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Oncogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446200/human-germ-stem-cell-specific-gene-tex19-influences-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-cancer-prognosis
#1
Vicente Planells-Palop, Ali Hazazi, Julia Feichtinger, Jana Jezkova, Gerhard Thallinger, Naif O Alsiwiehri, Mikhlid Almutairi, Lee Parry, Jane A Wakeman, Ramsay J McFarlane
BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT) genes have expression normally restricted to the testis, but become activated during oncogenesis, so they have excellent potential as cancer-specific biomarkers. Evidence is starting to emerge to indicate that they also provide function(s) in the oncogenic programme. Human TEX19 is a recently identified CT gene, but a functional role for TEX19 in cancer has not yet been defined. METHODS: siRNA was used to deplete TEX19 levels in various cancer cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445986/high-bmi1-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-whole-blood-is-associated-with-favorable-prognosis-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#2
Ana Koren, Matija Rijavec, Eva Sodja, Izidor Kern, Aleksander Sadikov, Viljem Kovac, Peter Korosec, Tanja Cufer
Polycomb group member protein BMI1 is involved in maintaining cell identity, proliferation, differentiation and human oncogenesis. In the present study, we determined BMI1 mRNA expression in whole blood and evaluated the impact of the expression level on the treatment response and survival of 96 advanced NSCLC patients treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. We also determined BMI1 mRNA expression in primary tumors from 22 operable NSCLC patients treated with radical surgery. We found that compared with control subjects, BMI1 mRNA expression in whole blood of advanced NSCLC patients was decreased (P<0...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443299/data-on-the-mrna-expression-by-in-situ-hybridization-of-wnt-signaling-pathway-members-in-the-mouse-uterus
#3
Jyoti Goad, Yi-An Ko, Shafiq M Syed, Yazmin J Crossingham, Pradeep S Tanwar
Wnt signaling plays an important role in uterine organogenesis and oncogenesis. Our mRNA expression data documents the expression of various Wnt pathway members during the key stages of uterine epithelial gland development. Our data illustrates the expression of Wnt signaling inhibitors (Axin2, Sfrp2, Sfrp4, Dkk1 and Dkk3) in mice uteri at postnatal day 6 (PND 6) and day 15 (PND 15). They also describe the expression pattern of the Wnt ligands (Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt2b, Wnt3, Wnt3a, Wnt5b, Wnt7b, Wnt8a, Wnt8b, Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10a and Wnt10b) in mice uteri with or without progesterone treatment...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442585/next-gen-sequencing-analysis-and-algorithms-for-pdx-and-cdx-models
#4
Garima Khandelwal, Maria Romina Girotti, Christopher Smowton, Sam Taylor, Chris Wirth, Marek Dynowski, Kristopher K Frese, Ged Brady, Caroline Dive, Richard Marais, Crispin Miller
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and CTC-derived explant (CDX) models are powerful methods for the study of human disease. In cancer research, these methods have been applied to multiple questions including the study of metastatic progression, genetic evolution and therapeutic drug responses. Since PDX and CDX models can recapitulate the highly heterogeneous characteristics of a patient tumor, as well as their response to chemotherapy, there is considerable interest in combining them with next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to monitor the genomic, transcriptional, and epigenetic changes that accompany oncogenesis...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#5
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433812/the-perlecan-interacting-growth-factor-progranulin-regulates-ubiquitination-sorting-and-lysosomal-degradation-of-sortilin
#6
Ryuta Tanimoto, Chiara Palladino, Shi-Qiong Xu, Simone Buraschi, Thomas Neill, Leonard G Gomella, Stephen C Peiper, Antonino Belfiore, Renato V Iozzo, Andrea Morrione
Despite extensive clinical and experimental studies over the past decades, the pathogenesis and progression to the castration-resistant stage of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Progranulin, a secreted growth factor, strongly binds the heparin-sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, and counteracts its biological activity. We established that progranulin acts as an autocrine growth factor and promotes prostate cancer cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues vis-à-vis non-neoplastic tissues supporting the hypothesis that progranulin may play a key role in prostate cancer progression...
