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performance validity neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340315/systematic-behavioural-observation-of-executive-performance-after-brain-injury
#1
Mark W Lewis, Duncan R Babbage, Janet M Leathem
OBJECTIVE: To develop an ecologically valid measure of executive functioning (i.e. Planning and Organization, Executive Memory, Initiation, Cognitive Shifting, Impulsivity, Sustained and Directed Attention, Error Detection, Error Correction and Time Management) during a functional chocolate brownie cooking task. METHODS: In Study 1, the inter-rater reliability of a novel behavioural observation assessment method was assessed with 10 people with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326010/impact-of-resveratrol-on-glucose-control-hippocampal-structure-and-connectivity-and-memory-performance-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan-Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320844/the-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-on-the-dentate-gyrus-and-learning-and-memory-in-children
#3
Jiook Cha, Johanna A Zea-Hernandez, Sanghun Sin, Katharina Graw-Panzer, Keivan Shifteh, Carmen R Isasi, Mark E Wagshul, Eileen E Moran, Jonathan Posner, Molly E Zimmerman, Raanan Arens
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with intermittent hypoxia and sleep loss. In children, impairments of cognitive function are important manifestations, but underlying pathology is unknown. We hypothesized that OSAS would affect the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subdivision essential to neurogenesis and cognition, and that this impact would further affect cognitive function in children. In children with OSAS (n=11) and control subjects (n=12; age and sex-matched), we performed diffusion tensor imaging and structural MRI, polysomnography, and neuropsychological assessments...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306349/utility-of-critical-items-within-the-recognition-memory-test-and-word-choice-test
#4
Laszlo A Erdodi, Bradley T Tyson, Christopher A Abeare, Brandon G Zuccato, Jaspreet K Rai, Kristian R Seke, Sanya Sagar, Robert M Roth
This study was designed to examine the clinical utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test (RMT) and the Word Choice Test (WCT). Archival data were collected from a mixed clinical sample of 202 patients clinically referred for neuropsychological testing (54.5% male; mean age = 45.3 years; mean level of education = 13.9 years). The credibility of a given response set was psychometrically defined using three separate composite measures, each of which was based on multiple independent performance validity indicators...
March 17, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299348/beneficial-effects-of-yogasanas-and-pranayama-in-limiting-the-cognitive-decline-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Santhakumari Rajani, Rajagopalan Archana, Yogananda Reddy Indla, P Rajesh
BACKGROUND: Out of many complications that were observed in type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment is the most neglected. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to assess the cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and to observe the role of yogasanas and pranayama in ameliorating the cognitive decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited in the study, 34 of them did specific yogasanas and pranayama (test group) for six months and the remaining age and sex matched 34 subjects were recruited as (control group) who were not on any specific exercise regimen...
2017: Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293740/the-italian-neuroimaging-network-initiative-inni-enabling-the-use-of-advanced-mri-techniques-in-patients-with-ms
#6
M Filippi, G Tedeschi, P Pantano, N De Stefano, P Zaratin, M A Rocca
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important paraclinical tool to diagnose and monitor multiple sclerosis (MS). Conventional MRI measures lack of pathological specificity and are weakly correlated with MS clinical manifestations. Advanced MRI techniques are improving the understanding of the mechanisms underlying tissue injury, repair, and functional adaptation in MS; however, they require careful standardization. The definition of standardized methods for the collection and analysis of advanced MRI techniques is central not only to improve the understanding of disease pathophysiology and evolution, but also to generate research hypotheses, monitor treatment, increase cost-effectiveness and power of clinical trials...
March 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291039/performance-validity-testing-in-neuropsychology-scientific-basis-and-clinical-application-a-brief-review
#7
Michael R Greher, Thomas R Wodushek
Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290234/preliminary-validation-study-of-the-russian-birmingham-cognitive-screen
#8
E Kuzmina, G W Humphreys, M J Riddoch, A A Skvortsov, B S Weekes
INTRODUCTION: The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties. METHOD: Fifty patients with left-hemisphere stroke were recruited, of whom 98% were diagnosed with mild to moderate aphasia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285372/dysfunctional-personality-traits-in-adolescence-effects-on-alerting-orienting-and-executive-control-of-attention
#9
Maria Casagrande, Andrea Marotta, Valeria Canepone, Alfredo Spagna, Caterina Rosa, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Augusto Pasini
The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group < 10 and Group ≥ 10, according to the number of criteria they met at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions...
