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Lipid cholesterol metabolism atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643920/mir-33-inhibition-attenuates-the-effect-of-liver-x-receptor-agonist-t0901317-on-expression-of-liver-x-receptor-alpha-in-mice-liver
#2
Abbas Mohammadi, Hossein Fallah, Beydolah Shahouzehi, Hamid Najafipour
BACKGROUND: microRNAs play pivotal roles in metabolism and other aspects of cell biology. microRNA-33 and liver X receptor (LXR) affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol trafficking. In this study, we evaluated effects of co-administration of miR-33 inhibitor and LXR activator on LXR-α and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression in mice liver. METHODS: Twenty-four mice were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 mice received standard chow diet without any treatment, group 2 received 30 mg/kg/48 hour LXR agonist (T0901317), group 3 received 1 mg/kg/48 hour in vivo locked nucleic acids (LNA) anti-miR-33 and group 4 received both T0901317 and in vivo LNA anti-miR-33...
November 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626583/abnormalities-in-the-relationship-of-paraoxonase-1-with-hdl-and-apolipoprotein-a1-and-their-possible-connection-to-hdl-dysfunctionality-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Alena Viktorinova, Ingrid Jurkovicova, Lubomira Fabryova, Sona Kinova, Michal Koren, Anna Stecova, Klara Svitekova
AIMS: Lipid parameters, lipid risk indexes and lipid-related oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase 1 [PON1] and lipid peroxides [LPO]) reflect the actual status of lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We hypothesized that relationships of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) with PON1 and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and/or PON1 with ApoA1 under conditions of hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress might reveal HDL functionality. We investigated relationships between PON1, LPO, and lipid risk markers in T2DM subjects and compared them with those in healthy subjects...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622163/chlamydia-and-lipids-engage-a-common-signaling-pathway-that-promotes-atherogenesis
#4
Shuang Chen, Kenichi Shimada, Timothy R Crother, Ebru Erbay, Prediman K Shah, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling promote the development of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the role of TLR4/MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic and stromal cells in the development and infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The authors generated bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and Tlr4-/- mice, as well as wild-type and Myd88-/- mice...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621698/plasma-methionine-and-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-effect-modification-by-established-risk-factors
#5
Indu Dhar, Vegard Lysne, Reinhard Seifert, Gard F T Svingen, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid involved in methylation reactions and lipid metabolism. A Met-deficient diet may cause hepatic lipid accumulation, which is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prospective relationship between circulating Met and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. METHODS: We studied the associations of plasma Met and incident AMI in 4156 patients (77% men; median age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris, among whom the majority received lipid lowering therapy with statins...
March 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615006/selected-risk-factors-for-atherosclerosis-in-children-and-their-parents-with-positive-family-history-of-premature-cardiovascular-diseases-a-prospective-study
#6
Elzbieta Pac-Kozuchowska, Paulina Krawiec, Ewelina Grywalska
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum parameters of lipid metabolism, homocysteine, soluble adhesion molecules and common carotid artery wall thickness in children from families with early symptoms of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The first stage included 137 pairs of mothers and newborns, and the second 18 children from the same group (age 18-30 months) and their parents (age 21-46 years) with a history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as 12 age- and sex-matched controls...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599672/the-effect-of-subcutaneous-methotrexate-on-markers-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-psoriatic-patients-preliminary-report
#7
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Marek Drozdowski, Agata Maciejewska-Radomska, Dariusz Choszcz, Waldemar Placek
Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) has anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in psoriasis. Moreover, low doses can reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. It turns out that psoriasis and atherosclerosis have a similar pathogenetic mechanism: the same pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 and Th17, are involved in both diseases. Aim: To evaluate the effects of metabolic markers, protective cytokines (interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)) and a marker of endothelial damage (endocan) in patients with plaque psoriasis...
