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Lipid cholesterol metabolism atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625128/the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-pathway-inhibitor-sclerostin-is-a-biomarker-for-early-atherosclerosis-in-obesity
#1
Djordje S Popovic, Milena Mitrovic, Dragana Tomic-Naglic, Tijana Icin, Ivana Bajkin, Bojan Vukovic, Damir Benc, Zeljko Zivanovic, Branka Kovacev-Zavisic, Edita Stokic
BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is an inhibitor of the wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family/β-catenin signalling pathway (WβcSP), which plays an important role in bone metabolism and in vascular biology. It could act protective regarding atherosclerosis development through its effect on WβcSP in vascular cells. Nevertheless, results of studies analyzing association between circulating sclerostin level (CSL) and atherosclerotic diseases (AD) are showing conflicting results...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623919/effects-of-karela-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-genes-of-lipids-and-carbohydrates-metabolism-in-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-biochemical-molecular-and-histopathological-study
#2
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576562/a-survey-of-the-incidence-of-dyslipidemia-and-its-components-in-people-over-20-years-old-in-ahvaz-a-cohort-study-2009-2014
#3
S M Latifi, M Karandish, H B Shahbazian, R Chinipardaz, A Sabet, N Pirani
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and the main cause of death in the developing and developed countries. In this cohort study, the incidence of dyslipidemia and its components have been studied among individuals over 20 years old in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Phase 1 of this study was conducted on the prevalence of Metabolic syndrome and its related factors by Diabetes Research Center in 2009...
May 19, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565758/apigenin-in-the-regulation-of-cholesterol-metabolism-and-protection-of-blood-vessels
#4
Kun Zhang, Wei Song, Dalin Li, Xing Jin
Hyperlipidemia is a major independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Seeking natural compounds in medicinal plants capable of reducing blood fat and studying their mechanisms of action has been the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms of apigenin in regulating cholesterol metabolism and protecting blood vessels, and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of apigenin. The mouse model of hyperlipidemia was established to verify the efficacy of apigenin in improving hyperlipidemia and to observe the mechanism of action of apigenin in reducing cholesterol content...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555288/-congenital-disorders-of-lipoprotein-metabolism
#5
W März, T B Grammer, G Delgado, M E Kleber
Congenital disorders of lipid metabolism are caused by a wide range of variants of the genes for receptors, apolipoproteins, enzymes, transfer factors, and cellular cholesterol transporters. Clinically most relevant are autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia (FCHL). FH has a prevalence of 1:250. It is due to mutations of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, less often to mutations of the apolipoprotein B (APOB), the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), or the signal transducing adapter family member 1 (STAP1)...
May 29, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555032/strawberry-cv-romina-methanolic-extract-and-anthocyanin-enriched-fraction-improve-lipid-profile-and-antioxidant-status-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Danila Cianciosi, Ana M González-Paramás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino, Francesca Giampieri, Stefano Bompadre
Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries...
May 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551800/high-density-lipoprotein-regulation-of-mitochondrial-function
#7
C Roger White, Geeta Datta, Samantha Giordano
Lipoproteins play a key role in regulating plasma and tissue levels of cholesterol. Apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serve as carriers of triglycerides and cholesterol and deliver these metabolites to peripheral tissues. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT), a process by which excess cholesterol is removed from the periphery and taken up by hepatocytes where it is metabolized and excreted...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549500/greater-preclinical-atherosclerosis-in-treated-monogenic-familial-hypercholesterolemia-vs-polygenic-hypercholesterolemia
#8
Mahtab Sharifi, Elizabeth Higginson, Sven Bos, Angela Gallivan, Darren Harvey, Ka Wah Li, Amali Abeysekera, Angela Haddon, Helen Ashby, Kate E Shipman, Jackie A Cooper, Marta Futema, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, Eric J G Sijbrands, Mourad Labib, Devaki Nair, Steve E Humphries
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common inherited disorder of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. It is associated with higher risk of premature coronary heart disease. Around 60% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH do not have a detectable mutation in the genes causing FH and are most likely to have a polygenic cause for their raised LDL-C. We assessed the degree of preclinical atherosclerosis in treated patients with monogenic FH versus polygenic hypercholesterolemia...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546220/activation-of-adiponectin-receptor-regulates-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-expression-and-inhibits-lesions-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#9
Lei Sun, Xiaoxiao Yang, Qi Li, Peng Zeng, Ying Liu, Lipei Liu, Yuanli Chen, Miao Yu, Chuanrui Ma, Xiaoju Li, Yan Li, Rongxin Zhang, Yan Zhu, Qing Robert Miao, Jihong Han, Yajun Duan
OBJECTIVE: The reduced adiponectin levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Adiponectin exerts its functions by activating adiponectin receptor (AdipoR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) degrades LDLR protein (low-density lipoprotein receptor) to increase serum LDL-cholesterol levels. PCSK9 expression can be regulated by PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) or SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2). The effects of AdipoR agonists on PCSK9 and LDLR expression, serum lipid profiles, and atherosclerosis remain unknown...
