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performance validity neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779432/performance-validity-in-older-adults-observed-versus-predicted-false-positive-rates-in-relation-to-number-of-tests-administered
#1
Jeremy J Davis
INTRODUCTION: This study examined false positive rates on embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) in older adults grouped by cognitive status. METHOD: The research design involved secondary analysis of data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Participants (N = 22,688) were grouped by cognitive status: normal (n = 10,319), impaired (n = 1,194), amnestic or nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 5,414), and dementia (n = 5,761)...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770912/rbans-validity-indices-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Robert D Shura, Timothy W Brearly, Jared A Rowland, Sarah L Martindale, Holly M Miskey, Kevin Duff
Neuropsychology practice organizations have highlighted the need for thorough evaluation of performance validity as part of the neuropsychological assessment process. Embedded validity indices are derived from existing measures and expand the scope of validity assessment. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a brief instrument that quickly allows a clinician to assess a variety of cognitive domains. The RBANS also contains multiple embedded validity indicators. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the utility of those indicators to assess performance validity...
May 16, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754119/a-pilot-study-and-brief-overview-of-rehabilitation-via-virtual-environment-in-patients-suffering-from-dementia
#3
Th Fasilis, P Patrikelis, A Siatouni, A Alexoudi, A Veretzioti, L Zachou, S-St Gatzonis
Dementia is one of the increasing problems of modern societies. The immediate cure is not a possible solution, at least at the moment, but science has found a number of new ways to retard and under specific conditions to halt its development. A potential, and constantly evolving scientific field is the use of Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation (CCR) and Virtual Environments (Vr.E). According to the existing literature, subjecting patients to various neuro-rehabilitative conditions within 3D virtual environments, allows them to obtain significant therapeutic benefits in which both transferability and durations over time are observed, in relation to the training period of the intervention...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740384/heading-frequency-is-more-strongly-related-to-cognitive-performance-than-unintentional-head-impacts-in-amateur-soccer-players
#4
Walter F Stewart, Namhee Kim, Chloe Ifrah, Martin Sliwinski, Molly E Zimmerman, Mimi Kim, Richard B Lipton, Michael L Lipton
Objective: Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Method: Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735513/a-unifying-theory-for-cognitive-abnormalities-in-functional-neurological-disorders-fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards, Jeremy D Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) describes cognitive dysfunction in the absence of an organic cause. It is increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings yet its key neuropsychological features have not been reported in large patient cohorts. We hypothesised that cognitive profiles in fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and functional neurological disorders (FNDs) would provide a template for characterising FCD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies with cognition-related outcomes in FM, CFS and FND...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734950/prevalence-and-determinants-of-cognitive-impairment-in-the-euthymic-phase-of-bipolar-disorders-results-from-the-face-bd-cohort
#6
Paul Roux, Bruno Etain, Anne-Sophie Cannavo, Valérie Aubin, Bruno Aouizerate, Jean-Michel Azorin, Frank Bellivier, Raoul Belzeaux, Thierry Bougerol, Iréna Cussac, Philippe Courtet, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Marion Leboyer, Katia M'Bailara, Marion Perrin Payet, Emilie Olié, Chantal Henry, Christine Passerieux
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach...
May 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729620/volumetric-brain-analysis-as-a-predictor-of-a-worse-cognitive-outcome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in significant morbidity and mortality being early diagnosis essential. Identification of patients who are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment based only on clinical data is not sufficient. To this end, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with automatic segmentation, such as FreeSurfer, could be a useful tool with high accuracy because it has histological validation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, neuropsychological and FreeSurfer variables that may be related to worse cognitive outcomes over 18 months in PD patients compared with controls...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728938/standardization-and-validation-of-a-parallel-form-of-the-verbal-and-non-verbal-recognition-memory-test-in-an-italian-population-sample
#8
Daniela Smirni, Pietro Smirni, Giovanni Di Martino, Lisa Cipolotti, Massimiliano Oliveri, Patrizia Turriziani
In the neuropsychological assessment of several neurological conditions, recognition memory evaluation is requested. Recognition seems to be more appropriate than recall to study verbal and non-verbal memory, because interferences of psychological and emotional disorders are less relevant in the recognition than they are in recall memory paradigms. In many neurological disorders, longitudinal repeated assessments are needed to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs or pharmacological treatments on the recovery of memory...
May 4, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704907/illness-perceptions-predict-cognitive-performance-validity
#9
George K Henry, Robert L Heilbronner, Julie Suhr, Jeffrey Gornbein, Eveleigh Wagner, Daniel L Drane
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of psychological variables to cognitive performance validity test (PVT) results in mixed forensic and nonforensic clinical samples. METHODS: Participants included 183 adults who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Criterion groups were formed, that is, Credible Group or Noncredible Group, based upon their performance on the Word Memory Test and other stand-alone and embedded PVT measures...
