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Carlos Henrique Dos A Dos Santos, Carolina S de Sá Leitão, Maria de N Paula-Silva, Vera Maria F Almeida-Val
Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Manoela M F Marinho, Francisco Langeani
Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner) is redescribed based on the examination of the type and other specimens from several localities of the Amazon and Orinoco basins. The species is readly diagnosed from congeners by a combination of a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, lower lobe hyaline, and by the arrangement of predorsal scales, in which scales of anterior portion of predorsal area are arranged in pairs, followed by a single median row of scales extending to dorsal-fin origin. The analysis of the type material of Gymnotichthys hildae Fernández-Yépez and Knodus calliurus Ahl demonstrated the former is a junior synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura, whereas the latter should be removed from its synonymy...
2016: Zootaxa
Thomas Huelsnitz, Peter Kner
We propose a microscope that utilizes three high numerical aperture objectives to image a sample from multiple angles, interferometrically combining the fields from each objective to obtain a higher resolution and more isotropic point-spread function than standard wide-field and confocal techniques. The proposed microscope utilizes three 0.9 NA objectives with large working distance and, therefore, has both a large imaging volume and an effective 2.7 NA. The FWHM of the point-spread function is 135 nm in the plane of the objectives, a factor of 2 better than the lateral resolution with a single objective...
February 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
J Aaron Harris, Yi Liu, Pinfen Yang, Peter Kner, Karl F Lechtreck
The microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking protein EB1 is present at the tips of cilia and flagella; end-binding protein 1 (EB1) remains at the tip during flagellar shortening and in the absence of intraflagellar transport (IFT), the predominant protein transport system in flagella. To investigate how EB1 accumulates at the flagellar tip, we used in vivo imaging of fluorescent protein-tagged EB1 (EB1-FP) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. After photobleaching, the EB1 signal at the flagellar tip recovered within minutes, indicating an exchange with unbleached EB1 entering the flagella from the cell body...
January 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
L A Luz, L L Reis, I Sampaio, M C Barros, E Fraga
AbstractThe red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri, is an important resource for artisanal and commercial fisheries. The present study determines the genetic differentiation among P. nattereri populations from the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. The DNA was isolated using a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and the Control Region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were sequenced using the didesoxyterminal method. A sequence of 1039 bps was obtained from the Control Region of 60 specimens, which presented 33 polymorphic sites, 41 haplotypes, һ =0...
November 10, 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Donald C Taphorn, Jonathan W Armbruster, Francisco Villa-Navarro, C Keith Ray
We review the trans-Andean species of Ancistrus from Panama, Colombia and Venezuela. Based on analyses of meristic, morphometric and pigmentation pattern data of preserved specimens, eight of sixteen species reported from this region are considered valid and two new species are described. Here we review Ancistrus chagresi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 from both slopes of central Panama; A. centrolepis Regan 1913 from Pacific slopes of eastern Panama and western Colombia; Ancistrus caucanus Fowler 1943, from the Magdalena River drainage in northern Colombia; Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944, from the Lake Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela and Colombia...
2013: Zootaxa
Juan Hu, Yibin Chen, Huihong Zhao, Huirong Yang, Li Liu
The complete mitogenome sequence of Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner) was determined using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The genome was 16 761 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.43% A, 27.50% T, 25.94% C, and 16.13% G, with an A + T bias of 57.93%. The gene composition and the arrangement of the R. ocellatus mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates...
September 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Guilherme Souza, Edésio J T Melo, Erica P Caramaschi, Dalcio R Andrade, Leandro R Monteiro
The objective of this study was to characterize the early development and allometric growth of the grumatã (Prochilodus vimboides). We describe a sample of 266 eggs and larvae obtained through induced spawning. The eggs were spherical (mean 3.7 mm diameter), exhibited a yellow yolk and were non-adhesive and pelagic after fertilization and hydration. The time elapsed between the early cleavage and post-flexion stages was considered short (328 hours, 8054 hour-degrees) in regard to the development times of other Neotropical rheophilic species, but time to hatching was considerably longer than in other Prochilodus species...
June 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Kayvan F Tehrani, Jianquan Xu, Yiwen Zhang, Ping Shen, Peter Kner
The resolution of Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SML) is dependent on the width of the Point Spread Function (PSF) and the number of photons collected. However, biological samples tend to degrade the shape of the PSF due to the heterogeneity of the index of refraction. In addition, there are aberrations caused by imperfections in the optical components and alignment, and the refractive index mismatch between the coverslip and the sample, all of which directly reduce the accuracy of SML. Adaptive Optics (AO) can play a critical role in compensating for aberrations in order to increase the resolution...
May 18, 2015: Optics Express
Benjamin Thomas, Adrian Wolstenholme, Snehal N Chaudhari, Edward T Kipreos, Peter Kner
Structured illumination microscopy provides twice the linear resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopy, but in thick samples, aberrations degrade the performance and limit the resolution. Here, we demonstrate structured illumination microscopy through 35 μm of tissue using adaptive optics (AO) to correct aberrations resulting in images with a resolution of 140 nm. We report a 60% minimum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the structured illumination reconstruction through thick tissue by correction with AO...
