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Lipid cholesterol metabolism atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338883/the-effects-of-oleanolic-acid-on-atherosclerosis-in-different-animal-models
#1
Hanqiong Luo, Jine Liu, Qiong Ouyang, Chunxiao Xuan, Lanlan Wang, Tingting Li, Jun Liu
In the present study, three animal models, including C57BL/6J mice, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice, and rabbit that mimicked atherosclerosis, were established to investigate the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on atherosclerosis. In rabbit model, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Carotid artery lesions were isolated for histological analysis. The red oil O and hematoxylin-eosin staining in liver were examined...
March 4, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336556/human-microrna-548p-decreases-hepatic-apolipoprotein-b-secretion-and-lipid-synthesis
#2
Liye Zhou, M Mahmood Hussain
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRs) play important regulatory roles in lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), as the only essential scaffolding protein in the assembly of very-low-density lipoproteins, is a target to treat hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We aimed to find out miRs that reduce apoB expression. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Bioinformatic analyses predicted that hsa-miR-548p can interact with apoB mRNA. MiR-548p or control miR was transfected in human and mouse liver cells to test its role in regulating apoB secretion and mRNA expression levels...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317482/nutraceuticals-as-an-important-part-of-combination-therapy-in-dyslipidaemia
#4
Angelo Maria Patti, Peter P Toth, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Maciej Banach, Marcello Noto, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo
Several risk factors such as abnormality of lipid metabolism (e.g. high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) play a central role in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nutraceutical combination together with a cholesterol-lowering action, when associated with suitable lifestyle, should furnish an alternative to pharmacotherapy in patients reporting statin-intolerance and in subjects at low cardiovascular risk...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302950/pcsk9-and-atherosclerosis-lipids-and-beyond
#5
Michael D Shapiro, Sergio Fazio
Even though it is only a little over a decade from the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a plasma protein that associates with both high and low cholesterol syndromes, a rich body of knowledge has developed, and drugs inhibiting this target have been approved in many markets. While the majority of research in recent years has focused on the impact of therapeutic antagonism of this molecule, important lines of investigation have emerged characterizing its unique physiology as it relates to cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296196/sirt6-reduces-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-by-inducing-autophagy-and-cholesterol-efflux-under-ox-ldl-condition
#6
Jiangping He, Guangya Zhang, Qi Pang, Cong Yu, Jie Xiong, Jing Zhu, Fengling Chen
SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy...
March 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288621/relationship-between-plasma-homocysteine-level-and-lipid-profiles-in-a-community-based-chinese-population
#7
Mohetaboer Momin, Jia Jia, Fangfang Fan, Jianping Li, Jingtao Dou, Dafang Chen, Yong Huo, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies established a possible link among hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. However, there was limited epidemic data concerning the relation between HHcy and lipid profiles, especially in community-based Chinese populations. This study aim to investigate the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level with lipid profiles in a Chinese community-based population without lipid-lowering treatment. METHOD: A total of 4660 Chinese subjects from a cohort of the Shijingshan district in Beijing were included in the analysis...
March 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279967/ezetimibe-increases-endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#8
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo...
March 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259375/sr-bi-a-multifunctional-receptor-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
MacRae F Linton, Huan Tao, Edward F Linton, Patricia G Yancey
The HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays crucial roles in cholesterol homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Hepatic SR-BI mediates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by the uptake of HDL cholesterol for routing to the bile. Through the selective uptake of HDL lipids, hepatic SR-BI modulates HDL composition and preserves HDL's atheroprotective functions of mediating cholesterol efflux and minimizing inflammation and oxidation. Macrophage and endothelial cell SR-BI inhibits the development of atherosclerosis by mediating cholesterol trafficking to minimize atherosclerotic lesion foam cell formation...
