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performance validity neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345192/cross-validation-of-the-dot-counting-test-in-a-large-sample-of-credible-and-non-credible-patients-referred-for-neuropsychological-testing
#1
Courtney McCaul, Kyle B Boone, Annette Ermshar, Maria Cottingham, Tara L Victor, Elizabeth Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller, Matthew Wright
OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. METHOD: Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. RESULTS: Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342226/don-t-judge-a-book-by-its-cover-examiner-expectancy-effects-predict-neuropsychological-performance-for-individuals-judged-as-chronic-cannabis-users
#2
Louise M Sodos, Rayna B Hirst, Jessica Watson, Dylan Vaughn
Objective: The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Method: Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331690/effect-of-depressive-symptoms-on-the-evolution-of-neuropsychological-functions-over-the-course-of-adolescence
#3
Mohammad H Afzali, Maeve Oleary-Barrett, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive understanding of the association between depression and neuropsychological functioning over the course of adolescence requires developmentally sensitive assessment through longitudinal data. The aim of current study is to examine the concurrent and subsequent effects of depressive symptoms on the initial level and evolution of four neuropsychological functioning domains (i.e., spatial working memory, delayed recall memory, perceptual reasoning, and inhibitory control)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#4
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320916/the-reliability-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-using-telehealth-in-a-rural-setting-with-veterans
#5
Nathaniel DeYoung, Brian V Shenal
Background Telehealth neuropsychological services can increase the availability of specialised care for individuals in rural areas where barriers to these services are faced. As this practice becomes more commonplace, the reliability and validity of neuropsychological assessment administered by telehealth continues to be established. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a screener for general neurocognitive dysfunction, may be particularly useful since this measure can be given by telehealth with minimal adaptation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305338/a-mobile-app-to-screen-for-neurocognitive-impairment-preliminary-validation-of-neuroscreen-among-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#6
Reuben N Robbins, Hetta Gouse, Henry G Brown, Andries Ehlers, Travis M Scott, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. South Africa has 7 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) with up to three-quarters of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve individuals having NCI. South Africa's health system struggles to meet the care needs of its millions of PLHIV; screening for NCI is typically neglected due to limited clinical staff trained to administer, score, and interpret neuropsychological tests, as well as long test batteries and limited screening tools for South African populations...
January 5, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286844/performance-validity-testing-in-children-and-adolescents-a-descriptive-study-comparing-direct-and-embedded-measures
#7
Stephanie J Weiss, Melissa C Blackwell, Kirk M Griffith, Leslie S Jordan, Vincent P Culotta
Effort testing is a standard element in adult neuropsychological assessment. Research examining performance validity tests (PVTs) has focused on adults. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine direct and embedded PVTs in children and adolescents. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a stand-alone PVT, was compared to two embedded measures of effort: California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version/Second Edition (CVLT-C/II) Recognition Discriminability and Reliable Digit Span (RDS). The sample consisted of 119 children and adolescents referred for outpatient assessment...
December 29, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284820/examining-discrepancy-between-performance-on-traditional-measures-and-parent-report-measure-of-executive-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Itisha Nagar, Ashum Gupta
There is a growing concern amongst the researchers regarding the ecological validity of the neuropsychological tests used to assess EF in ASD. Traditional EF tests have been criticized for not being unable to tap real-life scenarios that are relevant to and representative of everyday behavior. The present study aimed to examine any potential discrepancy between performance on traditional measures of executive function and behavioural expressions of EF in case of an individual with High Functioning Autism (HFA)...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283307/using-the-california-verbal-learning-test-second-edition-as-an-embedded-performance-validity-measure-among-individuals-with-tbi-and-individuals-with-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Virginia C Persinger, Douglas M Whiteside, Lyuba Bobova, Seema D Saigal, Marla J Vannucci, Michael R Basso
OBJECTIVE: Among embedded performance validity tests (PVTs), little research addresses the use of Total Hits and Total False Positives from the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) in spite of low sensitivity, particularly in psychiatric samples. METHOD: This study examined the classification accuracy of these two measures in individuals with psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). These samples were separated into two groups using the criteria of passing all PVTs versus failing 2 or more PVTs...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278291/rating-scales-for-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-critique-and-recommendations
#10
REVIEW
Tiago A Mestre, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi, Johan Marinus, Julie C Stout, Jane S Paulsen, Peter Como, Kevin Duff, Cristina Sampaio, Christopher G Goetz, Esther Cubo, Glenn T Stebbins, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Cognitive impairment is one of the main features of Huntington's disease and is present across the disease spectrum. As part of the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored project to review all clinical rating scales used in Huntington's disease, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify cognitive scales used in Huntington's disease and make recommendations for their use. A total of 17 cognitive scales were identified and evaluated. None of the scales met criteria for a "recommended" status...