February 2015: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Jianquan Xu, Kayvan F Tehrani, Peter Kner
We demonstrate multicolor three-dimensional super-resolution imaging with quantum dots (QSTORM). By combining quantum dot asynchronous spectral blueing with stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and adaptive optics, we achieve three-dimensional imaging with 24 nm lateral and 37 nm axial resolution. By pairing two short-pass filters with two appropriate quantum dots, we are able to image single blueing quantum dots on two channels simultaneously, enabling multicolor imaging with high photon counts.
March 24, 2015: ACS Nano
Julie M Craft, J Aaron Harris, Sebastian Hyman, Peter Kner, Karl F Lechtreck
The assembly of the axoneme, the structural scaffold of cilia and flagella, requires translocation of a vast quantity of tubulin into the growing cilium, but the mechanisms that regulate the targeting, quantity, and timing of tubulin transport are largely unknown. In Chlamydomonas, GFP-tagged α-tubulin enters cilia as an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo and by diffusion. IFT-based transport of GFP-tubulin is elevated in growing cilia and IFT trains carry more tubulin. Cells possessing both nongrowing and growing cilia selectively target GFP-tubulin into the latter...
January 19, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi, Kanami Tsuchiya, Yuuki Nakamura, Kou Hayama, Atsushi Shirasawa, Kenichiro Sakaguchi, Naomi Tominaga, Yoshiyuki Nishimiya, Sakae Tsuda
Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner)...
2015: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Jianquan Xu, Qirui Fan, Kalpesh D Mahajan, Gang Ruan, Andrew Herrington, Kayvan F Tehrani, Peter Kner, Jessica O Winter
Quantum dots (QDs) have tremendous potential for biomedical imaging, including super-resolution techniques that permit imaging below the diffraction limit. However, most QDs are produced via organic methods, and hence require surface treatment to render them water-soluble for biological applications. Previously, we reported a micelle-templating method that yields nanocomposites containing multiple core/shell ZnS-CdSe QDs within the same nanocarrier, increasing overall particle brightness and virtually eliminating QD blinking...
May 16, 2014: Nanotechnology
Thomas H Cribb, Terrence L Miller, Rodney A Bray, Scott C Cutmore
A sexual adult trematode that is considered to be conspecific with the distinctive larval trematode Cercaria praecox Walker, 1971 is reported from the kyphosid fish Scorpis lineolata Kner in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The sexual adult is consistent with the cercarial body of Cercaria praecox in having a single caecum with an asymmetrical appendix, symmetrical testes immediately posterior to the ventral sucker, and the ovary and vitellarium both well posterior to the testes. This combination of characters is distinct within the Fellodistomidae Nicoll, 1909 and requires the proposal of a new genus, Oceroma n...
May 2014: Systematic Parasitology
J L O Birindelli, H A Britski
Two new species of Leporinus are described from tributaries of the Rio Amazonas in Brazil. One species is known from the Jari and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of a gas bladder reduced in size, a dark midlateral stripe on the body, dark transverse bars on the dorsum, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 16 scale rows around the caudal peduncle. The second new species is known from the Tocantins, Xingu and Tapajós River basins, and is identified on the basis of three dark longitudinal stripes on the body, a subinferior mouth, three teeth on the premaxilla, four teeth on the dentary and 12 scale rows around the caudal peduncle...
November 2013: Journal of Fish Biology
Suely C Giesen, Ricardo M Takemoto, Frikkie Calitz, Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama, Kerstin Junker
During parasitological surveys of freshwater fish from the Miranda River, Brazil, 199 Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) were caught. Two pentastomid families, Subtriquetridae Fain, 1961, represented by its single genus Subtriquetra Sambon, 1922, and Sebekidae Sambon, 1922, represented by three genera, were present. Free-living larvae of Subtriquetra subtriquetra (Diesing, 1835) were collected from the swim bladder. Encysted larvae of Alofia Giglioli, 1922 were found in the abdominal cavity, chambers of the heart, musculature, on the surface of the gonads and swim bladder...
November 2013: Folia Parasitologica
Peter Kner, Lukman Winoto, David A Agard, John W Sedat
A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons...
February 24, 2010: Proceedings of SPIE
Peter Kner
Phase diversity (PD) is a powerful technique for estimating wavefront aberrations from two-dimensional images of extended scenes. PD can work with extended incoherent images and, in an adaptive optics system, does not need extra hardware in addition to the deformable mirror. For these reasons, PD should be well suited to aberration measurement in microscopy applications. But, in biological widefield microscopy, the objects being imaged are frequently three-dimensional, and the images contain out-of-focus light...
October 1, 2013: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Kathryne N Wren, Julie M Craft, Douglas Tritschler, Alexandria Schauer, Deep K Patel, Elizabeth F Smith, Mary E Porter, Peter Kner, Karl F Lechtreck
BACKGROUND: During the assembly and maintenance of cilia, precursor proteins need to be transported from the cell body into the organelle. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is assumed to be the predominant protein transport pathway in cilia, but it remains largely unknown how ciliary proteins use IFT to reach their destination sites in the cilium and whether the amount of cargo transported by IFT is regulated. RESULTS: Single-particle imaging showed that DRC4, a structural protein of the axoneme, moves in association with IFT particles inside Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cilia...
December 16, 2013: Current Biology: CB
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