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Lipid cholesterol metabolism atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917052/nrf2-deficiency-impairs-atherosclerotic-lesion-development-but-promotes-features-of-plaque-instability-in-hypercholesterolemic-mice
#1
Anna-Kaisa Ruotsalainen, Jari P Lappalainen, Emmi Heiskanen, Mari Merentie, Virve Sihvola, Juha Näpänkangas, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Emilia Kansanen, Simone Adinolfi, Kai Kaarniranta, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Matti Jauhiainen, Eija Pirinen, Anna-Liisa Levonen
Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vessel wall, but paradoxically, global loss of Nrf2 in apoE deficient mice alleviates atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of global Nrf2 deficiency on early and advanced atherogenesis in alternative models of atherosclerosis, LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-) and LDLR-/- mice expressing apoB-100 only (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100) having a humanized lipoprotein profile...
June 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905812/defective-cholesterol-metabolism-in-haematopoietic-stem-cells-promotes-monocyte-driven-atherosclerosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Dragana Dragoljevic, Michael J Kraakman, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Devi Ngo, Waled Shihata, Helene L Kammoun, Alexandra Whillas, Man Kit Sam Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Gerard Pernes, Michelle C Flynn, Graeme I Lancaster, Mark A Febbraio, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Beatriz Y Hanaoka, Ian P Wicks, Andrew J Murphy
Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904174/liver-x-receptors-in-lipid-signalling-and-membrane-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Bo Wang, Peter Tontonoz
Liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ) are nuclear receptors with pivotal roles in the transcriptional control of lipid metabolism. Transcriptional activity of LXRs is induced in response to elevated cellular levels of cholesterol. LXRs bind to and regulate the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in cholesterol absorption, transport, efflux, excretion and conversion to bile acids. The coordinated, tissue-specific actions of the LXR pathway maintain systemic cholesterol homeostasis and regulate immune and inflammatory responses...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899496/transcriptional-control-of-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-adipose-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-handling-by-sortilin
#4
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896109/dan-lou-prescription-inhibits-foam-cell-formation-induced-by-ox-ldl-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#5
Li-Na Gao, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ren Lu, Kefeng Li, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu, Yuan-Lu Cui
Atherosclerosis is the major worldwide cause of mortality for patients with coronary heart disease. Many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for atherosclerosis treatment have been tried in patients. Dan-Lou prescription, which is improved from Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction, has been used to treat chest discomfort (coronary atherosclerosis) for approximately 2,000 years in China. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of Dan-Lou prescription have been proposed previously, the mechanism remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893901/dietary-patterns-among-asian-indians-living-in-the-united-states-have-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-that-are-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk
#6
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Meghana D Gadgil, Christopher B Newgard, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Denise M Scholtens, Frank B Hu, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula
Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883529/the-protective-activities-of-dietary-sea-cucumber-cerebrosides-against-atherosclerosis-through-regulating-inflammation-and-cholesterol-metabolism-in-male-mice
#7
Lingyu Zhang, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Ding, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
SCOPE: Cerebroside is an active component extracted from sea cucumber (SCC), which is a traditional tonic food in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of SCC on atherogenesis and determined the possible underlying mechanism. METHOD AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J obese mice were firstly used to explore the impact of SCC at different doses on alleviating lipid disorders and insulin sensitivity. Then ApoE-/- mice were used to evaluate the protective activities of SCC on atherosclerosis...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883404/the-cd36-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-metabolic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Loïze Maréchal, Maximilien Laviolette, Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Baly Sow, Michèle Brochu, Véronique Caron, André Tremblay
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879686/evidence-of-extensive-atherosclerosis-coronary-artery-disease-and-myocardial-infarction-in-the-apoe-ins2-akita-mouse-fed-a-western-diet
#9
Daniel E Venegas-Pino, Andrew Lagrotteria, Pei-Wen Wang, Jaiya Morphet, Cassaundra Clapdorp, Yuanyuan Shi, Geoff H Werstuck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetic patients with no history of cardiac infarction have a prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis and a risk of heart attack equivalent to euglycemic patients who have coronary atherosclerosis and have suffered a prior myocardial infarction. Although several murine models of diabetes have been established, none of these show indications of cardiac events. In an attempt to establish a diabetic mouse model with coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial injury, we have fed hyperglycemic ApoE-/- :Ins2+/Akita mice a western diet to enhance the dyslipidemic phenotype...
May 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879549/the-role-of-autophagy-in-survival-response-induced-by-27-hydroxycholesterol-in-human-promonocytic-cells
#10
Beyza Vurusaner, Simona Gargiulo, Gabriella Testa, Paola Gamba, Gabriella Leonarduzzi, Giuseppe Poli, Huveyda Basaga
Autophagy has been shown to be stimulated in advanced atherosclerotic plaques by metabolic stress, inflammation and oxidized lipids. The lack of published studies addressing the potential stimulation of pro-survival autophagy by oxysterols, a family of cholesterol oxidation products, has prompted our study. Thus, the goal of the current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the autophagy induced by 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), that is one of the most abundant oxysterols in advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and to assess whether the pro-oxidant effect of the oxysterol is involved in the given response...
May 26, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859472/therapeutic-silencing-of-fsp27-reduces-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice
#11
Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Richard G Lee, Ángel Baldán
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity, hepatosteatosis, and hypertriglyceridemia are components of the metabolic syndrome and independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The lipid droplet-associated protein CIDEC (cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C), known in mice as FSP27 (fat-specific protein 27), plays a key role in maintaining triacylglyceride (TAG) homeostasis in adipose tissue and liver, and controls circulating TAG levels in mice. Importantly, mutations and SNPs in CIDEC are associated with dyslipidemia and altered metabolic function in humans...