March 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251701/molecular-effect-of-fenofibrate-on-pbmc-gene-transcription-related-to-lipid-metabolism-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#10
I Moreno-Indias, F J Tinahones, M Clemente-Postigo, D Castellano-Castillo, J C Fernández-García, M Macias-Gonzalez, M I Queipo-Ortuño, F Cardona
BACKGROUND: Both fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are considered independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia is based on fibrates, which activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). However, the metabolic pathways that activate or inhibit fibrates, and how the postprandial triglyceride levels are modified, have not yet been fully described. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to study the effects of fenofibrate in patients with the metabolic syndrome...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249700/a%C3%A3-ai-euterpe-oleracea-mart-dietary-intake-affects-plasma-lipids-apolipoproteins-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-to-high-density-lipoprotein-and-redox-metabolism-a-prospective-study-in-women
#11
Daniela Pala, Priscila Oliveira Barbosa, Carla Teixeira Silva, Melina Oliveira de Souza, Fatima Rodrigues Freitas, Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp, Raul Cavalcante Maranhão, Renata Nascimento de Freitas
The açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius), which is native to the Brazilian Amazon region, was shown to have high polyphenols and MUFA contents. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of açai consumption on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, the transfer of lipids to HDL (which is a relevant HDL function), and some biomarkers of redox metabolism. Forty healthy volunteer women aged 24 ± 3 years consumed 200 g of açai pulp/day for 4 weeks; their clinical variables and blood sample were obtained before and after this period...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242382/effects-of-the-ethanol-extract-of-black-mulberry-morus-nigra-l-fruit-on-experimental-atherosclerosis-in-rats
#12
Yan Jiang, Min Dai, Wen-Jing Nie, Xiao-Rong Yang, Xian-Chun Zeng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the major pathogenic component of coronary artery and cardiovascular disease. Studies have increasingly focused on natural medicines that have lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and endothelial-protection activities. Black mulberry fruits are traditionally used in Uyghur folk medicine for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in southern Xinjiang region of China. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238629/apolipoprotein-a1-rs5070-a-g-polymorphism-with-stroke-subtypes-in-taiwan
#13
Li-Chi Hsu, Tsong-Hai Lee
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) is a structural protein of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; ApoA1 is involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. This study evaluated the association of ApoA1 polymorphism (rs5070) with different stroke subtypes in Taiwanese individuals. METHODS: A total of 2139 cases, including 614 controls and 708 large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), 377 small-vessel occlusion, and 440 hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage cases, were enrolled in this study...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203044/a-case-of-sitosterolemia-due-to-compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-abcg5-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcomes-obtained-with-colestimide-and-ezetimibe
#14
Sahoko Ono, Junko Matsuda, Aki Saito, Takenobu Yamamoto, Wataru Fujimoto, Hitomi Shimizu, Sumito Dateki, Kazunobu Ouchi
Sitosterolemia is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited disorder of lipid metabolism caused by mutations in the "ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G" member 5 and 8 proteins (encoded by the ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes, respectively), which play critical roles in the intestinal and biliary excretion of plant sterols. We report the clinical features and treatment outcomes of an 18-month-old Japanese girl with sitosterolemia, who presented with multiple linear and intertriginous xanthomas around the joint areas. Serum lipid analyses revealed elevated levels of total cholesterol (T-Chol: 866 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C: 679 mg/dL), and plant sterols (sitosterol: 24...
January 2017: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194400/eating-the-dead-to-keep-atherosclerosis-at-bay
#15
REVIEW
Megan L Brophy, Yunzhou Dong, Hao Wu, H N Ashiqur Rahman, Kai Song, Hong Chen
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite effective lipid-lowering therapies and prevention programs, atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of CHD in developing countries worldwide is rapidly increasing at a rate expected to overtake those of cancer and diabetes. Prominent risk factors include the hardening of arteries and high levels of cholesterol, which lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192240/effects-of-curcumin-on-hdl-functionality
#16
REVIEW
Shiva Ganjali, Christopher N Blesso, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels...
February 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153881/prevention-of-diet-induced-metabolic-dysregulation-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice-by-treatment-with-the-atp-citrate-lyase-inhibitor-bempedoic-acid
#17
Joshua P Samsoondar, Amy C Burke, Brian G Sutherland, Dawn E Telford, Cynthia G Sawyez, Jane Y Edwards, Stephen L Pinkosky, Roger S Newton, Murray W Huff
OBJECTIVE: Bempedoic acid (ETC-1002, 8-hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid) is a novel low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering compound. In animals, bempedoic acid targets the liver where it inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis through inhibition of ATP-citrate lyase and through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bempedoic acid would prevent diet-induced metabolic dysregulation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis...
February 2, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144254/blood-pressure-dyslipidemia-and-inflammatory-factors-are-related-to-body-mass-index-in-scholar-adolescents
#18
Hanane Ghomari-Boukhatem, Assia Bouchouicha, Khedidja Mekki, Karima Chenni, Mohamed Belhadj, Malika Bouchenak
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased occurrence of numerous diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Blood pressure (BP), dyslipidemia, and inflammation markers and their relationships with body mass index (BMI) were determined in scholar adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adolescents (n = 210) (sex ratio G/B = 106/104; 11 to 16 years) were recruited in three colleges of Oran city. Anthropometric parameters were measured to classify adolescents as thin (T), normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or obese (O)...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130355/intestinal-epithelial-cell-caveolin-1-regulates-fatty-acid-and-lipoprotein-cholesterol-plasma-levels
#19
Jessica P Otis, Meng-Chieh Shen, Vanessa Quinlivan, Jennifer L Anderson, Steven A Farber
Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130274/commensal-bacteria-at-the-crossroad-between-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-chronic-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Kazuyuki Kasahara, Takeshi Tanoue, Tomoya Yamashita, Keiko Yodoi, Takuya Matsumoto, Takuo Emoto, Taiji Mizoguchi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Naoki Kitano, Naoto Sasaki, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The gut microbiota were shown to play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis, but the detailed mechanism is limited. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of gut microbiota on atherogenesis via lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. Germ-free or conventionally raised (Conv) ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed chow diet and euthanized at 20 weeks of age. We found that the lack of gut microbiota in ApoE(-/-) mice caused a significant increase in the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels compared with Conv ApoE(-/-) mice...
March 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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