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Urinary tract infection in childrens

Coral Hanevold, Susan Halbach, Jin Mou, Karyn Yonekawa
BACKGROUND: We have noted a large number of referrals for abnormal kidney imaging and laboratory tests and postulated that such referrals have increased significantly over time. Understanding changes in referral patterns is helpful in tailoring education and communication between specialists and primary providers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of new patient referrals to Mary Bridge Children's Nephrology clinic for early (2002 to 2004) and late (2011 to 2013) cohorts...
June 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hussam K Hamadah, Omar Hijazi, Mohammad A Faraji, Mohamed S Kabbani
Introduction: Ultrasound (US) assessment of renal anomalies in children requiring pediatric cardiac surgery is not a standard practice. This study is highlighting the role of bedside US performed by intensivist to detect occult renal anomalies associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: A cross sectional study for 100 consecutive children with CHD admitted to Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2015. US of kidneys screening was performed by trained pediatric cardiac intensivists to ascertain the presence of both kidneys in renal fossae without gross anomalies and to investigate if early detection of occult kidney anomaly would have any impact on outcome...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Ichiro Watanabe, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
BACKGROUND: Although urinary tract infection (UTI) resolves with prompt treatment in a majority of children, some children, especially those aged less than 5 years, also develop renal parenchymal scarring (RPS). RPS causes high blood pressure that may lead to severe chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the risk of UTI is higher in white children than in black children, it is unknown whether RPS is more common in white children than in black children as data are scarce in this regard...
June 14, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Dong Ho Kim, Bindu Subhadra, Hee Young Kang, Kyungho Woo, Jaeseok Kim, Yeo-Jin Son, Kyung Mok Sohn, Hwa-Jung Kim, Kyudong Han, Man Hwan Oh, Chul Hee Choi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common types of bacterial infection in humans in various parts of the world and are caused mainly by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). A total of 58 UPEC isolates from urine were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The majority of the UPEC strains belonged to serogroups O2 and O6. The UPEC strains were grouped under different pulsotypes and majority of them belonged to serogroups O2 and O6. Among the 14 virulence factors considered, 13 were present in various serogroups...
June 2018: Genes & Genomics
Amr Hodhod, John-Paul Capolicchio, Roman Jednak, Eid El-Sherif, Abd El-Alim El-Doray, Mohamed El-Sherbiny
Objective: To evaluate the utility of hydroureter (HU) to identify high-grade vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) in patients with high-grade postnatal hydronephrosis (PH). Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients' charts that had antenatal hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2014. Patients were excluded if they presented with febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI), neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valve, multi-cystic dysplastic kidney, and multiple congenital malformations...
June 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Toussaint Rouamba, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Michael Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Fever remains a major public health problem. In Burkina Faso, more than half of febrile children are considered not to be infected by malaria. This study prospectively assessed probable (treatable) causes of fever in Burkinabe children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children (≥37.5 °C) under 5 years of age presenting at four health facilities and one referral hospital in rural Burkina Faso. From each participant, blood was collected for malaria microscopy and culture, urine for dipstick testing and culturing if tested positive for leucocytes and nitrite, stool for rotavirus/adenovirus testing, culture and parasitology, and a nasopharyngeal swab for culture...
May 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Shu-Chen Kuo, Shu-Man Shih, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, I-Shou Chang, Yee-Chun Chen, Chao A Hsiung, Shang-Chwen Chang
OBJECTIVE: A policy initiated in 2001 by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Administration has effectively reduced outpatient antibiotic use except fluoroquinolones (FQs). The influence of differential regulation policy of narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum FQs on the prescriptions is unknown. METHODS: This study analyzed the claim records of oral FQs prescription at outpatient visits during 2000-2010 using the NHI Research Database and compared prescriptions for narrow-spectrum FQs, which are inactive against Streptococcus pneumoniae and lack formulary restriction, with those for broad-spectrum FQs...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Çağla Serpil Doğan, Nevin Semerci Koyun, Gülşah Kaya Aksoy, Bülent Çekiç, Murat Savaş, Elif Çomak
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess renal outcomes of delayed diagnosis of dilating primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) following recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs) and its diagnostic imaging procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent ultrasonography (US), non- acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99mDMSA) scintigraphy and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), and who were older than 2 years at the time of VUR diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed...
May 31, 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVE: Oral antibiotics effectively treat most pediatric urinary tract infections (UTI), however children with UTI are frequently admitted. We examined variation and trends in admission for children with UTI plus investigated the relationship between admission and emergency department (ED) revisits for those initially managed outpatient. We hypothesized that hospitals would have similar three-day revisit rates regardless of admission rate at index visit. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 36 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System...
June 1, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Lenka Barreto, Jae Hung Jung, Ameera Abdelrahim, Munir Ahmed, Guy P C Dawkins, Marcin Kazmierski
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a condition where crystalline mineral deposits (stones) form within the urinary tract. Urinary stones can be located in any part of the urinary tract. Affected children may present with abdominal pain, blood in the urine or signs of infection. Radiological evaluation is used to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the size of the stone, its location, and the degree of possible urinary obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different medical and surgical interventions in the treatment of urinary tract stones of the kidney or ureter in children...