May 24, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804185/pro-atherogenic-and-pro-oxidant-crosstalk-between-adipocytes-and-macrophages
#12
Lili Nimri, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Nina Volkova, Michael Aviram
PURPOSE: Obesity, which is characterized by triglyceride accumulation mainly in adipocytes but also in arterial wall cells such as macrophages, is a major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. We aimed to identify the crosstalk related to lipid metabolism and oxidation status between adipocytes and macrophages. METHODS: We used a co-culture model system with J477A.1 cultured macrophages and 3T3L1 cultured adipocytes. For an in-vivo co-culture system, we used C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophages and visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787963/sirt1-activator-e1231-protects-from-experimental-atherosclerosis-and-lowers-plasma-cholesterol-and-triglycerides-by-enhancing-abca1-expression
#13
Tingting Feng, Peng Liu, Xiao Wang, Jinque Luo, Xuan Zuo, Xinhai Jiang, Chang Liu, Yongzhen Li, Ni Li, Minghua Chen, Ningyu Zhu, Xiaowan Han, Chao Liu, Yanni Xu, Shuyi Si
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhancing SIRT1 expression or activity may modulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism. However, pharmacological and molecular regulators for SIRT1 are scarce. Here, we aimed to find novel small molecule modulators of SIRT1 to regulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism. METHODS: A high-throughput screening assay was established to identify SIRT1 activators...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758414/role-of-pcsk9-in-lipid-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Xiao-Long Lin, Le-Le Xiao, Zhi-Han Tang, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Mi-Hua Liu
Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Statins are the most widely used therapy for patients with hyperlipidemia. However, a significant residual cardiovascular risk remains in some patients even after maximally tolerated statin therapy. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a new pharmacologically therapeutic target for decreasing LDL-C. PCSK9 reduces LDL intake from circulation by enhancing LDLR degradation and preventing LDLR recirculation to the cell surface...
May 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755288/roles-of-perilipins-in-diseases-and-cancers
#15
Pengpeng Zhang, Lian Meng, Lingxie Song, Juan Du, Shutong Du, Wenwen Cui, Chunxia Liu, Feng Li
Perilipins, an ancient family of lipid droplet-associated proteins, are embedded in a phospho-lipid monolayer of intracellular lipid droplets. The core of lipid droplets is composed of neutral fat, which mainly includes triglyceride and cholesterol ester. Perilipins are closely related to the function of lipid droplets, and they mediate lipid metabolism and storage. Therefore, perilipins play an important role in the development of obesity, diabetes, cancer, hepatic diseases, atherosclerosis, and carcinoma, which are caused by abnormal lipid metabolism...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748186/dicer-in-macrophages-prevents-atherosclerosis-by-promoting-mitochondrial-oxidative-metabolism
#16
Yuanyuan Wei, Judit Corbalán-Campos, Rashmi Gurung, Lucia Natarelli, Mengyu Zhu, Nicole Exner, Florian Erhard, Franziska Greulich, Claudia Geißler, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Ralf Zimmer, Andreas Schober
Background -Alternative macrophage activation, which relies on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, plays a central role in resolution of inflammation and prevents atherosclerosis. Moreover, macrophages handle large amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides derived from the engulfed modified lipoproteins during atherosclerosis. Although several microRNAs regulate macrophage polarization, the role of microRNA-generating enzyme Dicer in macrophage activation during atherosclerosis is unknown. Methods -To evaluate the role of Dicer in atherosclerosis, Apoe-/- mice with or without macrophage-specific Dicer deletion were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747747/tiger-nut-and-walnut-extracts-modulate-extracellular-metabolism-of-atp-and-adenosine-through-the-nos-cgmp-pkg-signalling-pathway-in-kidney-slices
#17
Ayodeji A Olabiyi, Fabiano B Carvalho, Nathieli B Bottari, Vera M Morsch, Ademir F Morel, Ganiyu Oboh, Maria Rosa Schetinger
BACKGROUND: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) have been reportedly used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, prevent heart attack and improve blood circulation, reduce serum cholesterol level as well as inhibit oxidation reactions. PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of tiger nut and walnut hydro-alcoholic extracts on extracellular metabolism of ATP through the NOS/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) in kidney slices...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738435/crebh-regulates-systemic-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hitoshi Shimano
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3) is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1 and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727700/pcsk9-a-potential-regulator-of-apoe-apoer2-against-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Bai Xue-Qin, Peng Juan, Wang Mei-Mei, Xiao Jun, Xiang Qiong, Ren Zhong, Wen Hong-Yan, Jiang Zhi-Sheng, Tang Zhi-Han, Liu Lu-Shan
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation and lipid accumulation in arterial walls, resulting in several vascular events. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9), a serine protease, has a pivotal role in the degradation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). It can increase plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and affect lipid metabolism. Recently, PCSK9 has been found to accelerate atherosclerosis via mechanisms apart from that involving the degradation of LDLR, with an emerging role in regulating the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis...
May 1, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710032/effects-of-chronic-whey-protein-supplementation-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#20
Zheng Zhang, Ru Zhang, Zhi-Zhen Qin, Jia-Ping Chen, Jia-Ying Xu, Li-Qiang Qin
Whey protein is associated with improvement of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate effects of whey protein on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Male ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD), or HFCD supplemented with 10% or 20% whey protein for 18 wk. At the end of experiment, serum lipid profiles and inflammatory cytokines were assayed. Livers were examined using HE staining and Oil Red O staining. Aortas were used for en face and cryosection analyses to observe aortic lesions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
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