April 20, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430799/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-long-noncoding-rnas-as-biomarkers-in-urothelial-carcinoma
#7
Johanna Droop, Tibor Szarvas, Wolfgang A Schulz, Christian Niedworok, Günter Niegisch, Kathrin Scheckenbach, Michèle J Hoffmann
Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in cancer and contribute to oncogenesis. In urothelial carcinoma (UC), several lncRNAs have been reported to be overexpressed and proposed as biomarkers. As most reports have not been confirmed independently in large tissue sets, we aimed to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of lncRNA upregulation in independent cohorts of UC patients. Thus, expression of seven lncRNA candidates (GAS5, H19, linc-UBC1, MALAT1, ncRAN, TUG1, UCA1) was measured by RT-qPCR in cell lines and tissues and correlated to clinicopathological parameters including follow-up data (set 1: N n = 10; T n = 106)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430112/malignant-endometriosis-of-the-abdominal-wall
#8
Florin Graur, Emil Mois, Radu Elisei, Luminita Furcea, Mihaela Dragota, Toader Zaharie, Nadim Al Hajjar
Endometriosis is a disease represented by the presence of extra uterine endometrial tissue. It is a rare condition, and malignant transformation is seldom. We report a case with clear cell adenocarcinoma oncogenesis on abdominal wall scar that appeared after years of a caesarian section. After diagnosis, surgical treatment was performed twice, due to the fact that the margins were infiltrated with tumor cells, with replacement of the defect with a polypropylene mesh. The patient was cured and discharged with a favorable prognostic...
April 13, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429715/mapping-clinicopathological-entities-within-colorectal-mucinous-adenocarcinomas-a-hierarchical-clustering-approach
#9
Charly Liddell, Laure Droy-Dupré, Sylvie Métairie, Fabrice Airaud, Christelle Volteau, Stéphane Bezieau, Christian L Laboisse, Jean-François Mosnier
The aim of this study was to interrogate the heterogeneity of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas. This study is based on hierarchical clustering approach combining clinicopathological and molecular patterns known to be relevant to oncogenesis and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal carcinoma, ie, microsatellite instability, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status, KRAS, and BRAF mutations and wnt signaling pathway activation. Comparison of the study group of 60 mucinous adenocarcinomas defined according to World Health Organization classification with control group of 136 colorectal adenocarcinomas successively removed shows higher frequency of BRAF and KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability-high status and lower frequency of wnt signaling pathway activation in mucinous adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427506/recent-advances-in-genitourinary-tumors-a-review-focused-on-biology-and-systemic-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Aránzazu González Del Alba, José Ángel Arranz, Javier Puente, María José Méndez-Vidal, Enrique Gallardo, Enrique Grande, Begoña Pérez-Valderrama, Enrique González-Billalabeitia, Martín Lázaro-Quintela, Álvaro Pinto, Nuria Lainez, Josep M Piulats, Emilio Esteban, José Pablo Maroto Rey, Jorge A García, Cristina Suárez
Updated information published up to 2016 regarding major advances in renal cancer, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer is here presented. Based on an ever better understanding of the genetic and molecular alterations that govern the initial pathogenic mechanisms of tumor oncogenesis, an improvement in the characterization and treatment of urologic tumors has been achieved in the past year. According to the Cancer Genome Atlas (ATLAS) project, alterations in the MET pathway are characteristics of type 1 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and activation of NRF2-ARE pathway is associated with the biologically distinct type 2...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425962/regulation-of-ubiquitin-enzymes-in-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway
#11
REVIEW
Prasanna Vasudevan Iyengar
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway has a tumor suppressor role in normal and premalignant cells but promotes oncogenesis in advanced cancer cells. Components of the pathway are tightly controlled by ubiquitin modifying enzymes and aberrations in these enzymes are frequently observed to dysregulate the pathway causing diseases such as bone disorders, cancer and metastasis. These enzymes and their counterparts are increasingly being tested as druggable targets, and thus a deeper understanding of the enzymes is required...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425347/expression-and-clinicopathological-significance-of-mel-18-and-bmi-1-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Huaijun Ji, Ming Cao, Kunlun Ren, Ningbo Sun, Wei Wang, Qiang Zhu, Qi Zang, Zhongmin Jiang
The Polycomb group genes are a general class of regulators that are responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. Polycomb group expression plays an important role in oncogenesis of several types of human cancer. Melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 are key Polycomb group proteins. Studies have shown that melanoma nuclear protein 18 is a potential tumor suppression, and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 is overexpressed in several human malignancies...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423230/gain-of-function-p53-activates-multiple-signaling-pathways-to-induce-oncogenicity-in-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Catherine A Vaughan, Shilpa Singh, Steven R Grossman, Brad Windle, Swati P Deb, Sumitra Deb
