cao, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Lele Lu, Wenping Wang, Shirong Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in an aesthetic surgery setting in the region of Southwest China, and to ascertain the differences in terms of body images between patients in the aesthetic setting and general Chinese population. This study tracked patient satisfaction with their body image changes while undergoing aesthetic medical procedures to identify whether the condition of patients who were presenting with BDD symptoms or their psychological symptoms could be improved by enhancing their appearance...
October 19, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Satoshi Yanagita, Masato Imahana, Kazuaki Suwa, Hitomi Sugimura, Masayuki Nishiki
Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Grzegorz Bauman, Francesco Santini, Orso Pusterla, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To present a technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and relative spin density (M0 ) in human lung using inversion recovery ultra-fast steady-state free precession (IR-ufSSFP) imaging. METHODS: Pulmonary relaxometry with IR-ufSSFP is based on an interleaved time series acquisition of 2D images acquired at 1.5T. The technique was tested in a phantom and in four healthy volunteers using breath-hold and electrocardiogram triggering. Typically, 30 transient state images were acquired in a single breath-hold within < 10 s...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Catherine Mazzola, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist for the imaging of patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and evidence-based guideline is to answer the question, Is imaging necessary for infants with positional plagiocephaly to make a diagnosis? METHODS: The National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried with the use of MeSH headings and key words relevant to imaging as a means to diagnose plagiocephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
David A Winkler
Nanoparticles are finding many applications in medicine and other field like photonics. Magnetic nanoparticles have additional advantages in medicine over non-magnetic hard nanoparticles, as their magnetic properties make them ideal for hyperthermic applications in therapy and for sensitive diagnostic imaging applications. I review the literature on computational models of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles specifically. Such models have the potential to accelerate the design of magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications...
October 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a pivotal imaging modality for cancer imaging, assisting diagnosis, staging of patients with newly diagnosed malignancy, restaging following therapy and surveillance. Interpretation requires integration of the metabolic and anatomic findings provided by the PET and CT components which transcend the knowledge base isolated in the worlds of nuclear medicine and radiology, respectively. In the manuscript we detail our approach to reviewing and reporting a PET/CT study using the most commonly used radiotracer, FDG...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Bert-Ram Sah, Paul Stolzmann, Gaspar Delso, Scott D Wollenweber, Martin Hüllner, Yahya A Hakami, Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Gustav K von Schulthess, Carsten Pietsch, Patrick Veit-Haibach
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical performance of a block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm in oncologic PET/computed tomography (CT) studies. METHODS: A total of 410 reconstructions of 41 fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT studies of 41 patients with a total of 2010 lesions were analyzed by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Images were reconstructed with BSREM (with four different β values) or ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with/without time-of-flight (TOF/non-TOF) corrections...
October 18, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
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