February 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596892/dysfunction-of-cholesterol-sensor-scap-promotes-inflammation-activation-in-thp-1-macrophages
#8
Nan Ouyang, Hua Gan, Quan He, Han Lei, Stephen Y Wang, Qing Liu, Chao Zhou
Crosstalk occurs between dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation, which are both precipitants of atherosclerosis. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) plays a key role in regulating cholesterol homeostasis. The present study investigated the effects of SCAP dysfunction on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and lipid metabolism in THP-1 macrophages. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assays. The expression of SCAP, HMGCR, pro-IL-1β and N-SREBP2, p65(N) in the nucleus were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593532/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-ameliorates-atherosclerosis-and-modulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-involvement-of-ttc39b
#9
Li-Long Pan, Yan Wu, Ru-Qing Wang, Jin-Wu Chen, Jing Chen, Yan Zhang, Ya-Jun Chen, Ming Geng, Zhong-Dong Xu, Min Dai, Jin-Hua Li, Wei Wang, Zheng-Zhu Zhang
Background: Aberrant chronic inflammation and excess accumulation of lipids play a pivotal role in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in green tea, displayed anti-atherosclerotic properties in vivo and in vitro . However, the effects and underlying mechanism of EGCG on atherosclerosis remain unclear. Methods: Male apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice (7 weeks old) fed with high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with normal saline or EGCG (40 mg/kg/d, i...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574331/butyrate-from-pectin-fermentation-inhibits-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#10
Ying Chen, Chengfang Xu, Rong Huang, Jiayi Song, Di Li, Min Xia
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the major products of dietary fiber fermentation by intestinal microflora, exert beneficial effects on pathogenesis of multiple metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCFAs from fermentation of pectin (PE), a soluble dietary fiber, prevent the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/- ) mice. Male apoE-/- mice (8-week-old) were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HCD; 21% wt/wt fat, 0.15% wt/wt cholesterol) or HCD supplemented with 20% wt/wt PE (HCD+PE) alone or with antibiotics (HCD+PE + A) in drinking water for 12 weeks...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559522/aibp-protects-against-metabolic-abnormalities-and-atherosclerosis
#11
Dina A Schneider, Soo-Ho Choi, Colin Agatisa-Boyle, Laurence Zhu, Jungsu Kim, Jennifer Pattison, Dorothy D Sears, Philip L S M Gordts, Longhou Fang, Yury I Miller
Apolipoprotein A-I Binding Protein (AIBP) has been shown to augment cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells and macrophages. In zebrafish and mice, AIBP-mediated regulation of cholesterol levels in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells controls angiogenesis. The goal of this work was to evaluate metabolic changes and atherosclerosis in AIBP loss-of-function and gain-of-function animal studies. Here we show that Apoa1bp-/-Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet had exacerbated weight gain, liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and larger atherosclerotic lesions compared to Ldlr-/- mice...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555504/alantolactone-suppresses-apoc3-expression-and-alters-lipid-homeostasis-in-l02-liver-cells
#12
Meiting Yang, Hanhan Zhao, Huihan Ai, Hongbin Zhu, Shuyue Wang, Yongli Bao, Yuxin Li
A high level of APOC3 expression is an independent risk factor for some lipid metabolism-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis (AS). This suggests that down-regulating APOC3 expression is a potential way of regulating lipid levels. In this study, we used luciferase reporter screening to identify a natural compound, alantolactone (ALA), that can inhibit the promoter activity of APOC3. ALA decreased APOC3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546829/dysfunctional-hdl-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-atherosclerosis-prevention
#13
Alice Ossoli, Chiara Pavanello, Eleonora Giorgio, Laura Calabresi, Monica Gomaraschi
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Among the various lipoprotein classes, however, high density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis, since they are able to exert a series of atheroprotective functions. The central role of HDL within the reverse cholesterol transport, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their ability to preserve endothelial homeostasis are likely responsible for HDL-mediated atheroprotection...