March 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276866/performance-validity-and-processing-speed-in-a-va-polytrauma-sample
#10
Lee Ashendorf, Erika L Clark, Michael A Sugarman
OBJECTIVE: While recognition memory has been the primary tool for the assessment of performance validity in neuropsychological evaluations, some consideration has also been given to embedded measures from other cognitive domains, including processing speed. The present study evaluated the classification accuracy of several speed-based measures in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center Polytrauma sample. METHOD: The present sample consisted of 114 military veterans (Mean age = 35...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276862/excessive-decline-from-premorbid-functioning-detecting-performance-invalidity-with-the-wais-iv-and-demographic-predictions
#11
Phillip K Martin, Ben P Hunter, Amanda M Rach, Robin J Heinrichs, Ryan W Schroeder
OBJECTIVE: Excessive Decline from Premorbid Functioning (EDPF) is presented as a construct and defined as a discrepancy between predicted premorbid ability and current test performance that is so atypical of individuals with true neurocognitive impairment that it is likely the product of performance invalidity. New embedded PVTs (EDPF-FSIQ, EDPF-VW, and EDPF-PP) were derived by comparing scores from the WAIS-IV to TOPF demographically predicted premorbid estimates and then examined for classification accuracy...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268276/preliminary-results-of-residual-deficits-observed-in-athletes-with-concussion-history-combined-eeg-and-cognitive-study
#12
Tamanna T K Munia, Jeffrey L Gendreau, Ajay K Verma, Benjamin D Johnson, Mark Romanick, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Reza Fazel-Rezai
Assessment, treatment, and management of sport-related concussions are a widely recognized public health issue. Although several neuropsychological and motor assessment tools have been developed and implemented for sports teams at various levels and ages, the sensitivity of these tests has yet to be validated with more objective measures to make return-to-play (RTP) decisions more confidently. The present study sought to analyze the residual effect of concussions on a sample of adolescent athletes who sustained one or more previous concussions compared to those who had no concussion history...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239640/serum-il-8-is-a-marker-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Yanan Zhu, Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, M Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon-Seng Wong, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) have been implicated in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to examine serum inflammatory markers in preclinical stages of dementia and in AD, as well as to investigate their associations with concomitant CeVD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study including 96 AD, 140 cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND), and 79 noncognitively impaired participants...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238815/measurement-of-functional-cognition-and-complex-everyday-activities-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-dementia-validity-of-the-large-allen-s-cognitive-level-screen
#14
Jacqueline Wesson, Lindy Clemson, John D Crawford, Nicole A Kochan, Henry Brodaty, Simone Reppermund
OBJECTIVE: To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226433/preliminary-results-of-residual-deficits-observed-in-athletes-with-concussion-history-combined-eeg-and-cognitive-study
#15
Tamanna T K Munia, Jeffrey L Gendreau, Ajay K Verma, Benjamin D Johnson, Mark Romanick, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Tamanna T K Munia, Jeffrey L Gendreau, Ajay K Verma, Benjamin D Johnson, Mark Romanick, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Jeffrey L Gendreau, Benjamin D Johnson, Tamanna T K Munia, Ajay K Verma, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Mark Romanick
Assessment, treatment, and management of sport-related concussions are a widely recognized public health issue. Although several neuropsychological and motor assessment tools have been developed and implemented for sports teams at various levels and ages, the sensitivity of these tests has yet to be validated with more objective measures to make return-to-play (RTP) decisions more confidently. The present study sought to analyze the residual effect of concussions on a sample of adolescent athletes who sustained one or more previous concussions compared to those who had no concussion history...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222504/bimanual-gesture-imitation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
G Nter Sanin, Thomas Benke
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Unimanual gesture production or imitation has often been studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during apraxia testing. In the present study, it was hypothesized that bimanual motor tasks may be a sensitive method to detect impairments of motor cognition in AD due to increased demands on the cognitive system. METHODS: We investigated bimanual, meaningless gesture imitation in 45 AD outpatients, 38 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 50 normal controls (NC) attending a memory clinic...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207863/identification-of-age-dependent-motor-and-neuropsychological-behavioural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#17
Hélène F E Gleitz, Claire O'Leary, Rebecca J Holley, Brian W Bigger
Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194121/cognitive-parent-and-teacher-rating-measures-of-executive-functioning-shared-and-unique-influences-on-school-achievement
#18
Marielle C Dekker, Tim B Ziermans, Andrea M Spruijt, Hanna Swaab
Very little is known about the relative influence of cognitive performance-based executive functioning (EF) measures and behavioral EF ratings in explaining differences in children's school achievement. This study examined the shared and unique influence of these different EF measures on math and spelling outcome for a sample of 84 first and second graders. Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and children were tested with computer-based performance tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166312/association-between-subclinical-cardiac-biomarkers-and-clinically-manifest-cardiac-diseases-with-cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts
#19
Saima Hilal, Yuek Ling Chai, Susanne van Veluw, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Arthur Mark Richards, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen
Importance: Subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases have been previously linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations of cerebrovascular disease, such as lacunes and white matter hyperintensities, as well as dementia. Cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), a novel MRI marker of cerebral vascular disease, have not been studied, to date, in relation to subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases. Objective: To examine the association of blood biomarkers of subclinical cardiac disease and clinically manifest cardiac diseases with CMIs graded on 3-T MRI in a memory clinic population...
February 6, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158316/phishing-suspiciousness-in-older-and-younger-adults-the-role-of-executive-functioning
#20
Brandon E Gavett, Rui Zhao, Samantha E John, Cara A Bussell, Jennifer R Roberts, Chuan Yue
Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively...
2017: PloS One
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