Gain of function (GOF) mutants of p53 upregulate genes implicated in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Here we report that GOF p53 induces tumorigenicity through simultaneous activation of key oncogenic pathways including those controlling putative tumor-initiating cell functions. We determined that in cells expressing p53-R273H, GOF p53 simultaneously up-regulates genes from multiple signaling pathways by recognizing promoters containing distinct transcription factor binding sites. Our analytical data support a model in which GOF p53 complexes with two transcription factors on the promoter - a mediator protein, Med17, and a histone acetyl transferase, activating histone acetylation - and enhances gene expression to signal cell proliferation and oncogenesis...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422733/the-transcriptional-stat3-is-a-potential-target-whereas-transcriptional-stat5a-5b-6-are-new-biomarkers-for-prognosis-in-human-breast-carcinoma
#14
Hua-Tao Wu, Jing Liu, Guan-Wu Li, Jia-Xin Shen, Yi-Teng Huang
Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription (STAT) is a set of transcription factors, involved in diverse cellular functions. Evidences from cell lines, mouse models and human tissues implicate these transcription factors in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of 7 STATs remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we mined the transcriptional and survival data of STATs in patients with breast carcinoma (BC) through ONCOMINE, bc-GenExMiner, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and cBioPortal...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417908/cytokinesis-failure-leading-to-chromosome-instability-in-v-src-induced-oncogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Yuji Nakayama, Shuhei Soeda, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Keiko Kakae, Naoto Yamaguchi
v-Src, an oncogene found in Rous sarcoma virus, is a constitutively active variant of c-Src. Activation of Src is observed frequently in colorectal and breast cancers, and is critical in tumor progression through multiple processes. However, in some experimental conditions, v-Src causes growth suppression and apoptosis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of cytokinesis failure and the attenuation of the tetraploidy checkpoint in v-Src-expressing cells. v-Src induces cell cycle changes-such as the accumulation of the 4N cell population-and increases the number of binucleated cells, which is accompanied by an excess number of centrosomes...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417059/susceptibility-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc-h103-and-h376-cell-lines-to-retroviral-oskm-mediated-reprogramming
#16
Nalini Devi Verusingam, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Ian C Paterson, Suan Phaik Khoo, Soon Keng Cheong, Alan H K Ong, Tunku Kamarul
Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416637/a-kinase-independent-role-for-cdk19-in-p53-response
#17
K Audrey Audetat, Matthew D Galbraith, Aaron T Odell, Thomas Lee, Ahwan Pandey, Joaquin M Espinosa, Robin D Dowell, Dylan J Taatjes
The human Mediator complex regulates RNA Polymerase II transcription genome-wide. A general factor that regulates Mediator function is the four-subunit kinase module, which contains either CDK8 or CDK19. Whereas CDK8 is linked to specific signaling cascades and oncogenesis, the cellular roles of its paralog, CDK19, are poorly studied. We discovered that osteosarcoma cells (SJSA) are naturally depleted of CDK8 protein. Whereas stable CDK19 knockdown was tolerated in SJSA cells, proliferation was reduced. Notably, proliferation defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type or kinase-dead CDK19...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415780/long-noncoding-rna-pcat-14-induces-proliferation-and-invasion-by-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-inducing-methylation-of-mir-372
#18
Yawei Wang, Ye Hu, Gang Wu, Ye Yang, Yanqing Tang, Wanchuan Zhang, Kaiyu Wang, Yu Liu, Xin Wang, Tiemin Li
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate oncogenesis by inducing methylation of CpG islands to silence target genes. Here we show that the lncRNA PCAT-14 is overexpressed in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and is associated with a poor prognosis after surgery. Our results demonstrate that PCAT-14 promotes proliferation, invasion, and cell cycle arrest in HCC cells. In addition, PCAT-14 inhibits miR-372 expression by inducing methylation of the miR-372 promoter. Simultaneously, miR-372 eliminates the effects of PCAT-14 on proliferation, invasion, and cell cycle in HCC cells...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415748/the-spi1-pu-1-transcription-factor-accelerates-replication-fork-progression-by-increasing-pp1-phosphatase-in-leukemia
#19
Pauline Rimmelé, Michela Esposito, Laure Delestré, Jean-Hugues Guervilly, Maya Ridinger-Saison, Emmanuelle Despras, Françoise Moreau-Gachelin, Filippo Rosselli, Christel Guillouf
Oncogenes trigger replicative stress that can lead to genetic instability, which participates in cancer progression. Thus, determining how cells cope with replicative stress can help our understanding of oncogenesis and lead to the identification of new antitumor treatment targets. We previously showed that constitutive overexpression of the oncogenic transcription factor Spi1/PU.1 leads to pre-leukemic cells that have a shortened S phase duration with an increased replication fork speed and increased mutability in the absence of DNA breaks...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415644/long-non-coding-rnas-in-cutaneous-melanoma-clinical-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Eva Hulstaert, Lieve Brochez, Pieter-Jan Volders, Jo Vandesompele, Pieter Mestdagh
Metastatic melanoma of the skin has a high mortality despite the recent introduction of targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides in length that lack protein-coding potential. There is growing evidence that lncRNAs play an important role in gene regulation, including oncogenesis. We present 13 lncRNA genes involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma through a variety of pathways and molecular interactions. Some of these lncRNAs are possible biomarkers or therapeutic targets for malignant melanoma...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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