March 15, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544473/correlation-of-trans-fatty-acids-with-the-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease-lesions
#14
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Wafa Kharroubi, Nadia Kaoubaa, Amira Zarrouk, Fathi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Gérard Lizard, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Nutritional choices, which include the source of dietary fatty acids (FA), have an important significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine on patients with CAD the relationships between Trans fatty acids (Trans FA) and different CAD associated parameters such as inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in addition to Gensini score as a vascular severity index. METHODS: Fatty acid profiles were established by gas chromatography from 111 CAD patients compared to 120 age-matched control group...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533793/silica-nanoparticles-promote-oxldl-induced-macrophage-lipid-accumulation-and-apoptosis-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-signaling
#15
Caixia Guo, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Tian Chen, Yang Li, Yang Yu, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a marker of hyperlipidemia, plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis through the induction of macrophage-derived foam cell formation and thereafter apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that silica nanoparticle (SiNPs) may exert a proatherogenic role, which could induce endothelial dysfunction, and monocytes infiltration. However, little is known about SiNPs' effects on macrophage-derived foam cell formation and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533539/cord-blood-lipid-profile-in-healthy-newborns-a-prospective-single-center-study
#16
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska, Anna Rakuś-Kwiatosz, Paulina Krawiec
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis may originate during the fetal period, therefore it is reasonable to identify early risk markers of lifestyle diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between fetal and maternal factors, and the neonatal cord blood lipid profile in term newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study group, there were 206 healthy Polish newborns. Newborn characteristics included sex, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, and anthropometric data (weight and length at birth, neonatal ponderal index, head, chest and abdominal circumferences, placenta weight, and placental-fetal weight ratio)...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528874/hdl-functionality-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-on-cvd-unifying-mechanism-that-explains-hdl-protection-towards-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis
#17
Elda Favari, Michael J Thomas, Mary G Sorci-Thomas
The formation of the atherosclerotic plaque that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal amounts of cholesterol-loaded macrophages in the artery wall is mediated by both inflammatory events and alterations of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism. Reverse transport of cholesterol (RCT) opposes the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaque through high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, promoting the removal of cholesterol from peripheral macrophages and its delivery back to the liver for excretion into the bile...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526535/loss-of-lcat-activity-in-the-golden-syrian-hamster-elicits-pro-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-and-enhanced-atherosclerosis
#18
Zhao Dong, Haozhe Shi, Mingming Zhao, Xin Zhang, Wei Huang, Yuhui Wang, Lemin Zheng, Xunde Xian, George Liu
OBJECTIVE: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism but its influence on atherosclerosis remains controversial for decades both in animal and clinical studies. Because lack of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major difference between murine and humans in lipoprotein metabolism, we aimed to create a novel Syrian Golden hamster model deficient in LCAT activity, which expresses endogenous CETP, to explore its metabolic features and particularly the influence of LCAT on the development of atherosclerosis...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523207/oxysterol-levels-and-metabolism-in-the-course-of-neuroinflammation-insights-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#19
Valentin Mutemberezi, Baptiste Buisseret, Julien Masquelier, Owein Guillemot-Legris, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli
BACKGROUND: Oxysterols are cholesterol derivatives that have been suggested to play a role in inflammatory diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, or neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the effect of neuroinflammation on oxysterol levels has only been partially studied so far. METHODS: We used an HPLC-MS method to quantify over ten oxysterols both in in vitro and in vivo models of neuroinflammation. In the same models, we used RT-qPCR to analyze the expression of the enzymes responsible for oxysterol metabolism...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511577/the-relationship-between-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-testosterone-deficiency
#20
Mustafa Keleşoğlu, Fuat Kızılay, Burcu Barutçuoğlu, Güneş Başol, Fulden Saraç, Işıl Mutaf, Bülent Semerci
Objective: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) which is believed to play a role in atherosclerotic inflammatory process due to its function in hydrolysis of phospholipids and release of pro-inflammatory products, is considered as a novel biomarker for vascular risk. In this study we aimed to investigate the alterations in Lp-PLA2 and its relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with testosterone deficiency. Material and methods: Forty hypogonadic male and 30 healthy male aged between 18-50 years were enrolled in this study...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
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