June 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
U Mehta, A Heekes, E Kalk, A Boulle
BACKGROUND: In African settings, where there is a high disease burden, there is a need to improve the science of documenting and analysing accurate information regarding medicine exposures in women immediately before and during pregnancy to assess the extent of use and safety in pregnant women and their unborn children. OBJECTIVES: To compare evidence of medicine use during pregnancy, as documented in paper-based clinical records (maternity case records (MCRs)) against electronic health information resources (Provincial Health Data Centre (PHDC)) and assess the level of concordance between the two as part of baseline investigations before piloting a provincial pregnancy exposure registry and birth defect surveillance system...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
İdris Kıvanç Cavıldak, Mehmet Çağlar Çakıcı, Nihat Karakoyunlu, Hamit Ersoy
Cystic nephroma is an unusual, cystic neoplasm of the kidney and is usually benign. There are two peaks in the incidence of the tumor, with a bimodal distribution presenting in children younger than two years old and in adults. These benign lesions are usually seen in childhood, whose clinical presentation is nonspecific with symptoms such as flank pain, hematuria and urinary tract infection. We aim to report treatment, and follow-up of a 48-year-old female patient with cystic nephroma for whom we performed open partial nephrectomy...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
Hiroki Miyabayashi, Satoru Kumaki, Atsushi Sato, Ryoichi Onuma, Rie Noguchi, Taiki Sato, Takaya Metoki, Yohei Watanabe, Yusaku Tazawa, Masue Imaizumi, Setsuko Kitaoka
Hemophagoytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare life-threatening disorder caused by overactivation of the immune system, associated with infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies. The pathological hallmark of HLH is phagocytosis of blood cells and platelets by activated macrophages and histiocytes. In this report, we describe the onset of HLH in three children, aged 2, 5 and 7 years old, during the treatment of acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) with an antibiotic, piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC-TAZ)...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Yasar Kandur, Ahmet Salan, Ahmet Gokhan Guler, Fatih Tuten
PURPOSE: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis other than transient hydronephrosis. In children with unilateral hydronephrosis, mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 diuretic renography (MAG3 ) is used to calculate differential renal function and to assess drainage. The aim of our study is to examine whether anteroposterior pelvic diameter on renal ultrasound (US) scan can predict both differential renal function (DFR) and obstruction in pediatric patients, and whether an US adequately identifies those patients who need further investigation...
May 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Cinta Sangüesa Nebot, Sara Picó Aliaga, Agustín Serrano Durbá, María José Roca
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) is an unusual and severe form of chronic inflammatory lesion of the kidney, characterised by the destruction of the renal parenchyma and the presence of multinucleated giant cells and lipid-laden macrophages, inflammatory infiltration and intensive renal fibrosis. There are a few cases in the literature which describe the disease in children. The pathomechanism of XPN is poorly understood. Renal obstruction with concomitant urinary tract infection is the most commonly associated pathological finding...
May 23, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Amber R Phipps, Melisa Paradis, Kimberly A Peterson, Jill Jensen, Katie Nielsen, Mel Hall, Kari Simonsen, Bridget M Norton
BACKGROUND: A freestanding children's hospital evaluated the impact of a patient safety program on serious safety events (SSEs) and hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). METHODS: The No Harm Patient Safety Program was developed throughout the organization using a multifaceted approach that included safety moments, leadership rounding, cause analysis changes, event reporting enhancements, error prevention training, leadership training, identifying priority HACs, Eye on Safety Campaign, and safety coaches...
June 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Onur Kaygısız, Nihat Satar, Ali Güneş, Hasan Serkan Doğan, Ahmet Erözenci, Ender Özden, Mehmet Mesut Pişkin, Deniz Demirci, Serdar Toksöz, Tufan Çiçek, Serhat Gürocak, Hakan Kılıçarslan, Oktay Nazlı, Aykut Kefi, Volkan İzol, Ali Beytur, Şaban Sarıkaya, Serdar Tekgül, Bülent Önal
BACKGROUND: Predictive tables and scoring systems can predict stone clearance. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the prediction of complications during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), particularly in children, which remains under-researched. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) after pediatric PCNL. OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive factors of FUTI in prepubertal children after PCNL and determine whether any prophylactic cephalosporins are superior for decreasing the FUTI rate...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Olivia Windham May
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and young children. There are 5 collection methods commonly used to obtain a urine sample from an infant or small child: suprapubic aspiration, urethral catheterization, clean catch void, urine collection bag, and urine collection pad. Although invasive, suprapubic aspiration and urethral catheterization are less likely to cause contamination of the specimen. When deciding which method to use, providers must take into consideration the clinical presentation of a child as well as presenting and past medical history, while weighing benefits versus risks...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
Agnieszka Szmigielska, Grażyna Krzemień, Anna Zacharzewska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Stanisław Warchoł
Renal agenesis occurs in pediatric population with the incidence 1:500- 2000 children. It is more often diagnosed in boys and on the left side of the body. Renal agenesis may be isolated or it may be a part of complex malformation syndrome. Megacalycosis is a very rare anomaly of urinary tract associated with abnormal structure of the kidney pyramids. AIM: The aim of the study was to present for the first time in the medical literature the case of a girl with unilateral renal agenesis and megacalycosis...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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