April 29, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698637/a-mouse-model-of-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity-combined-with-offspring-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-resulted-in-cognitive-impairment-in-male-offspring
#10
Chen Zhu, Ting-Li Han, Yalan Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou, Xun Mao, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a brain dysfunction characterized by neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, and executive function. Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the offspring has been suggested to have detrimental consequences for offspring cognitive function through its effect on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal obesity and offspring HFD exposure on the brain metabolome of the offspring...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#11
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669461/connected-speech-and-language-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-picture-description-tasks
#12
Kimberly D Mueller, Bruce Hermann, Jonilda Mecollari, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: The neuropsychological profile of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia includes a history of decline in memory and other cognitive domains, including language. While language impairments have been well described in AD dementia, language features of MCI are less well understood. Connected speech and language analysis is the study of an individual's spoken discourse, usually elicited by a target stimulus, the results of which can facilitate understanding of how language deficits typical of MCI and AD dementia manifest in everyday communication...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663184/performance-based-measures-and-behavioral-ratings-of-executive-function-in-diagnosing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#13
Alexander Tan, Lauren Delgaty, Kayla Steward, Melissa Bunner
Deficits in real-world executive functioning (EF) are a frequent characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the predictive value of using performance-based and behavioral rating measures of EF when diagnosing ADHD remains unclear. The current study investigates the use of performance-based EF measures and a parent-report questionnaire with established ecological validity and clinical utility when diagnosing ADHD. Participants included 21 healthy controls, 21 ADHD-primary inattentive, and 21 ADHD-combined type subjects aged 6-15 years...
April 16, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659666/reliable-digit-span-does-it-adequately-measure-suboptimal-effort-in-an-adult-epilepsy-population
#14
Moshe Maiman, Victor A Del Bene, William S MacAllister, Sloane Sheldon, Eileen Farrell, Miguel Arce Rentería, Mitchell Slugh, Siddhartha S Nadkarni, William B Barr
Objective: Assessment of performance validity is a necessary component of any neuropsychological evaluation. Prior research has shown that cutoff scores of ≤6 or ≤7 on Reliable Digit Span (RDS) can detect suboptimal effort across numerous adult clinical populations; however, these scores have not been validated for that purpose in an adult epilepsy population. This investigation aims to determine whether these previously established RDS cutoff scores could detect suboptimal effort in adults with epilepsy...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611255/translational-validity-of-pasat-and-the-effect-of-fatigue-and-mood-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-ms-a-functional-mri-study
#15
Dessislava Iancheva, Anastasiya G Trenova, Kiril Terziyski, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefka Mantarova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606153/prospective-memory-is-a-key-predictor-of-functional-independence-in-older-adults
#16
Alexandra Hering, Matthias Kliegel, Peter G Rendell, Fergus I M Craik, Nathan S Rose
OBJECTIVES: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to execute delayed intentions, has received increasing attention in neuropsychology and gerontology. Most of this research is motivated by the claim that PM is critical for maintaining functional independence; yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back up the claims. Thus, the present study tested whether PM predicts functional independence in older adults using validated behavioral performance measures for both PM and functional independence...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590406/medical-evaluation-board-involvement-non-credible-cognitive-testing-and-emotional-response-bias-in-concussed-service-members
#17
Scott R Mooney, Jane Stafford, Elizabeth Seats
Introduction: Military Service Members (SMs) with post-concussive symptoms are commonly referred for further evaluation and possible treatment to Department of Defense Traumatic Brain Injury Clinics where neuropsychological screening/evaluations are being conducted. Understudied to date, the base rates of noncredible task engagement/performance validity testing (PVT) during cognitive screening/evaluations in military settings appears to be high. The current study objectives are to: (1) examine the base rates of noncredible PVTs of SMs undergoing routine clinical or Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) related workups using multiple objective performance-based indicators; (2) determine whether involvement in MEB is associated with PVT or symptom exaggeration/symptom validity testing (SVT) results; (3) elucidate which psychiatric symptoms are associated with noncredible PVT performances; and (4) determine whether MEB participation moderates the relationship between psychological symptom exaggeration and whether or not SM goes on to demonstrate PVTs failures - or vice versa...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581009/the-virtual-shop-a-new-immersive-virtual-reality-environment-and-scenario-for-the-assessment-of-everyday-memory
#18
Émilie Ouellet, Benjamin Boller, Nick Corriveau-Lecavalier, Simon Cloutier, Sylvie Belleville
BACKGROUND: Assessing and predicting memory performance in everyday life is a common assignment for neuropsychologists. However, most traditional neuropsychological tasks are not conceived to capture everyday memory performance. NEW METHOD: The Virtual Shop is a fully immersive task developed to assess memory in a more ecological way than traditional neuropsychological assessments. Two studies were undertaken to assess the feasibility of the Virtual Shop and to appraise its ecological and construct validity...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579137/trail-making-test-part-b-evaluation-of-the-efficiency-score-for-assessing-floor-level-change-in-veterans
#19
Ashley K Smith Watts, David C Ahern, Jacob D Jones, Thomas J Farrer, Stephen Correia
Objective: The Trail Making Test - Part B (TMT-B) is a commonly used executive control measure with a known floor effect, limiting the ability to distinguish impairment among individuals unable to complete this task in the standard time limit. Our group previously proposed the TMT-B Efficiency Score (TMT-Be), which captures performance variability among examinees who fail to complete the task. The present study assesses the TMT-Be in a longitudinal clinical sample. Method: Data were collected via record review of veterans who underwent two clinical neuropsychological evaluations...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566598/validation-study-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-assessment-scale-cognitive-subscale-adas-cog-for-the-portuguese-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Joana Nogueira, Sandra Freitas, Diana Duro, Jorge Almeida, Isabel Santana
OBJECTIVE: The Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) is a battery to assess cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and was developed according to the core characteristics of cognitive decline in AD: memory, language, praxis, constructive ability, and orientation. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic accuracy and discriminative capacity of the ADAS-Cog for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD, using cut-off points for the Portuguese population...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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