December 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239280/perceived-injustice-and-its-correlates-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Grant L Iverson, Douglas P Terry, Justin E Karr, William Panenka, Noah D Silverberg
Perceived injustice is a belief that one has been treated unfairly, disrespectfully, and is suffering unnecessarily as a result of another person's actions. Perceived injustice predicts chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, but to our knowledge, has not been empirically studied in people with mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBIs). We examined perceived injustice and its correlates in patients who were slow to recover from MTBI. Patients (N=102) were recruited from four concussion clinics. The sample was on average 41...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227128/noncredible-cognitive-performance-at-clinical-evaluation-of-adult-adhd-an-embedded-validity-indicator-in-a-visuospatial-working-memory-test
#12
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Klaus W Lange, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48)...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227124/the-effects-of-symptom-information-coaching-on-the-feigning-of-adult-adhd
#13
Maryanne Edmundson, David T R Berry, Hannah L Combs, Stacey L Brothers, Jordan P Harp, Ande Williams, Stephanie L Rojas, Ahmed K Saleh, April B Scott
College students without ADHD may feign symptoms of ADHD to gain access to stimulant medications and academic accommodations. Unfortunately, research has shown that it can be difficult to discriminate malingered from genuine ADHD symptomatology, especially when evaluations are based only on self-report questionnaires. The present study investigated whether nonclinical college students given no additional information could feign ADHD as successfully as those who were coached on symptoms of the disorder. Similar to Jasinski et al...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213497/development-and-content-validity-of-the-cena-program-for-educational-training-on-the-neuropsychology-of-learning-with-an-emphasis-on-executive-functions-and-attention
#14
Janice R Pureza, Rochele P Fonseca
Introduction: The importance of executive functions (EF) in childhood development, and their role as indicators of health, well-being, professional and academic success have been demonstrated by several studies in the literature. FE are cognitive processes that aim to control and manage behavior to achieve specific goal and included skills planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, (executive) attention and the central executive component of working memory (WM). In the context of education, the EF are crucial for continued learning and efficient academic performance due to their involvement in several components of the educational process...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212493/development-of-a-video-simulation-instrument-for-assessing-cognition-in-older-adults
#15
Edward H Ip, Ryan Barnard, Sarah A Marshall, Lingyi Lu, Kaycee Sink, Valerie Wilson, Dana Chamberlain, Stephen R Rapp
BACKGROUND: Commonly used methods to assess cognition, such as direct observation, self-report, or neuropsychological testing, have significant limitations. Therefore, a novel tablet computer-based video simulation was created with the goal of being valid, reliable, and easy to administer. The design and implementation of the SIMBAC (Simulation-Based Assessment of Cognition) instrument is described in detail, as well as informatics "lessons learned" during development. RESULTS: The software emulates 5 common instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and scores participants' performance...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206893/the-cerebellar-cognitive-affective-schmahmann-syndrome-scale
#16
Franziska Hoche, Xavier Guell, Mark G Vangel, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome) is characterized by deficits in executive function, linguistic processing, spatial cognition, and affect regulation. Diagnosis currently relies on detailed neuropsychological testing. The aim of this study was to develop an office or bedside cognitive screen to help identify CCAS in cerebellar patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate whether available brief tests of mental function detect cognitive impairment in cerebellar patients, whether cognitive performance is different in patients with isolated cerebellar lesions versus complex cerebrocerebellar pathology, and whether there are cognitive deficits that should raise red flags about extra-cerebellar pathology...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190335/examination-of-the-construct-validity-of-the-repeatable-battery-for-the-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-language-index-in-a-mixed-neurological-sample
#17
Zachary C Merz, Nicole Hurless, John D Wright
Objective: We sought to examine the construct validity of the Language Index of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Methods: Archival neuropsychological data were collected for 2,057 individuals of diverse neurological etiologies. Results: Correlations were seen between the RBANS Language Index and its indices (Semantic Fluency r = .727; Picture Naming r = .786), between Semantic Fluency and both Category Fluency (r = ...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182444/performance-validity-testing-in-neuropsychology-a-clinical-guide-critical-review-and-update-on-a-rapidly-evolving-literature
#18
Sara M Lippa
OBJECTIVE: Over the past two decades, there has been much research on measures of response bias and myriad measures have been validated in a variety of clinical and research samples. This critical review aims to guide clinicians through the use of performance validity tests (PVTs) from test selection and administration through test interpretation and feedback. METHOD/RESULTS: Recommended cutoffs and relevant test operating characteristics are presented. Other important issues to consider during test selection, administration, interpretation, and feedback are discussed including order effects, coaching, impact on test data, and methods to combine measures and improve predictive power...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161350/embedded-performance-validity-tests-in-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised-a-replication-study
#19
K Chase Bailey, Jason R Soble, Kathleen M Bain, Chrystal Fullen
Objective: Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were recently identified. This study aimed to further validate/replicate these embedded PVTs. Method: Eighty clinically referred veterans who underwent neuropsychological evaluation were included. Validity groups were established by passing/failing 2-3 well-validated PVTs, with 75% (n = 60) classified as valid and 25% (n = 20) noncredible...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#20
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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