May 25, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546217/increased-hepatic-expression-of-endothelial-lipase-inhibits-cholesterol-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-transgenic-rabbits
#10
Chuan Wang, Kazutoshi Nishijima, Shuji Kitajima, Manabu Niimi, Haizhao Yan, Yajie Chen, Bo Ning, Fumikazu Matsuhisa, Enqi Liu, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen, Jianglin Fan
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates...
May 25, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538111/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-effects-of-angptl3-antisense-oligonucleotides
#11
Mark J Graham, Richard G Lee, Teresa A Brandt, Li-Jung Tai, Wuxia Fu, Raechel Peralta, Rosie Yu, Eunju Hurh, Erika Paz, Bradley W McEvoy, Brenda F Baker, Nguyen C Pham, Andres Digenio, Steven G Hughes, Richard S Geary, Joseph L Witztum, Rosanne M Crooke, Sotirios Tsimikas
Background Epidemiologic and genomewide association studies have linked loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3, encoding angiopoietin-like 3, with low levels of plasma lipoproteins. Methods We evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting Angptl3 messenger RNA (mRNA) for effects on plasma lipid levels, triglyceride clearance, liver triglyceride content, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis in mice. Subsequently, 44 human participants (with triglyceride levels of either 90 to 150 mg per deciliter [1...
May 24, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534127/genetics-of-triglycerides-and-the-risk-of-atherosclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasma triglycerides are routinely measured with a lipid profile, and elevated plasma triglycerides are commonly encountered in the clinic. The confounded nature of this trait, which is correlated with numerous other metabolic perturbations, including depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has thwarted efforts to directly implicate triglycerides as causal in atherogenesis. Human genetic approaches involving large-scale populations and high-throughput genomic assessment under a Mendelian randomization framework have undertaken to sort out questions of causality...
July 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533928/leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#13
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486149/dietary-supplementation-with-long-chain-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-isomers-decreases-atherosclerosis-and-alters-lipoprotein-proteomes-in-ldlr-mice
#14
Zhi-Hong Yang, Scott M Gordon, Denis Sviridov, Shuibang Wang, Robert L Danner, Milton Pryor, Boris Vaisman, Yuka Shichijo, Nobushige Doisaki, Alan T Remaley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Concentrated fish oils, containing a mixture of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) with aliphatic chains longer than 18 C atoms (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1), have been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis development in mouse models. It is not clear, however, how individual LCMUFA isomers may act on atherosclerosis. METHODS: In the present study, we used saury fish oil-derived concentrates enriched in either C20:1 or C22:1 isomer fractions to investigate their individual effect on atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism...
April 25, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485501/mir-34a-targets-hdac1-regulated-h3k9-acetylation-on-lipid-accumulation-induced-by-homocysteine-in-foam-cells
#15
Qingguo Zhao, Shuqiang Li, Nan Li, Xiaoling Yang, Shengchao Ma, Anning Yang, Hui Zhang, Songhao Yang, Caiyan Mao, Lingbo Xu, Tingting Gao, Xiaoming Yang, Huiping Zhang, Yideng Jiang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) promotes atherogenesis by modification of histone acetylation patterns and regulation of miRNA expression while the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) on the expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and tested our hypothesis that Hcy-induced atherosclerosis is mediated by increased HDAC1 expression, which is regulated by miR-34a. The expression of HDAC1 increased and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) decreased in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice fed with high methionine diet, whereas miR-34a expression was inhibited...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435982/-changes-in-biological-functions-of-high-density-lipoprotein-after-abnormal-modification
#17
Hang Qu, Yang Yu, Shu-Cun Qin, Guo-Hua Song
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is composed of apolipoproteins, lipids and functional proteins. HDL protects against atherosclerosis (AS) by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). HDL inhibits the lipid oxidation, inflammation and restores endothelial function. During systemic inflammation or metabolic disorders, HDL can be modified abnormally and converted to a dysfunctional type, which results in the loss of anti-inflammatory factors including apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), paraoxonase (PON) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), and gains of pro-inflammatory factors such as serum amyloid A (SAA), triglyceride (TG) and oxidative lipid...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#18
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428217/microrna-33-regulates-macrophage-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis
#19
Mireille Ouimet, Hasini Ediriweera, Milessa Silva Afonso, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Ragunath Singaravelu, Xianghai Liao, Rachel C Bandler, Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher, Katey J Rayner, John P Pezacki, Ira Tabas, Kathryn J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Defective autophagy in macrophages leads to pathological processes that contribute to atherosclerosis, including impaired cholesterol metabolism and defective efferocytosis. Autophagy promotes the degradation of cytoplasmic components in lysosomes and plays a key role in the catabolism of stored lipids to maintain cellular homeostasis. microRNA-33 (miR-33) is a post-transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, yet the complete mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism are unknown...
June 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400053/proprotein-convertase-furin-pcsk3-and-atherosclerosis-new-insights-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#20
REVIEW
Kun Ren, Ting Jiang, Xi-Long Zheng, Guo-Jun Zhao
Furin, a member of the mammalian proprotein convertases family, can promote the proteolytic maturation of proproteins. It is known that furin is predominantly present in certain cell types of human atherosclerotic lesions and neointima in animal models, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells. Evidence suggests that furin participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis through regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolism, inflammatory response, blood pressure and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions...
April 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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